Urban Revision 1.What are the two main functions of the CBD? 2.The centre of the CBD is referred to as the PLVI. What does this stand for? 3.Where is the PLVI in most towns? 4.Where is the PLVI in Nyon? 5.Which 3 urban models did we study in year 10? 6.What is an example of a high order, middle order and low order service?
Delimiting the CBD of a Settlement Revision: last year you studied CBDs – Central Business Districts. They contain most of an urban area’s retail, service, financial and other businesses, and the premises in the CBD are used mostly for those things. 90% of an urban area’s jobs may be in its CBD. Retailing and other services are divided up into three levels or ’orders’ according to their size, cost, importance and/or frequency of use. This is a difficult thing to define precisely. However… Higher order goods and services include jewellers, antiques, furniture stores, hospitals, 5* hotels and department stores Middle order goods and services include pharmacies, bookshops, electrical goods, polyclinics, restaurants and clothes stores Low order goods include grocers, newspaper vendors and bakeries.
CBD’s….. tend to have taller buildings tend to be more crowded and have intensive use of the land Tend to have less open space are dominated by businesses (but not factories) should have lots of people there in working hours might have very heavy traffic (but remember what we learnt in class about traffic management and CBDs)
Fieldwork Planning If you are to walk from the PLVI towards the edge of the town, what changes would you expect to see? Make a list of these. How could these be measured?
Fieldwork Introduction 1.Write a brief written introduction to this fieldwork. Include: Where and when the fieldwork will take place. The AIM of this investigation The OBJECTIVES of this investigation
2.Geographical Location of Fieldwork – Use maps of different scales to locate Nyon... – Switzerland, Vaud, Nyon. – Ensure each map has a Title (with figure number), North Arrow and Scale. – The Nyon map should be annotated to show any factors which may influence the fieldwork(see next slide).
The Peak Land Value Intersection of Nyon 500 metres
3. Hypotheses Individually decide upon the wording of your hypotheses(predictions). Write hypotheses for the following.. 1.Ability of the group to define the edge of the CBD. 2.Pedestrian Counts 3.Functional Score 4.Height of Buildings 5.Level of Vehicle Restrictions 6.Traffic Safety
4.Extension Hypotheses – Decide upon some extension hypotheses which your group is going to collect data in order to test. – Possible ideas...noise, litter(graffiti etc), plants, trees, quality of pavement/street furniture, condition of buildings, air quality, age of buildings, building frontage. (others possible) – It is suggested that you create a bipolar sheet to include the variables you want to test (see next slide)...this can be done as a group
Traffic safetyScore Pedestrian Street10 Restricted vehicle access8 Light traffic6 Heavy traffic, with crossings 3 Heavy Traffic, no crossings 0
Level of Vehicle RestrictionLevel of Vehicle RestrictionScore Pedestrian StreetPedestrian Street10 Access only for buses or taxisAccess only for buses or taxis8 No Parking at any timeNo Parking at any time6 Timed Parking Limit (Paid for)Timed Parking Limit (Paid for)4 Timed Parking Limit (unpaid)Timed Parking Limit (unpaid)2 No restrictionsNo restrictions0
Justification of Hypotheses with Geographic Theory Once your hypotheses have been written you must explain why you have made this prediction using geographic theory. Use text books, your notes and the internet to enhance this section. Diagrams and maps should be included in this part. This could be one or two pages in length when completed properly.
Terms and models to consider Bid-rent theory Distance decay Burgess’s Concentric Model Hoy’t Sector Model Harris and Ullman’s Multiple Nuclei Model
Methods of data collection Each group will be assigned one TRANSECT which will begin in Place Saint Martin. Groups will walk along there assigned route and collect data along the way. Photos of students collecting data, and of different parts of the town should be taken.
Transect Map Students need to draw a sketch map of the route to show every building or land use. Use the Functional Score Sheet (see next slide) to assign a value to each building. You may decide to concentrate on one side of the street on the walk out of town, and the other on the route back (or not). Ensure you show corners and intersections on your map. Number your pages, and make it legible See example map.
FunctionFunctional ScoreFunctional Score Function Residential0Jewellery ShopJewellery Shop6 Florist6 Petrol StationPetrol Station1Laundry6 Cafe/ TabacCafe/ Tabac1Travel AgentTravel Agent6 Wine ShopWine Shop6 Church2Insurance6 Butcher2Secondary SchoolSecondary School6 Baker2Small SupermarketSmall Supermarket6 Newsagent2Camera shopCamera shop6 Mairie2 Furniture7 Primary SchoolPrimary School3Office SuppliesOffice Supplies7 Car DealerCar Dealer3Hotel (chain)Hotel (chain)7 Police StationPolice Station3Frozen FoodFrozen Food7 Fire StationFire Station3Opticians7 Take AwayTake Away3Sports ShopSports Shop7 Fruit and VegFruit and Veg3Electrical ShopElectrical Shop7 Betting ShopBetting Shop7 Chemist4 Fishmonger4Museum8 Estate AgentEstate Agent4Library8 Hardware/ DIYHardware/ DIY4Job CentreJob Centre8 Antique/ 2 nd HandAntique/ 2 nd Hand4Art ShopArt Shop8 Clothing4Photographers8 Book ShopBook Shop5Hospital9 Pet ShopPet Shop5Vets SurgeryVets Surgery9 Shoe ShopShoe Shop5Large SupermarketLarge Supermarket9 Bank5Specialist DIYSpecialist DIY9 Craft/Gift ShopCraft/Gift Shop5 Deli/Health ShopDeli/Health Shop5Department StoreDepartment Store10 Hotel (local)Hotel (local)5Hypermarket10 The list outlines the main services and retail functions that a small town in Switzerland may offer. Each function has been assigned a value, its functional score. This value is based upon the theoretical threshold population required to sustain a particular service.
Urban Characteristics Sampling Method Starting at the Place St. Martin, complete the Survey sheet(next slide), for each of the variables indicated. Decide upon a set sampling interval in your group. – Every 50 meters (use map to measure) – Every 50 paces – Every 10 buildings? – 50 metre concentric circles?
Sample Point Distance in paces/ metres Number of storeys Vehicle Restriction s Traffic Safety Pedestrian Count (per minute) 10 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10