Presentation on theme: "Barbara white : interaction design Understanding users cognitive social affective."— Presentation transcript:
barbara white : interaction design Understanding users cognitive social affective
barbara white : interaction designIssues What is cognition? Design implications of cognitive processes Cognitive frameworks: –Mental models –Information processing –External cognition
barbara white : interaction design Understanding users Why do we need to understand our users?
barbara white : interaction design cognitive psychology & HCI What is cognition? What goes on in the mind? Reflective Experiential
barbara white : interaction design Core cognitive aspects What are the core aspects of cognition?
barbara white : interaction design Activity: Find the price of a double room at the Holiday Inn in Bradley
barbara white : interaction design Activity: Find the price for a double room at the Quality Inn in Columbia
barbara white : interaction designActivity Tullis (1987) found that the two screens produced quite different results –1st screen - took an average of 5.5 seconds to search –2nd screen - took 3.2 seconds to search Why, since both displays have the same density of information (31%)? Spacing –In the 1st screen the information is bunched up together, making it hard to search –In the 2nd screen the characters are grouped into vertical categories of information making it easier
barbara white : interaction designAttention Selecting things to concentrate on from the mass around us, at a point in time Focussed and divided attention enables us to be selective in terms of the mass of competing stimuli but limits our ability to keep track of all events
barbara white : interaction design What is this demonstrating no to do!
barbara white : interaction design Design implications for attention Information at the interface should be structured to capture users’ attention, e.g. use perceptual boundaries (windows), colour, reverse video, sound and flashing lights Make information salient when it needs attending to Avoid cluttering the interface – keep it crisp, simple design Avoid using too much because the software allows it Use techniques that make things stand out like colour, ordering, spacing, underlining, sequencing and animation
barbara white : interaction design Is color contrast good? Find italian Find italian
barbara white : interaction design Are borders and white space better? Find french Find french
barbara white : interaction designActivity Weller (2004) found people took less time to locate items for information that was grouped –using a border (2nd screen) compared with using color contrast (1st screen) Some argue that too much white space on web pages is detrimental to search –Makes it hard to find information Do you agree?
barbara white : interaction design Which is easiest to read and why? What is the time?
barbara white : interaction design Perception and recognition Perception is how information is acquired from the environment from the senses (eyes, ears, fingers) and transformed into experiences implication is to design representations that are readily perceivable, e.g. –Text should be legible –Icons should be easy to distinguish and read
barbara white : interaction design Design implications Representations of information need to be designed to be perceptible and recognizable Icons and other graphical representations should enable users to readily distinguish their meaning Bordering and spacing are effective visual ways of grouping information Sounds should be audible and distinguishable Speech output should enable users to distinguish between the set of spoken words Text should be legible and distinguishable from the background
barbara white : interaction designRemember? Try to remember the dates of all members of your family or your closest friends birthday Try to describe what’s on the cover of the latest book or DVD/CD you brought? What’s easiest? Why?
barbara white : interaction design Memory Involves encoding and recalling knowledge and acting appropriately We don’t remember everything - involves filtering and processing Context is important in affecting our memory We recognize things much better than being able to recall things –The rise of the GUI over command-based interfaces Better at remembering images than words –The use of icons rather than names
barbara white : interaction design Recognition versus recall Command-based interfaces require users to recall from memory a name from a possible set of 100s GUIs provide visually-based options that users need only browse through until they recognize one Web browsers, MP3 players, etc., provide lists of visited URLs, song titles etc., that support recognition memory
The problem with the classic ‘7 2’ George Miller’s theory of how much information people can remember ( 7 +/- 2) People’s immediate memory capacity is very limited Many designers have been led to believe that this is useful finding for interaction design
barbara white : interaction design What some designers get up to… Present only 7 options on a menu Display only 7 icons on a tool bar Have no more than 7 bullets in a list Place only 7 items on a pull down menu Place only 7 tabs on the top of a website page But this is wrong? Why?
barbara white : interaction design Personal information management Personal information management (PIM) is a growing problem for most users –Who have vast numbers of documents, images, music files, video clips, emails, attachments, bookmarks, etc., –Major problem is deciding where and how to save them all, then remembering what they were called and where to find them again –Naming most common means of encoding them –Trying to remember a name of a file created some time back can be very difficult, especially when have 1000s and 1000s –How might such a process be facilitated taking into account people’s memory abilities?
barbara white : interaction design File management Facilitate existing memory strategies and try to assist users when they get stuck Help users encode files in richer ways –Provide them with ways of saving files using colour, flagging, image, flexible text, time stamping
barbara white : interaction design Is Apple’s Spotlight search tool any good?
barbara white : interaction design More appropriate application of memory research Research on information retrieval can be usefully applied Memory involves 2 processes –recall-directed and –recognition-based scanning File management systems should be designed to optimize both kinds of memory processes
barbara white : interaction design Core cognitive aspects Core aspects of cognition? Problem-solving, planning, reasoning & decision-making, learning Reading, speaking & listening Perception & recognition Attention Memory