2 The Writing Process Prewriting /Brainstorming Drafting Revising and EditingREMEMBER: The AIMS writing exam is not a timed test, so you should have ample time to go through each step carefully.
3 Pre-WritingThis does not just mean drawing some circles and writing down two words. Be sure to follow all steps before writing to help make your life easier later.The process a writer goes through before he/she begins drafting a composition.Understanding the Task (Attack the Prompt)Brainstorming (webs, free-writing, etc.)Choosing a TopicOrganizing Ideas
4 Pre-WritingFirst Attack the Prompt – underline format, circle the verbs, draw arrows, etc.You must understand what the prompt is asking you before you start the rest.The prompt may have multiple parts, be sure you address all of them in your pre-writing.
5 Pre-Writing Attack the Prompt Underline the type of writing: in what format are you being asked to write?Is it a letter, an essay, an editorial?Circle the verbs: What are you writing?Is the prompt asking you to convince, explain, describe, inform?Connect verbs with specifics: What are the verbs asking you to write about?Be sure you understand exactly what the prompt is asking you to do and if there are multiple parts of the prompt.Brainstorm: Web, freewrite, list, do something!!!!This will help you decide what ideas are valuable and to organize your thoughts.
6 Pre-Writing Attack the Prompt PRACTICEIn an essay, describe a person from history you would most like to meet, and explain why you would like to meet him/her. Be specific in your explanation.
7 Pre-WritingI know you hate this part…I get it…but investing some time here will make the writing easier for you later.The process a writer goes through before he/she begins drafting a composition.Attack the Prompt and then…Free-writeWebListOutlineAny other ideas?
8 Pre-writing PracticeChoose two different pre-writing strategies for the following prompt. You will have 5 minutes for each.PRACTICE:In an essay, describe a person from history you would most like to meet, and explain why you would like to meet him/her. Be specific in your explanation.
9 Choosing a Topic Narrowing it down Choose a topic that: You care about You can cover completely within the given space limit (2 pages)Clearly related to the promptAppropriate for the audience and purpose/nature of the assignment
10 Choosing a Topic (con’t) Establish a thesisChoose a few important pointsWhat will best support your thesis?What do your readers really need/want to know about the topic?Stay focused on what the prompt asked for – what points are most effective?Use brainstorming/freewriting as support in choosing the best points
11 Choosing a Topic (con’t) Keep your subject, audience, purpose, and form in mind when choosing supporting details.Ex. You are writing a personal narrative about learning to play the guitar. Which ONE of the following details would be most appropriate to include in the story?Where and when the guitar was inventedA description of the parts of a guitarInformation about the person who taught you to play the guitarA list of guitar brand names
12 Supporting Details Good supporting details are: Relevant to the topic Precise and significantAppropriate for the audienceMight include:Anecdotes, specific examples, reasons, facts/statistics, definitions, events, descriptions, actions, etc.
13 Organizing IdeasMoving from a page full of unorganized ideas to an organized plan for a composition is one of the most important steps in the writing process.
14 Writing a Thesis Your thesis MUST: ANSWER the topic from your attack the promptUse key words from the promptBe one sentence and no longerMAY NOT BE THREE PRONGBe at the end of your introductionBe specific and simpleBe debatable (in persuasive)
15 Examples: Thesis Writing Prompt: Describe a time in your life that you experienced an injustice.Ex. A specific injustice that I’ve experienced and never forgotten occurred when a friend I trusted betrayed me.Ex. An injustice that I’ve experienced personally has been the way that my parents have constantly put me in the middle of their disputes.Ex. When I was in the first grade, I suffered a horrible injustice: my opportunity to be line leader was unfairly taken away from me.Ex. Though I’ve experienced many injustices, the most painful one occurred when I was falsely accused by my parents and punished for something that I never did.Check each thesis statement for the rules from the previous slide. Are these considered acceptable thesis statements? Why? Explain in the space provided on your notes.
16 Four Modes of Writing Narrative Descriptive/Expository Persuasive Letters
17 Narrative Writing Tells a story using details Plot, character(s), setting, point of view, story developmentHas a plot with a climax and resolutionBeginningMiddleEnd
18 Examples: Narrative Prompts Describe a time in your life that you experienced an injustice.Write about a time when you and a person or pet spent an enjoyable day together.
19 Descriptive/Expository Writing Explains something to the reader using details/descriptionTell/explain/describeMay include directions or “how to” informationMay explain a “why” or “how”Descriptive = 5 SensesTaste, smell, sight, sound, touch
20 Descriptive/Expository Prompts What kinds of things do you do to relax? Identify your favorite way to relax, and explain why it is your favorite.Explain what steps a teenager can take to promote academic success during his or her years as a high school student.DescriptiveDescribe a home that would be an appropriate place for a clown to live.Describe a place where you would want to spend eternity.Describe a way you could help others in your town.
21 Persuasive WritingPersuades the reader to do something/believe a certain wayEx. Commercials & political speechesLetters to government officials or businesses may be persuasive writing
22 Persuasive PromptsPersuade members of your community that vandalism could be decreased by adopting your proposed solution.Choose one aspect of your school that you believe could be improved. Write an essay to persuade your classmates to agree with your suggested change.Technology is advancing rapidly. Do you agree or disagree that technology has improved your life? Write a persuasive essay in which you convince the reader of your position.
23 Letters Requires professional writing style and letter format Ex. business letters, job applications, letters to the editorStates purpose, provides background/context, addresses the needs of the audienceClear, efficient, formal languageAppropriate technical terms
24 Ex. Letter PromptsWrite a letter to the school paper in which you argue for or against the proposal.Write a letter to your parents in which you explain why you would benefit from a new computer.
25 Types of PromptsYou must be able to recognize what mode of writing a writing prompt requiresVerbs are useful cluesIe. ‘persuade’ ‘explain’ ‘describe’
26 Quick Check Quiz 1. List the four modes of writing. Narrative, persuasive, expository/descriptive, letters2. Give an example of persuasive writing.Commercials and political speeches3. List a “clue word” for expository writing.Explain
27 Three Main Parts Introduction Body Conclusion Presents the topic clearly/briefly, gets audience interestedBodyEach major idea in one paragraphLongest section, includes detailsTopic sentences, transitions, and specific details in each paragraph to support the central idea of that paragraphConclusionBriefly summarizes, extends/elaboratesDO NOT simply repeat what you’ve said – provide a final bit of insight on your topicDO NOT introduce new ideas not discussed in essay
28 Organizational Structures Choose your structure in a way that best suits the prompt, thesis, and main points.Examples:Cause and effectChronological orderComparison and contrastDetailed descriptionOpinion and supporting argumentsStages of a processDefinition and examplesProblems and solutions
29 Outlines Briefly describes what you will include in each part After deconstructing the prompt, brainstorming, and free-writing, develop your outlineMay or may not include complete sentences – but should have a complete thesisDon’t be afraid to revise – make changes as needed and let it serve as a guide
30 Example: OutlinePrompt: In a letter to students on a U.S. airbase in Germany, describe what life is like for students at your school.Introduction: Tell the students that I’m describing what life is like for students at my high school. Tell them that, for me, the three most important things about Chandler High School are the following: the good teachers, helpful staff, and friendly students; the intramural and varsity sports programs; and the performing arts programs.Thesis: At Chandler High School, positive relationships and diverse extracurricular opportunities enrich students’ lives on a daily basis.REMEMBER: Where should the thesis go?? What should be described before?Idea #1: Teachers and students. Describe the many excellent and dedicated teachers, coaches, counselors, and other staff members. Describe the friendly students and interesting class discussions.Idea #2: Sports programs. Describe the varsity sport teams: football, baseball, basketball, volleyball, swimming, golf, track and field. Let them know that a new swimming pool is being built.Idea #3: Performing Arts programs. Describe the opportunities that students have to participate in orchestra, band, and smaller musical and vocal groups. Describe the opportunities to participate in dramas, musicals, and debate programs.Conclusion: Sum up the three main ideas and close with a positive statement about my school and what life is like for students here.
31 OrganizationPresent ideas in a way that your readers will find understandable & compelling.Remember your audience and purpose.Organizing will provide you with a plan to more effectively communicate your ideas.Other options:Graphic OrganizersVenn Diagrams (compare/contrast)See provided handouts!
32 Practice TimePROMPT: Many students in your high school have part-time jobs. School board members have expressed concern that students’ school performance suffers when they have jobs during the school year. Write an essay to your district’s school board members convincing them to agree with your position on whether or not students are negatively affected by jobs during the school year.Deconstruct the Prompt.Brainstorm. Free-write. Thesis. Outline.
33 Drafting One voice – hundreds of ways to use it. Friends? The principal? Police officer?Voice, word choice, and sentence structure… appropriate for the situation and audience.
34 Voice & Word Choice Voice [ie. serious/formal, personal/informal] Casual or formal language?Informal: I was totally wired after three cups of coffee.Formal: I was extremely tense after three cups of coffee.Informal: I crashed after that exam.Formal: I was exhausted after that exam.
35 PracticeRewrite the following sentences from casual language into formal language.Theresa thought the essay was a snap.Rosa is all hyped up about the party.The movie was awesome.Martin really blew it on his history exam.Bill inhaled his sandwich at lunch.
36 Using Resources Dictionary and Thesaurus Dictionary: spelling, synonyms, examples, definitionsThesaurus: find words that can be used as substitutesThese are available to you – USE THEM!
37 Being SpecificGeneral words and phrases describe a class/category – ex. dogSpecific words and phrases describe a member of a class/category – ex. beagle, Jim’s beagle, SebastionUse general words for summing up, specific words for supporting your ideasSpecific words, vivid images, and familiar examples bring your writing to life
38 Create a Picture General Writing: There was this guy. He went somewhere and met another guy. They talked, and then they did some other stuff. Then they went home. The end.But… Who were they? What did they say? What did they do? General = vague.INSTEAD: Provide descriptive details, use specific words and phrases, make it interesting
39 Word Choice TipsUse a mature vocabulary, but don’t go overboard trying to impress readersAvoid repetition, or using two words together that mean the same thing (ex. plentiful and abundance)Don’t use a word unless you’re sure of its meaning – look it up!Use words correctly, and watch out for commonly mistaken words (ex. their, there, they’re)Go back and look for words you’ve used frequently, then use a thesaurus to find stronger synonymsGo back and look for words that lack interest or originality (ie. good, bad, pretty, ugly) and use a thesaurus to find stronger synonyms
40 Practice TimeReplace each general phrase with a more specific word or phrase.EarringCarShoesFlowerStore
41 Spice it up: Similes and Metaphors Comparisons between two thingsSimile: uses like or as (Mark runs like a deer)Metaphor: states/implies one thing is another (Mark is a deer when he runs)BE CAREFUL: Avoid cliches, or commonly use and worn out similes/metaphors – ie. “Derek is as skinny as a toothpick” vs. “Derek could hide behind a broomstick”
42 Sentences#1: Grabber – carefully designed first sentence to create a certain effect, in hopes of grabbing the attention of the audienceSimple, compound, complex sentences – use variety
43 Simple Sentences Expresses one complete thought. Subject: person, place, thing, or idea that the rest of the sentence is aboutPredicate: describes what the subject is or doesEx. [Christy][blurs with speed.]
44 Fragments Incomplete sentences, missing subject or predicate Be sure to go back and check for/revise fragments during revisionExamplesBlazed past three defenders.Because the score was tied at the end.
45 Compound SentencesTwo or more simple sentences joined in one sentence, expressing two or more complete thoughts.Each complete thought = independent clauseEx. The final buzzer sounded, and the game was over.Ex. Everyone cheered loudly; the girls’ team had just beaten the boys’.Ex. There is only one reason why she would behave so strangely: she has a crush on him.
46 Coordinating Conjunctions To make a compound sentence, one option is to use a comma and a coordinating conjunction.Remember that both clauses must be independent (can stand alone)ExamplesChristy smiled, but she did not speak.
47 SemicolonsAnother option is to combine two independent clauses into a compound sentence using a semicolon.ExamplesChristy smiled; she did not speak.
48 ColonOne might also create a compound sentence using a colon between two independent clauses when one answers something about the clause before it.ExampleThere was only one explanation: the train arrived late.
49 Complex SentenceContains an independent clause and a dependent clause.Some may use a subordinating conjunction, which joins two clauses and makes one less important than the other.Example:Before the game had begun, Christy had made a speech to her team.She told them to be good sports so the boys wouldn’t feel bad about losing.
50 Subordinating Conjunctions Examples:After, before, although, because, how, except that, even though, if, once, provided that, so, so that, than, while, which, where, when, until, unless, though, etc.
51 Compound-ComplexContains at least two independent clauses and at least one dependent clause.Example:Christy was proud of her team, for although they were excited, they didn’t taunt the boys.
52 Variety is Key“I wanted to learn to ski. I didn’t know how hard it would be. I didn’t get to ski more than once. I spent my entire vacation with my leg in a cast. I sipped hot chocolate. I sat in front of the fire.”What’s wrong with this passage?What type of sentences are used?PRACTICE: Revise this passage in the space provided using different types of sentence structures. When you’re finished, identify the types you incorporated.
53 Paragraphs Paragraphs: Begin on a new, indented line Clearly focus on one important idea that supports the thesisBegins with a topic sentence:The stated main idea of the paragraphContinues with a body:Sentences supporting the topic sentence with details, examples, and commentaryEnds with concluding sentence:Wraps up the information of the paragraph and leads the reader to the next paragraph
54 Paragraphs (con’t) Logical and coherent DO NOT LOSE FOCUS Sentences should fit together naturally, flowing easily from one to the nextOrdered carefully – building on what came beforePRACTICE: Complete the practice hand-out provided. (BD, p. 46)
55 TransitionsWords, phrases, or sentences that help the reader understand how your ideas fit together to support your topic.Make your writing easier to read by creating a natural flow of ideas between sentences and paragraphs.Ex. “In addition to,” “Moreover,” “Equally important,”
56 Revising & EditingCheck your writing for spelling, grammar, punctuation, sentence construction/variety, and paragraph organization.Are the ideas focused, engaging, and clearly expressed?Is the writing presented in a form that is readable and attractive?
57 Key Questions Is my paper written for the correct audience? Does my paper contain a strong main idea?Does my paper stay focused on my main idea?Does my paper contain specific ideas that support my main idea?Does my paper have a clear beginning, middle, and end?Are my ideas logical and easy to follow?Does my paper contain interesting and meaningful words? Are they specific?Does my paper contain varied sentences that are clear?Does my paper contain correct spelling, punctuation, and grammar?
58 Revising & EditingREMEMBER: Have minimal errors in spelling and grammar, and write as legibly as possible!Revision StrategiesSentence FluencyWordiness and RedundancyEditing and Proofreading
59 Revision StrategiesHINT: Read the entire essay before you begin revising. Do not revise sentence by sentence. You need to get across the general message or idea first. Your revision will be much more successful this way, and the revised essay will be better organized.
60 Revision StrategiesRevise by adding, deleting, rewording, and rearranging.Use a dictionary and thesaurus.Use the checklist provided in the test.Use proofreading marks.
61 Revising: Word Choice Sentence Fluency: Check for wordiness, overly fancy when simple works, redundancy, overuse, inappropriate/informalSentence Fluency:Check for variety, flow, and correctness
62 Editing and Proofreading Edit for grammar, spelling, punctuation, and capitalization.Know your faults.Look for one type of mistake at a time.Improve sentence fluency.Look for fragments/run-ons.Eliminate slang/informal language
63 ProofreadingAfter editing, check your final copy to make sure it is just the way you want it and no new errors have been introduced.Check to see that it is legible!Give the text a “fresh read” from beginning to endRead the paper backward – each sentence separately.
64 Proofreading Questions Have all necessary changes from the editing stage been made?Have any new errors been introduced?Is the handwriting legible?Is everything just the way I want it?
65 The 6 Traits 1. Ideas and Content 2. Organization 3. Voice 4. Word Choice5. Sentence Fluency6. Conventions
66 Ideas and Content How well-developed are your ideas? How well-supported are your ideas?Do you have interesting details?Do your ideas all connect to form a clear message?
67 Ideas and ContentWhat is the best thing you can do to make sure that you get a high score for ideas and content?Prewriting! Deconstruct the prompt, brainstorm, free-write, outline. Choose the best ideas.
68 Organization Who is my audience, or who is my paper being written for? Ex. “your fellow students”Important: writing to convince your peers to your way of thinkingWhat is the purpose of my essay?Ex. “convince” – to persuadeDo I have enough details to support my ideas?Min. 3 supporting details for each body paragraphEx. If you stated that school uniforms are a bad idea because they are too expensive for many students, you are going to need to support that claim.Details might include:The price of an average school uniform, the average amount of available money students have to spend on clothes, and the issue of being forced to purchase something a student may not want.
69 Organization (con’t) Introduction (8-12 sentences) Grabber (1-2 short sentences)Ex. Quote, anecdote/story, rhetorical questionBackground on the topic (3-4 sentences)Interesting and engaging outline of main points to discuss in the essay (3-4 sentences)Smooth transition into the thesisA clear, logical thesis statement in the last sentence (1 sentence)Ex. Modern-day video games are far too dangerous because they contribute to violence among teenagers and society.Ex. Violent video games are forms of entertainment and should not be blamed for violence among teens.
70 Practice: ThesisWrite a specific and complete thesis for and against each of the following topics:Topic: Mandatory drug testing for professional athletesTopic: School uniforms
71 Introduction: Wrap UpAn effective introduction combines the following elements:GrabberTransition/set-upThesisMakes your opinion immediately clearStates the reason(s) for your opinion
72 Body of the EssayREMEMBER: All ideas in the body should connect to your thesis. It is your job to convince a reader why your viewpoint is correct. You will need to provide plenty of support to make a strong argument.Let’s talk numbers here…2? 3? 4? What works?
73 Sample: Persuasive Outline Paragraph 1: IntroductionParagraph 2: Discuss first subtopic from thesis.Ex. Explain how the dress code will discourage cliques.Paragraph 3: Discuss second subtopic from thesis.Ex. Explain how the dress code will discourage judgmental behavior among students.Paragraph 4: Mention any counterarguments and explain why they are wrong.Ex. People who oppose the dress code due to ruining student freedom are incorrect because…Paragraph 5: ConclusionSummarize main points, restate thesis (NOT REPEAT), end on a powerful/passionate note – inspire your reader to action.
74 Voice Unique way of expressing yourself Must recognize your audience Commitment/enthusiasmEx. Persuasive writing = voice that shows dedication to the issue; take a firm stance and do not back downEx. “I think that a dress code is a great idea because…”What would strengthen the confidence of this voice?
75 The “I think/believe…” Problem DO NOT USE:I think/believe or similar structuresWhy?States the obvious.Unnecessary and redundant.Diminishes the strength of your argument.
76 Voice - ReviewREMEMBER: Your voice is unique, don’t be afraid to express it so long as you continuously acknowledge your audience.Let your passion and enthusiasm shine through with your choice of words.Do not use “I think/believe” etc.
77 Word Choice Stronger words = more effective Specific vs. general Use the thesaurus!Rewrite the following sentences using more meaningful, vivid words.Dinner last night was good.The chocolate cake was good.He walked by with an angry look on his face.The small child began to cry.
78 Sentence Fluency Structure, rhythm, and flow Varied structures Simple, compound, complex, compound complexVaried punctuationFlows well and sounds naturalWhat is the best way to check the sentence fluency in your essay?Read it out loud! (In your head, of course)
79 Practice: Sentence Fluency Rewrite the following sentences to improve the variety and fluency.I had to go to the store. I needed to buy apples. I needed to buy bananas. I also needed paper towels.I only had one reason for not completing my homework. I procrastinated and ran out of time.She exercises in the gym every morning because she wants to maintain good fitness and a healthy lifestyle so that when she gets older she’ll be able to maintain good fitness and a healthy lifestyle.
80 Fragments & Run-ons Fragments: Run-ons: Incomplete sentenceEx. I always look forward to the weekends because I get to sleep in late. Really late.Run-ons:Go on and on without observing the rules of proper punctuationEx. My favorite place to vacation is in Santa Barbara, California because it is beautiful and I love the ocean and the salty air and my family always finds delicious places to eat.What is the best way to check for these?Read it out loud! (in your head, of course)
81 Review: Sentence Fluency Use a variety of sentence structures and punctuationDo not overuse a particular type of structure or punctuationRead your writing aloud to see if it flowsCheck for fragments and run-ons
82 Conventions Proper spelling, grammar, punctuation What is the most important thing you can do to help your score in conventions?PROOFREAD your essay! Do not assume that it is error free. Chances are, there will be several errors that can be caught and corrected by just reading over your essay.
83 Conventions (con’t) Use a dictionary to check for spelling The essay is not timed – look up every word if you wantThe grader will have no sympathy for misspelled words knowing you had this resource available to you
84 Conventions (con’t) Verb Tense Agreement Be sure to use the same verb tense throughout your essayIf you start writing in the present tense, you need to stick with itIf you start writing in the past tense, you need to stick with itThis is an easy error to fix when you take the time to proofread and catch itEx. The Grapes of Wrath is a story about a family traveling to California. They travel with few belongings, and they suffered for much of the journey.Where does the verb tense change? Correct the error and rewrite the correct version in your notes.
85 Practice: Verb TenseRewrite the following sentence to correct the change in verb tense.People may say that professional sports had lost their appeal due to superficial requests that are made by players and the outrageous salaries that they demanded.
86 CapitalizationRemember which words require capital letters and how to write them properly.Examples that require them:The first word of a sentenceNames of people (first and last)Names of cities, states, townsNames of famous monuments and parksMonths of the year and days of the weekWorks of art and literature
87 Punctuation Commas, periods, semicolons, colons, dashes, etc. DO NOT use exclamation points or question marksCommas:Separate items in a listPrecede a coordinating or subordinating conjunctionPlaced after a dependent clause
88 Practice: CommasRewrite the following to include commas where required.I went to the movies with Sara Katie and Rose.We had a great time on Saturday but I wish we had gotten home earlier.As she walked down the street she thought about her day at school.
89 Review: Conventions Use a dictionary when you are unsure Pay attention to spelling, grammar, and punctuationWhat is the best way to increase your conventions score?PROOFREAD!Read over slowly and carefully, reading it out loud (in your mind, of course)
90 Test Taking Tips 1. Read the prompt carefully. 2. Use your time wisely.3. Plan your writing.4. Be thorough.5. Revise and edit your work.6. Make sure your response is legible.7. Rest, eat breakfast, relax.
91 Narrative WritingTells a story, focusing on relating a sequence of events and actionsPlot, character(s), setting, narrator (the voice)Point of view:DO NOT USE SECOND PERSON! “You”Stay consistent, if you begin in first-person, stay in first-person
92 Narrative Writing Establish a specific setting Describes where and when the story takes placeEx. Season, weather, time of day, point in history, geographic location, landscape, surroundings, etc.Use specific details to describe the sights, sounds, and smells of the scene
93 Narrative Writing Develop the character(s) Include specific details to bring them to lifeShow them to your readers using thoughts, words, and actionsUse dialogue and descriptions of the character’s actions, expressions, and feelings to show what kind of person he/she is
94 Narrative Writing Base the plot on a conflict In almost every story, the main character has a central problem – or conflictEx. person-person, nature-person, person-self, etc.What does this character want most – and why? What is blocking the character from getting what he or she wants?
95 Narrative Writing Follow an organized structure Sequences of events Establish significance of events and how they affect the charactersEvens must be connected but not necessarily listedShould have a clear beginning, middle, and endBeginning: establishes main character(s), setting, central problemMiddle: character(s) attempt to solve the problem, often facing complicationsEnd: Plot reaches high point – or climax – followed by a resolution
96 Narrative Writing Keep your reader’s attention Grab and keep the audience’s interestPace events so they are fast enough to keep interest, but not so fast that the reader can’t enjoy what’s going on or feels rushedDo not tell how everything will turn out from the beginning – reveal clues and let the audience discover things as they go along
97 Narrative Writing Use a range of strategies and literary devices Develop your styleFigurative language (ie. similes, metaphors, personification, hyperbole, etc.)Specific, sensory language and concrete details – use the 5 sensesEffective paragraphing – remember, every idea gets its own paragraphAlso – when using dialogue, begin a new paragraph when a new character is being quoted
98 Narrative Writing Focus your story on a main idea and a theme Main idea – what is your story about?Ex. Romeo and Juliet: two young people, whose families are bitter enemies, fall in love.Theme – message you want to convey to readersEx. Love is more powerful than hate.
99 Narrative Writing Words with Power DO NOT rely to heavily on adjectives and adverbsConsider strengthening verbs and nouns for increased effectEx. After dark, the boys entered the woods, which were dark and full of animal sounds.Revised: Shortly after the stars began to wink in the night sky, the boys entered the dark and sinister woods, which were filled with the sounds of hooting owls, chattering raccoons, and the muffled cluck and chuckle of night birds.
100 Narrative WritingEveryone has a pet with whom we like to spend time. Write a narrative about a time when you and a person or pet spent an enjoyable day together.Your narrative should include:A description of the settingSpecific and appropriate detailsA clear sequence of events
101 Persuasive WritingConvincing or inspiring others to hold a certain opinion or take a specific action.States a position clearly in the thesis – not to be confused with stating the subject: it is your position on the subject
102 Persuasive WritingSupports position and arguments with compelling and relevant evidenceChoose points carefully – use those that will be persuasive to your audience, not just youAnticipate the concerns of your readers and address them well
103 AVOID:Jumping to conclusions or making generalizations without enough supportPresenting opinions as factsSuggesting that since once event happened before another that it must have caused the second without a proven cause/effect linkSaying that only two options are possible when there may be moreIgnoring evidence that doesn’t support your argument
104 Persuasive WritingOrganize information in a logical, easy-to-understand formatThe structure will depend on your topic, audience, and your writing styleSome possibilities:Give an opinion and support it with 2-3 well-explained reasonsGive an opinion. Present the opposite viewpoint, then given reasons against that opposite viewGive an opinion. Present the opposite viewpoint. Admit that the opposite view has some merit, but then show how your opinion is better.
105 Persuasive WritingChoose a tone that is appropriate to your audience and purposeRespectful, formal, confidentNOT: disrespectful (to opposition or anyone else), informal, or hesitant (ie. I think…)
106 Persuasive WritingSelect one thing about your school that you would like to see changed. It might deal with the lunchroom, homework, sports, class requirements, or any other aspect of school life.Write an essay to persuade your classmates to agree with your suggested change.Your essay should include:A clearly stated position.Strong arguments and evidence.Persuasive word choice.*Remember to edit for grammar, punctuation, spelling, and capitalization.
107 Expository Writing “Explanatory” writing You play the role of the expertYour job is to explain as clearly as possible your special knowledge of the subjectAddresses the: Who? What? Where? When? Why? How?
108 Expository WritingProvide a clear description of your subject and the purpose in your thesisChoose an organizational strategy appropriate to the purpose, audience, and context of the subject
109 Organizing Expository Examples:Define or classify an idea and give examplesExplore a problem and give possible solutionsExamine causes and effectsPresent a main idea and supporting information (details, reasons, facts, examples, etc.)Compare and contrast two subjectsAnalyze a whole by looking at its parts
110 Support, support, support FactsDetailsExamplesExplanationsSTAY ON TOPIC
112 DescriptiveIs exactly that. Describe!THE FIVE SENSES
113 Expository Essay TimeThere are many opportunities for volunteers to help others in your town. Write an essay describing a way you could help others in your town. Support your ideas with plenty of details.Your essay should include:An effective introduction, body, and conclusion.Specific and appropriate details.A clear organization.
114 Letter WritingBusiness letters, scholarship letters, letters to the editor, job applications, college admission letters, etc.Use the appropriate letter format – block style
115 Block Format Your Address Date Recipient’s Address Salutation (greeting)BodyComplimentary CloseSignature
116 Be serious – be yourself. Formal communication – straightforward and serious toneYou want to be taken seriously? Write seriously.Polite and respectful – no matter the audience.
117 State your purpose! Get to the point Clearly state WHO YOU ARE WHY YOU ARE WRITINGStraightforward and directEx.Mr. Mayor, I am writing to urge you and the city council to strongly oppose the proposal to close Kinkaid Park, paving the way for construction of high-rise apartments on the land.
118 Background REQUIREDDescribe the necessary background concerning the problemBrief and cocise – NOT a drawn-out storyEx.As you know, this park has served the city’s needs for more than 65 years. Its playgrounds, tennis courts, ball fields, and picnic areas are used by about 30% of the city’s citizens.
119 AUDIENCE AWARENESS Yes, I’m really saying it again. ADDRESS THE NEEDS OF YOUR AUDIENCE.You are not simply thinking of what YOU want and need. You are thinking about what your readers need and want.They will find it easier to agree with you when they know what’s in it for them.Ex. The high-rise project could be constructed between 9th and 11th streets, along Desert Avenue; this land has already been zoned for multi-family housing.
120 Clear and efficientAnswer the Who/What/When/Where/How/Why/When so they don’t have to lookBUT – exclude unnecessary information and keep it concise (to the point!)
121 Technical Terms Formal language often requires precise terminology But avoid useless and unnecessary jargon…Carefully edit and poroofread as always – checking for language appropriateness and audience awareness
122 Sense of Focus Topic sentences still required Each main thought should still have it’s own paragraph, and organized with a clear progression from beginning to middle to endDon’t forget your transitions…
123 Letter Time!Members of the local school board are proposing that students complete 75 hours of community service as a part of high school graduation requirements. High school students will be allowed to vote on the issue, and their views will be taken into consideration. Write a letter to the school paper in which you argue for or against the proposal.
124 As always… Your letter should include… An introduction, body, and conclusionA clearly stated positionSpecific and appropriate reasonsPersuasive word choiceEdited for grammar, punctuation, spelling, and capitalization.
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