Presentation on theme: "IPG, Week 22. Workshop Aims Continue to draw connections across the module Provoke refinements in your revision strategies Think through the remaining."— Presentation transcript:
IPG, Week 22
Workshop Aims Continue to draw connections across the module Provoke refinements in your revision strategies Think through the remaining topics – some key points Discuss strategies in the exam room The Exam When? Wednesday 4 June, 9.30am Where? F107, Engineering
Revision Reminders Material for revision includes: revision notes; lecture notes; core readings; seminar questions and notes; additional readings from module handbook; notes written as essay preparation; class essay content, additional material Acquire, consolidate, organize material, then practice moulding it to particular questions You need to cite authors as you write in exams: just a surname, no bibliography required, paraphrasing Be as legible as you can, practice legible speed-writing Any questions?
Topic by Topic Revision 1 Work in small groups on one of the following topics: South Africa; India; Islam; Ireland; Global Capitalism Identify which module concepts are particularly relevant (see next 3 slides). Then try to come up with three or four bullet points that reflect major issues/learning points for each week of this topic that you would need to keep in mind when revising it. Can you think of any authors/studies relevant to this topic? You won’t remember everything – don’t worry, it’s not a test; it’s an opportunity.
Key Module Concepts Sex (biological, fixed); Gender (social and cultural, constructed, mutable/ changeable/transformable); Gender Equality/Inequality Feminisms; Post-feminism; women’s movement; agency; resistance Gender divisions of labour, resources, opportunities, status; gender pay gap; horizontal and vertical gender segregation, double burden, triple shift, sexual harassment; labour market discrimination; beauty premium; symbolic gender roles - material gender roles; dominant discourses/narratives Gendered identities/ subjectivities; performing gender identities; femininities / masculinities (plural both within contexts and between them, but with striking commonalities eg what’s expected of men and women in nationalism); crisis in masculinity; patriarchal premium; hyper masculinity; hyper femininity Hidden curriculum; self-worth theory; laddishness; new sexual contract; post-feminist masquerade
Key Module Concepts Continued Sexuality; heterosexism; compulsory heterosexuality; essentialism; social constructionism; nuclear family; diversity of family forms; symmetrical family; sexualisation of work; homophobia; sexual violence; gendered double standards State Socialism and Post-Socialism; patriarchal socialism; Soviet Union/USSR and Russian Federation; People’s Republic of China; collectivization; communes; collective ownership of means of production; proletariat; bourgeoisie; surplus value; socialization of reproductive work; son-preference; one-child policy, reproductive rights; sexual rights; perestroika; glasnost; Maoism; Confucianism; male-dominated peasantry; state propaganda; capitalism Orientalism - the weaving into ‘knowledge’ of the idea that the west is innately superior to the east – ‘othering’; ‘legitimation’ of colonialism Nationalism; nation-building; anti-natalist state; pro-natalist state; biological and cultural reproduction of nation; public sphere - private sphere/domestic sphere
Key Module Concepts Continued Apartheid and Post-Apartheid; migrant labour system; anti-apartheid movement; institutionalised racism; one person one vote; intersections of gender, ‘race; and class; pass laws; bantustans; anti-apartheid movement; ANC; PAC; COSATU; UDF; Nationalist Party; white separatist; petty apartheid; sexual violence; gender-based violence; feminization of poverty Colonialism & Imperialism (India, Ireland); welfarism; independence movements; partition; modernity/modernisation Religious fundamentalism; hindutva; communalism; Islamic fundamentalism; Catholic fundamentalism?; unveiling; reveiling; Islamic Revolution; feminist theology; religious/secular feminism Global capitalism; old international division of labour; new international division of labour; ISI; EOI; unionization; labour movement; runaway shops; NICs; Fair-trade; Ethical trade; contradictory effects on women’s status; nimble fingers; labour behind the label; codes of conduct; fairwashing
Strategies in the Exam Room Scenario 1: Your time management has gone awry and there’s 10 minutes left but you’re only half way through your answer to the last question. What do you do now, and what could you have done earlier? Scenario 2: You got started ok but now your mind’s gone blank and you feel you can’t remember anything. What do you do now, and what could you have done earlier?
Topic by Topic Revision 2 Work in small groups on a different one of the following topics: South Africa; India; Islam; Ireland; Global Capitalism From what you can recall about each topic, identify which module concepts are particularly relevant. Then try to come up with three bullet points that reflect major issues/learning points for each week of this topic that you would need to keep in mind when revising it, together with relevant authors/research.
South Africa: Apartheid Apartheid=‘separate development’=institutionalised racism , introduced by Afrikaaner National Party Precursors in 1910 Union denying black people the vote; 1913 & 1936 Land Acts: black population g0t 13% of (poorest) land Migrant labour system: secured cheap, plentiful (mainly male) black labour for mines, factories and servicing urban areas, tried to prevent black urbanization Many African women ‘left behind’, families divided Africans with residence rights beyond the ‘reserves’ confined to shanty-towns on edge of towns and cities they served Black female domestic workers serviced white families living in, forced to live apart from own children, on call 24/7, poorly paid Bantustan policy – to create ‘independent’ countries and remove South African citizenship (eg. Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, Transkei)
South Africa: Post-apartheid African resistance to apartheid non-violent at first, then ANC launched armed struggle in early 1960s State response: detention without trial, banning, violence Ongoing resistance from black population, through ANC, trade unions, women organising (some as mothers), youth Mandela released in 1990 – core apartheid laws repealed ANC win first free and fair elections in 1994, still in power Decades of racial inequalities cannot be overcome quickly Women’s coalition ensured gender could not be ignored, but many black women still can’t exercise their new rights Has feminism been diluted through incorporation? Ongoing problems of sexual violence, feminization of (black) poverty, HIV/Aids, brutality of mine work
India: Colonialism and Nationalism Nationalism: political movement to establish or re-establish nationhood; narrative about who belongs to a nation Women central as biological and cultural reproducers of nation Men expected to fight, strategize, exhibit hyper masculinity India became British colony first through trade then indirect rule Gandhi pioneered Satyagraha, non-violent resistance, met with suppression, violence and political tinkering Indian nationalists partly defined modernity re improving women’s public status (political rights) but not private status British sought to justify colonialism as freeing Indian women, but also didn’t envisage full gender equality Both sides used women’s status as rationale, homogenized women Nationalism gave many middle class Indian women public role Independence in 1947 brought Partition
India: Post-colonial Women gained suffrage and education rights but gap between rights and implementation and initially economic rights neglected (for welfarism) Some family law reform (but resisted, Muslim exemption) Wanted new woman to symbolize modernity of new India (radical agenda) but also traditional family woman to protect authentic Indian culture (conservative agenda) Differences between Indian women perpetuated: re class and caste; contrast of women leaders while many unborn (son preference – sex selective abortion – missing girls) Fragmented women’s movement resurged in 1970s Ongoing campaigns against sexual violence; against dependence of women on men; for sexual rights
Orientalism & Religious Fundamentalism Edward Said’s Orientalism: idea west is innately superior to east Used to ‘legitimate’ colonialism and imperial expansion Western ‘civilisation’: Eastern ‘barbarity’ read from women’s status Accounts of gender inequalities can be orientalist, ignoring history, women’s resistance, differences. How to avoid? Fundamentalism: Patriarchal claim to religious truth (in all religions), imbued with nationalism, attempt to fuse religion/state Control over women’s sexuality/fertility central, while entrench men as household heads/leaders. Women define nation/honour Hindutva: religious fundamentalism in Hinduism, seeking Hindu Indian state, anti-Muslim, BJP incited destruction at Ayodyha key Venerated Hindu mothers contrasted with ‘enemy’ women (Muslim); disciplined Hindu men with out of control Muslim men Sees western feminism as imperialist, corrupt, destructive Other examples: Islamic fundamentalism; 1950s Irish Catholicism?
Islam and Iran Must recognize extent and diversity of Islamic world, not all fundamentalist, some Muslim states secular Video: Is the Qur’an essentially patriarchal or a product of patriarchal times? Some Islamic theologians reinterpret for women’s rights Case study of Iran – 1 st modern fundamentalist Islamic state, 1979 Both Shahs and Mullahs linked women to nation – as ‘unveiled’ for western modernity; ‘reveiled’ for eastern values and tradition Many women chose ‘veiling’ in 1979, now compulsory Post-revolution, Haremi groups men as mullahs, martyrs and ordinary: all control their women but not all are equally powerful Women scholars and activists in Iran have tried to claim back rights for women, some liberalization under Khatami then set- backs
Islam: The ‘veil’ Western stereotypes about women and Islam generally negative: construct Islamic women as passive victims Such stereotypes are used discursively to construct Islamic countries in Orientalist terms Need to ask about the social and historical context of Islamic practices that discriminate against women ‘Veil’ taken as emblematic of Muslim women’s oppression – but must recognize diversity of ‘veil’ and its history Modesty prescribed for Muslim men as well, head-covering for women has Christian history around Mediterranean Compulsory full cover very different from optional scarf Considering perspectives of Muslim women who ‘veil’ complicates any analysis
Ireland: Nationalism Modern history=one British colony split in two: Irish Free State (26 of 32 counties, majority Catholic, gets independence) and Northern Ireland, remaining 6, mainly Protestant, still in UK Ireland not Catholic state per se but Catholicism dominant Ideal Irish woman: Catholic, motherly, self-sacrificing, virtuous, pure, heart of home etc. Ideal Irish man: Provider, authority Irish women involved in nationalist struggle but barred from joining key organisations, formed own, played support roles, some fought in (guerrilla-type) war for independence Usual tensions emerged between feminism and nationalism – women’s equality must await independence Tradition and Catholicism informed DeValera’s new government, legislation confined women to homes as wives and (necessarily) prolific mothers, including article 41.2 of 1935 Constitution Women workers earned just over half men’s earnings on average
Ireland: Modernization 1959: Lemass began modernisation, opening up to world Rapid industrialisation via export-orientation, joined EEC in 1973, employment soared and Irish emigration fell New jobs for women improved their status, but wages low New media circulated new futures for women, beyond motherhood, as trust in Catholic church declined Women’s organisations campaigning for access to: divorce (legal from 1995); contraception; abortion (still illegal); equal pay Campaigning against gender discrimination; sexual violence Setbacks with recession of 1980s, conservative backlash 1990s – the booming Celtic Tiger, Mary Robinson as President, more women in work and women having fewer children But double burden, high levels of domestic violence, few women in political power. Meanwhile poor health outcomes for men 2008: boom ends with banking crisis, job losses, emigration again
Gender and Global Capitalism Old IDL rooted in imperialism vs. NIDL in post-colonial world; relocation of manufacturing, services, agribusiness, care-work ISI phase favours men as workers but EOI brings feminization of labour: women preferred as highly productive, can be paid less Pros and cons of industrial employment for women workers: independence, financial autonomy, a social life beyond the family, mobility, but also long working hours, poor working conditions, risks to health, paternalistic control. Impact contradictory If women are ‘cheap’ labour then they are made so socially and culturally Marrying and having children worsens women’s labour market position, given lack of child-care, and even more poorly paid homeworking may be only option
Taking on Global Capital Women workers are not docile; long history of organising to improve wages and working conditions but face many barriers Unions may be banned, members harassed, time and gender interest constraints Consumer pressure can also raise wages and working conditions via fair trade and ethical trade To what extent are FT and ET for workers but not by workers? To what extent do FT and ET recognise gendered work? How are workers’ lives used to sell the idea of fair trade? Is there a danger of ‘fairwashing’ Does ET put impossible pressure on employers to do right by their workers while also selling their produce ever cheaper? Can’t expect economic justice without cultural justice
Finally… Best of luck with your revision and the exam I hope you’ve enjoyed the module I’ve enjoyed your engagement and I hope to see some of you next year on Transformations…