Presentation on theme: "Anthropometry Meghan Hunt Erskine College Dead Men Do Tell Tales J-Term 2006."— Presentation transcript:
Anthropometry Meghan Hunt Erskine College Dead Men Do Tell Tales J-Term 2006
What is Anthropometry? Greek Anthro- : man -pometry: measurements Literal meaning: “measurement of humans” The study of measurements or proportions of the human body according to sex, age, etc. for identification purposes Dimensions of bones, muscles, and adipose (fat) tissues
History of Anthropometry 1883- Alphonse Bertillon: system of identification depending on the unchanging character of certain measurements of parts of the human body 1884: 241 multiple offenders were identified “Bertillonage”- first adapted by the French police 1887: introduced in the United States by Major McClaughry, the translator of Bertillon's book, when he was the warden of the Illinois State Penitentiary at Joliet.
History of Anthropometry 1888: Francis Galton starts research on “Finger Prints” to further anthropometry 1892: Francis Galton publishes Finger Prints 1894: England adopted the system. 1903: Will West & William West
Galton’s Discovery because of Anthropometry? “My attention was first drawn to the ridges in 1888 when preparing a lecture on Personal Identification for the Royal Institution, which had for its principal object an account of the anthropometric method of Bertillon, then newly introduced into the prison administration of France. Wishing to treat the subject generally, and having a vague knowledge of the value sometimes assigned to finger marks, I made inquiries, and was surprised to find, both how much had been done, and how much there remained to do, before establishing their theoretical value and practical utility. Enough was then seen to show that the subject was of real importance, and I resolved to investigate it; all the more so, as the modern processes of photographic printing would enable the evidence of such results as might be arrived at, to be presented to the reader on an enlarged and easily legible form, and in a trustworthy shape. Those that are put forward in the following pages, admit of considerable extension and improvement, and it is only the fact that an account of them seems useful, which causes me to delay no further before submitting what has thus far been attained, to the criticism of others.” Excerpt from Galton’s Finger Prints
Applications of Anthropometry Identification of repeated criminals Cesare Lombroso's Criminal Anthropology (1895): “murderers have prominent jaws and pickpockets have long hands and scanty beards”. Eugene Vidocq: identification of criminals by facial characteristics Prevention of impersonation Differentiation between the races Eugenics in Europe Aryans from Jews: The Bureau for Enlightenment on Population Policy and Racial Welfare recommended the classification of Aryans and non-Aryans on the basis of measurements of the skull and other physical features, “craniometric” certification, required by law. The consequences for not meeting requirements included denial of permission to marry or work, and for many it meant the death camps Intelligence tests became associated with Anthropometry
Debate over Anthropometry General Problems with Anthropometry: Cost and error of the instruments used Education needed to be able to take the measurements Error in calculation and measurements slow Will West Case
Body Identification using Anthropometry Bertillon used 5 basic measurements: head length head breadth length of middle finger Length of left foot length from the elbow to the extremity of the middle finger Today that list is more extensive: Gender Height Weight Age Bicep circumference, buttock depth, chest breadth, elbow circumference, eye height, forearm to hand, ear breadth, head circumference, head length, hip breadth sitting, hip breadth standing, sitting height, waist depth, wrist breadth, wrist circumference to name a few…there are currently 107 measurements
Anthropometric Measuring Tools Sliding Calipers: large and small Tape Spreading Caliper Anthropometer Medical scale
Anthropometric Measuring Techniques Weight Stature Posture: Standing Frankfort Sitting Arm Span Head Length Head Breadth Ear-to-Head Height Nasal Length Nasal Breadth Skeletal Index = Sitting Height x 100/Stature Cephalic Index = Head Breadth x 100/Head Length Nasal Index = Nasal Breadth x 100/Nasal Length Span/Stature Index = Arm Span x 100/ Stature Cranial Capacity
Anthropometry Today Biometrics Nutrition and wellness Weight Training Ergonomics dynamic anthropometry: Measurements taken on and around the figure when it is in any position other than the fixed ones. Everyday life Evolutionary Significance Changes in humans overtime Monitor growth in children Cranial Anthropometry
Biometrics the automatic identification of a person based on his/her physiological or behavioral characteristics Verification vs. identification Verification: Am I whom I claim I am? involves confirming or denying a person's claimed identity Identification: Who am I?
Biometrics Applications Forensics: criminal identification and prison security Prevention of unauthorized access to ATMs, cellular phones, smart cards, desktop PCs, workstations, and computer networks Automobiles: replace keys with key-less entry and key-less ignition Border control and national ID cards
Biometrics Programs Fingerprint Identification Hand Geometry: geometric shape of the hand for authenticating a user's identity Face Location: an arbitrary black and white, still image, find the location and size of every human face Multibiometrics: integrates face recognition, fingerprint verification, and speaker verification in making a personal identification
Biometrics in Use BenGurion Airport: Hand Geometry INSPASS: Hand Geometry FacePass: Face Verification Grocery Store Payment: Fingerprint US- Visit Program Heathrow Airport- Iris
Cranial Anthropometry Also known as Craniometry measurement of the skull and face 3 ways to categorize the skull dolichocephalic: long and thin brachycephalic: short and broad mesocephalic: intermediate length and breadth
Cranial Anthropometry: 16 Facial Zones en (endocanthion) eu (eurion) ex (exocanthion) ft (frontotemporale) fz (frontozygomaticus) g (glabella) gn (gnathion) obi (otobasion inferius) op (opisthocranion) po (porion)
Cranial Anthropometry: 16 Facial Zones (cont.) n (nasion) sn (subnasale) t (tragion) tr (trichion) v (vertex) zy (zygion)
3- D Anthropometry 3D anthropometry, the measure of humans, can be greatly aided by the use of accurate digital humans. We'll take a look at how to create these types of accurate digital humans and how they can be used for the measurement of entire populations Programs: Cyberware DigiSize CySlice Ear Impression 3-D Scanner SizeUSA : 3D measurement system, a body scanner feeding data into measurement extraction software. CAESAR: generate a database of human physical dimensions for men and women of various weights, between the ages of 18 and 65 Virtual Models: virtually try on clothes, makeup etc.