Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

 How Technology Can Help Struggling Readers and Writers Children and Youth Institute, Michigan State University Extension, 9/24/13.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: " How Technology Can Help Struggling Readers and Writers Children and Youth Institute, Michigan State University Extension, 9/24/13."— Presentation transcript:

1  How Technology Can Help Struggling Readers and Writers Children and Youth Institute, Michigan State University Extension, 9/24/13

2 Cindy Okolo Cindy Okolo, Counseling, Educational Psychology, and Special Education,

3 National Assessment of Educational Progress (2009)

4  4 th graders: 33% at or below the “Basic” level  8 th graders: 22% at or below the “Basic”  4th graders: 53 % of African American, 52 % of Hispanic, and 48 % of American Indian students below the “Basic” level  8th graders: 44 % of African American, 41 % of Hispanic, and 37 % of American Indian students below the “Basic” level  Number of high school reading or above “Proficient” declining since 1992 (Sources:The Nation’s Report Card: is Fundamental:

5 National Assessment of Educational Progress (2011)

6 Writing Tests  54% of 12 th graders perform at “Basic” level  Scores significantly lower for African American, Hispanic, and American Indian students  Cannot compare to other years: 2011 first computerized writing test Nation’s Report Card, Executive Summary:

7 Importance of Literacy in Daily Life  Literacy important to motivation and self-esteem  Literacy important to employment  Literacy important to leisure and quality of life  “Rich get richer” and “poor get poorer” (Matthew Effect, Stanovich,

8 Literacy Problems for Students with Disabilities  literacy problems the major reasons students with disabilities are referred for special education services.  literacy problems are main obstacle students with disabilities encounter in general education courses.  students with mild disabilities must be educated in the general education curriculum to the maximum extent possible  students with mild disabilities are expected to meet the standards of the general education curriculum

9 What’s the Solution?


11  Not So Fast…

12 Can Text to Speech Tools Help Students Read More and Comprehend Better?

13  New Industrial Powers Emerge Britain stood alone as the world’s giant during the early industrial revolution. The country wanted to protect its lead in industry. Britain tried to enforce strict rules against selling inventions to other countries. For a while, the rules worked. In 1807, British mechanic William Cockerill opened factories in Belgium. There he constructed spinning and weaving machines. Belgium became the first European nation after Britain to industrialize. By the mid-1800s, other nations joined the race. Several countries began to challenge Britain’s industrial lead ….

14 Research shows that…Text to Speech  Helps some readers comprehend better  Best for slower readers with good vocabulary and comprehension  May limit comprehension for fluent readers  If text doesn’t make sense to a student, hearing it read aloud doesn’t improve comprehension  Students may read more efficiently with text to speech tools  Students may be more motivated to listen to text than to read it  More motivated, read more, “rich get richer”

15 Can Speech to Text Tools Help Students Write More and Better Text?

16 Research shows that…Speech to Text  May be most beneficial to students who have difficulty using the keyboard and/or are poor spellers  Does not substantially improve quality of writing  Unless combined with writing instruction  May be more motivating to students who don’t like or struggle to write  More motivated, write more, learn to write better

17 Bottom Line…Technology is Not A Panacea

18 However…..

19 Digital Literacy Tools Have Amazing Potential and Power…  When matched to student and task  When combined with instruction and support for use  When used in mindful ways

20 What we DO know about digital literacy tools…  They are underutilized  They are plentiful  Many very good tools are free  Many educators are not aware of their availability or potential  Students don’t necessarily know about them, or how to use them either

21 FYI: Accessible Instructional Materials  Every child with print-based disabilities (as defined by Federal Law) is eligible for “accessible instructional materials” (AIM)  AIM has 4 components  1. textbooks and related core instructional materials  2. are provided to students with print disabilities  3. in specialized formats ( Braille, large print, audio, or digital text )  4. in a timely manner (same time as everyone else)

22 FYI: Accessible Instructional Materials Student Eligibility Criteria  they are served under Federal Special Education Law (IDEA) and  they are certified by a competent authority as having a print disability as defined by copyright statue.  Blindness  A visual impairment  Physical limitations  An organic dysfunction

23 AIM: Resources  Bookshare:  Learning Ally: https://www.learningally.org  American Printing House for the Blind:  National Center on Accessible Instructional Materials:

24 No Person with Reading Disabilities Should Be Limited by Print

25 Digital Text

26 Affordances of Digital Text  Text in a digital form  Not just text on a screen  Presentation can be separated from content  Physical appearance of the text (color, size, font, contrast)  Audio  Images  Video  Support for word recognition, vocabulary, comprehension, and memory

27 Sources of Digital Text  Books on physical media (e.g., CD-ROM)  Downloadable digital text  Text on the web  Audio books  E-readers  DIY

28 Text to Speech (TTS)  In commonly-used software programs, apps, and operating systems  As tool in web browsers  In specific software programs  In many digital books

29 TTS: Adobe Reader

30 TTS: Operating Systems and Software  Operating Systems (e.g., VoiceOver):  Software, e.g. Microsoft Word: speak-text-to-speech-feature-HA102066711.aspx speak-text-to-speech-feature-HA102066711.aspx  Browser Toolbar: alilifpodheeocdmbhehgnkkbak?hl=en-US

31 TTS: SpeakIt!

32 Other Reading Support Tools  Dictionary  Thesaurus  Translation tools  Web masking  Bookmarks  Highlighting  Annotation

33 Liquid: Interactive Text

34 Readability: Screen Masking (and More)

35 Diigo: Highlighting, Annotating, Bookmarking…

36 Evernote: Highlighting, Bookmarking, Annotating….

37 Writing Tools  Word processing  Spelling checkers  Grammar checkers  Word prediction  Alternatives to keyboarding  Speech recognition  Tools to organize writing

38 Writing Tools: Word Processing  Editing and revision more feasible  Writing more legible  Writing more motivating  Like it more, write more, get better  Built-in tools to support writing  Shared audiences

39 Word Processing Options  Change manner in which spelling checker operates.  Change preferences to alter feedback provided by grammar checker Auto Correct to automatically correct the spelling of words commonly misspelled  Auto Correct feature to expand a few letters into a string of text.  For example, replace “LST” with “Literacy Software Tools”  Auto Text function to enter phrases or strings of text that students often type

40 Spelling Checkers: The Good & Bad  Fewer errors when struggling writers use them than when they don’t use them  Difficulty suggesting spelling replacements when words are severely misspelled  Poor writers may have difficulty rejecting suggested spelling replacements

41 Grammar Checkers: The good & bad  Suggestions assume correct spelling  Students may not understand suggestions  Students may select inappropriate suggestions

42 Word Prediction  Predicts next word, offers selections  Common in word processing software  Specialized word prediction programs  More detailed options  Audio feedback  More context-sensitive  Adapt to the writer

43 Speech Recognition  Dictate instead of type  Keeps improving  Different type of writing: need to learn to dictate  Available in word processing programs, operating systems, mobile devices, and specialized software  Available in web browsers

44 Concept Mapping and Outlining  Visual representation of ideas  “I don’t know what to write”  Activate prior knowledge  Brainstorm  See relationships  Organize ideas  Switch automatically from concept mapping to outlining  Help with text comprehension and studying

45 Toolbar Support for Literacy: My Study Bar

46 Toolbar Support for Literacy: CAST Strategy Tutor

47 Comprehensive Literacy Software Programs  Commercially-available  Often costly  You get what you pay for  Multi-featured  Reading and writing features  Digital text  Reading and writing  Studying  Researching

48 Features in Comprehensive Literacy Software Programs  Scan and create high quality digital text  Access to web  Text-to-speech support for text-based and web-based documents and pages.  Dictionary, thesaurus, glossaries, and reference tools  Outlining and concept-mapping features

49 Features in Comprehensive Literacy Software Programs  Annotating features, in which users can add notes (written or voice) to text  Prompts and templates for different genres of reading/writing  Guide brainstorming and organizing ideas, expanding writing, revising, and editing  Study tools  Teacher-created text supports and prompts

50 Features in Comprehensive Literacy Software Programs  Speech recognition features  Planning tools  Genre-specific writing templates  Word lists to support vocabulary during writing  Checklists to guide editing and revision

51 Some Thoughts…  Students aren’t as good at using technology as we think they are…  Know a few programs well  Often do not know what works well for them  Often do not know how to personalize their own learning  Need to be taught how to use tools  Opportunities not taken  Literacy tools + good instruction = better readers & writers

52 PAL in WYNN  Promoting Academic Literacy (PAL)  PAL tools embedded in comprehensive literacy software program, WYNN 7.0 (Freedom Scientific)  Designed to help students read and write in content areas  Literacy tool + Strategy support

53 Literacy Strategy: PREPARE  Preview  Read  Examine (in more detail)  Pick (what’s important)  Arrange (highlighted text)  Rework (summarize, synthesize)  Express (what you’ve learned)


Download ppt " How Technology Can Help Struggling Readers and Writers Children and Youth Institute, Michigan State University Extension, 9/24/13."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google