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Graphic Design The “look & feel” The system of imagery.

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Presentation on theme: "Graphic Design The “look & feel” The system of imagery."— Presentation transcript:

1 Graphic Design The “look & feel” The system of imagery

2 Graphic Design It shares aspects of engineering, but with aesthetic, communicative aspects and consumer appeal.

3 Graphic Design As a practice, it has been around for thousands of years.

4 Graphic Design With the industrial revolution, art and design began to diverge.

5 Graphic Design In the US, it grew into a profession after WWII.

6 Graphic Design It relies on a BALANCE and integration of: & feel

7 Graphic Design Objective: relies on quantitative studies, like usability and legibility measures. Does the “look and feel” work?

8 Graphic Design Subjective: “look and feel” relies on subjective judgement by experts, depends on contextual factors.

9 Graphic Design Subjective: “look and feel” Culture is learned, cultural meanings change, meanings can be multiple. Uniqueness is valued (not programmable).

10 Graphic Design You cannot empirically measure its subjective aspects, but it is rigorous in its own epistemological realm (knowledge base).

11 Graphic Design It is rigorous in its own epistemological realm. 1. Graphic Design experts. vs. 2. Deploying graphic design principles (anybody).

12 Graphic Design So what? Deploying graphic design principles will: - enhance your ability to communicate w/designers & feel

13 Graphic Design Deploying graphic design principles will: - enable you to create more user-friendly interfaces

14 Graphic Design Deploying graphic design principles will: - enhance the knowledge base of HCI, which is increasingly necessary with millions of users

15 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Agenda: The Role of Graphic Design Principles of Graphic Design Animation/Rollovers Typography Color Icons

16 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Role of Graphic Design The “look and feel” portion of an interface: What someone initially encounters

17 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Role of Graphic Design The “look and feel” portion of an interface: What someone initially encounters Sets a framework for understanding content Conveys an impression, mood

18 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Role of Graphic Design The “look and feel” portion of an interface: What someone initially encounters Sets a framework for understanding content

19 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Role of Graphic Design The “look and feel” portion of an interface: What someone initially encounters Sets a framework for understanding content

20 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Role of Graphic Design The “look and feel” portion of an interface: What someone initially encounters Sets a framework for understanding content

21 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Role of Graphic Design The “look and feel” portion of an interface: What someone initially encounters Sets a framework for understanding content

22 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Role of Graphic Design The “look and feel” portion of an interface: What someone initially encounters Sets a framework for understanding content

23 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Role of Graphic Design The “look and feel” portion of an interface: What someone initially encounters Sets a framework for understanding content

24 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Agenda: The Role of Graphic Design Principles of Graphic Design Animation/Rollovers Typography Color Icons

25 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Principles of Graphic Design Concept/Metaphor Hierarchy Clarity Consistency Alignment Proximity Contrast

26 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Principles: Concept/Metaphor Concept: what is the overarching idea that every visual aspect of the interface relates to? (It MUST be relevant) Metaphor: (Means of “explaining” concept) If you’re building an interface for a grocery application, maybe mimic a person walking through a store with a cart.

27 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Principles: Concept/Metaphor Concept: what is the overarching idea that every visual aspect of the interface relates to? (It MUST be relevant) Apple: accessible, fun, familiar; “for the rest of us” Metaphor: (Means of “explaining” concept) If you’re building an interface for a grocery application, maybe mimic a person walking through a store with a cart. desktop metaphor

28 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Principles: Hierarchy What are the relative “levels” of importance? What should the user see first? Second?

29 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Principles: Hierarchy What are the relative “levels” of importance?

30 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Principles: Hierarchy.

31 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Principles: Clarity Every element in an interface should have a reason for being there Make that reason clear! Less is more

32 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Principles: Clarity White space Leads the eye Provides symmetry and balance through its use Strengthens impact of message Allows eye to rest between elements of activity (increases legibility) Used to promote simplicity, elegance, refinement

33 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Principles: Clarity White space

34 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Principles: Clarity

35 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Principles: Clarity White space

36 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Principles: Consistency Be consistent in every aspect: In layout, color, images, icons, typography, text Within screen, across screens Stay within metaphor everywhere Platform may have a style guide -- follow it!

37 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Principles: Alignment Western world Start from top left Allows eye to parse display more easily

38 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Principles: Alignment Grids (Hidden) horizontal and vertical lines to help locate window components Align related things Group items logically Minimize number of controls, reduce clutter

39 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Principles: Alignment Grids - use them

40 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Principles: Alignment Grids (Hidden) horizontal and vertical lines to help locate window components Align related things Group items logically Minimize number of controls, reduce clutter

41 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Principles: Alignment Left, center, or right Ragged right or justified Choose one, use it everywhere Novices often center things Hard to read! No definition, calm, very formal Use only in small quantities Here is some new text

42 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Principles: Proximity Items close together appear to have a relationship Large distance implies -- no relationship Time

43 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Principles: Proximity Items close together appear to have a relationship Large distance implies -- no relationship Time

44 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Principles: Contrast Pulls you in Guides your eyes around the interface Supports skimming Take advantage of contrast to guide user through hierarchy of information; add focus; or to energize an interface with “texture” Can be used to distinguish active control

45 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Principles: Contrast Can be used to set off most important item Allow it to dominate Ask yourself what is the most important item in the interface, highlight it Use geometry to help sequencing

46 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Agenda: The Role of Graphic Design Principles of Graphic Design Animation/Rollovers Typography Color Icons

47 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Animation/Rollovers Blinking Good for grabbing attention, but easily becomes obnoxious; use very sparingly Reverse video, bold Good for making something stand out

48 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Agenda: The Role of Graphic Design Principles of Graphic Design Animation/Rollovers Typography Color Icons

49 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Typography: White space White space Leads the eye Provides symmetry and balance through its use Strengthens impact of message Allows eye to rest between elements of activity (increases legibility) Used to promote simplicity, elegance, refinement

50 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Typography: Hierarchy How do you lead the user through visual information (by visual means)? Some traditional navigation devices (conventions): Size Color Composition (where it is on the rectangle) Page numbers Type and Image emphases

51 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Typography Characters and symbols should be easily noticeable and distinguishable AVOID HEAVY USE OF ALL UPPERCASE Studies have found that: mixed case promotes fastest reading and that 55 characters per line is optimal

52 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Agenda: The Role of Graphic Design Principles of Graphic Design Animation/Rollovers Typography Color Icons

53 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Color Attributes Hue native color, pigment Saturation relative purity, brightness, or intensity of a color Value lightness or darkness of a color

54 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Color Use it for a purpose, not to just add some color in

55 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Color Guidelines Display color images on black background Avoid brown and green as background colors Be sure foreground colors contrast (in both brightness and hue) with background colors

56 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Color Guidelines Use color sparingly--Design in b/w then add color where appropriate Use color to draw attention, communicate organization, to indicate status, to establish relationships Avoid using color in non-task related ways (experiment coming next)

57 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT How many small rectangles

58 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT How many small rectangles

59 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT How many small ovals

60 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT How many small ovals

61 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Find the R

62 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Find the... V R Z M F G Q J C T D W A P

63 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Find the T

64 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Find the... V R Z M F G Q J C T D W A P

65 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Color Guidelines Color is good for supporting search Do not use color without another redundant cue Color-blindness Monochrome monitors Redundant coding enhances performance Be consistent with color associations from jobs and cultures

66 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Color Guidelines Limit coding to 8 distinct colors (4 better) Avoid using saturated blues for text or small, thin lines Use color on b/w or gray, or b/w on color To express difference, use high contrast colors (and vice versa) Make sure colors do not “vibrate”

67 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Color Palette Example of Color hierarchy

68 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Color Associations Red hot, warning, aggression, love Pink female, cute, cotton candy Orange autumn, warm, Halloween, Cell phone Yellow happy, caution, joy Brown warm, fall, dirt, earth Green lush, pastoral, envy Purple royal, sophisticated, Barney Culturally specific, contextually specific

69 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Color Palettes/Suites Designers often pick a palette of 4 or 5 colors Variations of 2 colors Monochromatic (variations of 1 color) Southwestern (culturally evocative)

70 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Agenda: The Role of Graphic Design Principles of Graphic Design Animation/Rollovers Typography Color Icons

71 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Icon Design Relies on drawing ability -- hire someone to do it (here are standards and ways to critique icon design) Avoid meaningless, gratuitous use of icons Too many icons quickly become illegible

72 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Icon Design Represent object or action in a familiar and recognizable manner

73 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Icon Design Represent object or action in a familiar and recognizable manner

74 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Icon Design Represent object or action in a familiar and recognizable manner

75 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Icon Legibility Limit number of different icons Make icon stand out from background Ensure that a singly selected icon is clearly visible when surrounded by unselected ones

76 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Icon Legibility Settlers III

77 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Icon Legibility Make each icon distinctive (legible) but Make icons harmonious members of icon family Avoid excessive detail Accompany with names (though it shouldn’t be necessary)

78 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Icon Design Is the symbolic aspect of the icon meaningful?

79 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Icon Design Is the symbolic aspect of the icon meaningful?

80 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Icon Design Is the symbolic aspect of the icon meaningful?

81 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Icon Design Meaning is ASCRIBED to icons -- they don’t have an essential, measurable “essence.”

82 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Role of Graphic Design in HCI The “look and feel” portion of an interface: What someone initially encounters Sets a framework for understanding content

83 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Role of Graphic Design in HCI The “look and feel” portion of an interface: What someone initially encounters Sets a framework for understanding content

84 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Role of Graphic Design in HCI The “look and feel” portion of an interface: What someone initially encounters Sets a framework for understanding content

85 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Graphic Design Like any design job, there must be a logic to the visual design The logic drives Color scheme Materials choices Lighting style Fonts etc.

86 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Eacmples - WarCraft II 2 Teams: Orcs & Humans Each team has unique biology: Collection of Team physiques Unique means of living Unique culture

87 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT WarCraft II Culture manifests itself: What they eat How they work How they live How they kill How they die How they live: Choice of building materials Choice of fighting styles

88 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT WarCraft II How Orcs live & eat Hog farms How humans Grain farms

89 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT WarCraft II Orcs do war with offensive spells Humans have defensive spells

90 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT WarCraft II Orc People Green Horns Orc Buildings Bone Leather Dark Cast Iron

91 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT WarCraft II Human People “Flesh tone” humans Silver armor Human buildings Light wood Light-colored metal (roofs, etc)

92 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT WarCraft II Invading Orc Town

93 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Examples Invading human town

94 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT WarCraft II

95 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT WarCraft II

96 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT WarCraft II Problems This stark contrast causes problems Why are Orcs chopping wood? Why is the Orc woodshed a big, hollow log? Violates the Orc bone-and-leather look On the sea, similar problems These problems arise because of game play

97 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Example: Age of Empires/Kings Logic: Numerous historical civilizations do battle Each civilization specializes Special force elements Special resource-gathering Special Wonders-of-the-world

98 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Age of Empires/Kings Historical building style Historical costume

99 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Celts

100 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Celts

101 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Vikings

102 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Vikings

103 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT China

104 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT China

105 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Persia

106 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Turks

107 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Turks

108 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Byzantium

109 Sep 21, Fall 2006IAT Age of Kings Problems Tough to recognize foreign buildings Tough to recognize own buildings Where’s my stables? All Castles look very similar


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