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Color in Information Display

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1 Color in Information Display
Color In Information Display, Vis05 4/13/2017 Color in Information Display Maureen Stone StoneSoup Consulting Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

2 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Effective Color Materials Aesthetics Perception All three must work together. Use examples: painter, printer, cook Effectiveness, naturally, is defined by context. Simple and immediate vs. studied Illustrators, cartographers Artists, designers A few scientific principles Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

3 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 What is Color? Physical World Visual System Mental Models Lights, surfaces, objects Eye, optic nerve, visual cortex Red, green, brown Bright, light, dark, vivid, colorful, dull Warm, cool, bold, blah, attractive, ugly, pleasant, jarring What do we mean by color? The visual system’s response to colored lights and objects. Wavelength sensitivity Perception and Cognition Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

4 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Color Models Physical World Visual System Mental Models Opponent Encoding Separate lightness, chroma (A,R-G,Y-B) Light Energy Spectral distribution functions F() Cone Response Encode as three values (L,M,S) CIE (X,Y,Z) Appearance Models Color in Context Adaptation Background Size … CIECAM02 Perceptual Models Color “Space” Hue lightness saturation CIELAB Munsell (HVC) Different types of questions at each level. Ask here who knows what Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

5 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Physical World Spectral Distribution Visible light Power vs. wavelength Any source Direct Transmitted Reflected Refracted From A Field Guide to Digital Color, © A.K. Peters, 2003 Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

6 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Cone Response Encode spectra as three values Long, medium and short (LMS) Trichromacy: only LMS is “seen” Different spectra can “look the same” Sort of like a digital camera* Talk about spectral distribution function, area is intensity From A Field Guide to Digital Color, © A.K. Peters, 2003 Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

7 Effects of Retinal Encoding
Color In Information Display, Vis05 4/13/2017 Effects of Retinal Encoding All spectra that stimulate the same cone response are indistinguishable Metameric match Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

8 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Color Measurement CIE Standard Observer CIE tristimulus values (XYZ) All spectra that stimulate the same tristimulus (XYZ) response are indistinguishable Area under y-bar is Y, perceived intensity From A Field Guide to Digital Color, © A.K. Peters, 2003 Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

9 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Chromaticity Diagram Project X,Y,Z on a plane to separate colorfulness from brightness x = X/(X+Y+Z) y = Y/(X+Y+Z) z = Z/(X+Y+Z) 1 = x+y+z My favorite diagram again. I have a picture in a book of the 3D projection. The use of color in this diagram is controversial in some circles because it is not “accurate” Bottom line: if two colors map to the same point, they match except for brightness XYZ = xyY Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

10 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 RGB Chromaticity R,G,B are points (varying lightness) Sum of two colors lies on line Gamut is a triangle White/gray/black near center Saturated colors on edges Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

11 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Display Gamuts From A Field Guide to Digital Color, © A.K. Peters, 2003 Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

12 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Projector Gamuts From A Field Guide to Digital Color, © A.K. Peters, 2003 Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

13 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Pixels to Intensity Linear I = kp (I = intensity, p = pixel value, k is a scalar) Best for computation Non-linear I = kp1/ Perceptually more uniform More efficient to encode as pixels Best for encoding and display Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

14 Pixel to Intensity Variation
Color In Information Display, Vis05 4/13/2017 Pixel to Intensity Variation Intensity Transfer Function (ITF), or “gamma” Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

15 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Color Models Physical World Visual System Mental Models Opponent Encoding Separate lightness, chroma (A,R-G,Y-B) Light Energy Spectral distribution functions F() Cone Response Encode as three values (L,M,S) CIE (X,Y,Z) Appearance Models Color in Context Adaptation, Background, Size, … CIECAM02 Perceptual Models Color “Space” Hue, lightness saturation CIELAB Munsell (HVC) Trichromacy Metamerism Color matching Color measurement Different types of questions at each level. Ask here who knows what Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

16 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Opponent Color Definition Achromatic axis R-G and Y-B axis Separate lightness from chroma channels First level encoding Linear combination of LMS Before optic nerve Basis for perception Defines “color blindness” Better picture for opponent color Plane + line Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

17 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Vischeck Simulates color vision deficiencies Web service or Photoshop plug-in Robert Dougherty and Alex Wade Deuteranope Protanope Tritanope Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

18 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 2D Color Space Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

19 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Similar Colors protanope deuteranope luminance Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

20 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Genes in Vischeck Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

21 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Note scale in top right Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

22 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Smart Money Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

23 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Color Models Physical World Visual System Mental Models Opponent Encoding Separate lightness, chroma (A,R-G,Y-B) Light Energy Spectral distribution functions F() Cone Response Encode as three values (L,M,S) CIE (X,Y,Z) Appearance Models Color in Context Adaptation, Background, Size, … CIECAM02 Perceptual Models Color “Space” Hue, lightness saturation CIELAB Munsell (HVC) Separate lightness, chroma Color blindness Image encoding Different types of questions at each level. Ask here who knows what Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

24 Perceptual Color Spaces
Color In Information Display, Vis05 4/13/2017 Perceptual Color Spaces Unique black and white Uniform differences Perception & design Lightness Colorfulness Hue Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

25 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Munsell Atlas Known by both designers and scientists Courtesy Gretag-Macbeth Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

26 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 CIELAB and CIELUV Lightness (L*) plus two color axis (a*, b*) Non-linear function of CIE XYZ Defined for computing color differences (reflective) The spectrum locus in new guise, plus folks may have heard of these CIELUV CIELAB From Principles of Digital Image Synthesis by Andrew Glassner. SF: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Fig. 2.4 & 2.5, Page 63 & 64 © 1995 by Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. Used with permission. Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

27 Psuedo-Perceptual Models
Color In Information Display, Vis05 4/13/2017 Psuedo-Perceptual Models HLS, HSV, HSB NOT perceptual models Simple renotation of RGB View along gray axis See a hue hexagon L or V is grayscale pixel value Cannot predict perceived lightness Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

28 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 L vs. Luminance, L* Corners of the RGB color cube Luminance values L* values You inspired me to make this, which is a nice illustration. Luminance is an absolute retinal response, L* a perceptual encoding, relative to a given white. HLS is just plain wrong. Values are what came out in Photoshop/Paintshop Pro. I didn’t compute anything special. L from HLS All the same Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

29 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Lightness Scales Lightness, brightness, luminance, and L* Lightness is relative, brightness absolute Absolute intensity is light power Luminance is perceived intensity Luminance varies with wavelength Variation defined by luminous efficiency function Equivalent to CIE Y L* is perceptually uniform lightness Important aspect of visualization and design Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

30 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Luminance & Intensity Intensity Integral of spectral distribution (power) Luminance Intensity modulated by wavelength sensitivity Integral of spectrum  luminous efficiency function Green and blue lights of equal intensity have different luminance values Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

31 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Luminance from RGB L = rLR+gLG+bLB LR,LG,LB Maximum luminance of RGB primaries Different for different displays Affected by brightness & contrast controls r,g,b Relative intensity values (linear) Depends on “gamma curve” Not pixel values Not a fixed equation! Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

32 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Color Models Physical World Visual System Mental Models Opponent Encoding Separate lightness, chroma (A,R-G,Y-B) Light Energy Spectral distribution functions F() Cone Response Encode as three values (L,M,S) CIE (X,Y,Z) Appearance Models Color in Context Adaptation, Background, Size, … CIECAM02 Perceptual Models Color “Space” Hue, lightness saturation CIELAB Munsell (HVC) Different types of questions at each level. Ask here who knows what Color differences “Intuitive” color spaces Color scales Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

33 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Color Appearance Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

34 Color In Information Display, Vis05
Image courtesy of John MCann Color In Information Display, Vis05 4/13/2017 Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

35 Color In Information Display, Vis05
Image courtesy of John MCann Color In Information Display, Vis05 4/13/2017 Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

36 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Color Appearance More than a single color Adjacent colors (background) Viewing environment (surround) Appearance effects Adaptation Simultaneous contrast Spatial effects Color in context surround stimulus background Color Appearance Models Mark Fairchild Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

37 Simultaneous Contrast
Color In Information Display, Vis05 4/13/2017 Simultaneous Contrast Add Opponent Color Dark adds light Red adds green Blue adds yellow These samples will have both light/dark and hue contrast Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

38 Affects Lightness Scale
Color In Information Display, Vis05 4/13/2017 Affects Lightness Scale Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

39 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Bezold Effect Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

40 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Crispening Perceived difference depends on background From Fairchild, Color Appearance Models Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

41 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Spreading Spatial frequency The paint chip problem Small text, lines, glyphs Image colors Adjacent colors blend Adjacent colors dilute the perception. Issue for images, for small glyphs Redrawn from Foundations of Vision © Brian Wandell, Stanford University Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

42 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Color Models Physical World Visual System Mental Models Opponent Encoding Separate lightness, chroma (A,R-G,Y-B) Light Energy Spectral distribution functions F() Cone Response Encode as three values (L,M,S) CIE (X,Y,Z) Appearance Models Color in Context Adaptation, Background, Size, … CIECAM02 Perceptual Models Color “Space” Hue, lightness saturation CIELAB Munsell (HVC) Different types of questions at each level. Ask here who knows what Adaptation Contrast effects Image appearance Complex matching Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

43 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Effective Color Materials Aesthetics Perception All three must work together. Use examples: painter, printer, cook Effectiveness, naturally, is defined by context. Simple and immediate vs. studied Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

44 What makes color effective?
Color In Information Display, Vis05 4/13/2017 What makes color effective? “Good ideas executed with superb craft” —E.R. Tufte Effective color needs a context Immediate vs. studied Anyone vs. specialist Critical vs. contextual Culture and expectations Time and money Road signs, cockpit displays vs. scatterplots, flow diagrams Skill in reading and perceiving color. Degree to which color coding is learned. ADA issues Making everything critical = clutter Culture of being too good Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

45 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Why Should You Care? Poorly designed color is confusing Creates visual clutter Misdirects attention Poor design devalues the information Visual sophistication Evolution of document and web design “Attractive things work better” —Don Norman Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

46 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Information Display Graphical presentation of information Charts, graphs, diagrams, maps, illustrations Originally hand-crafted, static Now computer-generated, dynamic Color is a key component Color labels and groups Color scales (colormaps) Multi-variate color encoding Color shading and textures And more… Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

47 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 “Color” includes Gray Maps courtesy of the National Park Service (www.nps.gov) Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

48 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Color Design Goals Highlight, emphasize Create regions, group Illustrate depth, shape Evoke nature Decorate, make beautiful Color harmony “…successful color combinations, whether these please the eye by using analogous colors, or excite the eye with contrasts.” –Principles of Color Design, by Wucius Wong Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

49 Color Design Terminology
Color In Information Display, Vis05 4/13/2017 Color Design Terminology Hue (color wheel) Red, yellow, blue (primary) Orange, green, purple (secondary) Opposites complement (contrast) Adjacent are analogous Many different color wheels* *See for examples Chroma (saturation) Intensity or purity Distance from gray Value (lightness) Dark to light Applies to all colors, not just gray Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

50 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Tints and Tones Tone or shade Hue + black Decrease saturation Decrease lightness Tint Hue + white Increase lightness Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

51 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Gradations Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

52 Color Design Principles
Color In Information Display, Vis05 4/13/2017 Color Design Principles Control value (lightness) Ensure legibility Avoid unwanted emphasis Use a limited hue palette Control color “pop out” Define color grouping Avoid clutter from too many competing colors Use neutral backgrounds Control impact of color Minimize simultaneous contrast Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

53 Envisioning Information
Color In Information Display, Vis05 4/13/2017 Envisioning Information “… avoiding catastrophe becomes the first principle in bringing color to information: Above all, do no harm.” —E. R. Tufte Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

54 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Fundamental Uses To label To measure To represent or to imitate reality To enliven or decorate Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

55 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 To Label Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

56 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Identify by Color 119 numbers, 20 7’s, 17% of the time Information Visualization Colin Ware Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

57 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Product Categories Created by Tableau - Visual Analysis for DatabasesTM Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

58 Grouping, Highlighting
Color In Information Display, Vis05 4/13/2017 Grouping, Highlighting Note concept of poor grouping Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

59 Considerations for Labels
Color In Information Display, Vis05 4/13/2017 Considerations for Labels How critical is the color encoding? Unique specification or is it a “hint”? Quick response, or time for inspection? Is there a legend, or need it be memorized? Contextual issues Are there established semantics? Grouping or ordering relationships? Surrounding shapes and colors? Shape and structural issues How big are the objects? How many objects, and could they overlap? Need they be readable, or only visible? Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

60 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Controls and Alerts Aircraft cockpit design Quick response Critical information and conditions Memorized 5-7 unique colors, easily distinguishable Highway signs Critical but redundant information 10-15 colors? Typical color desktop Aid to search Redundant information Personal and decorative How many colors? Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

61 Psychophysics of Labeling
Color In Information Display, Vis05 4/13/2017 Psychophysics of Labeling Preattentive, “pop out” Time proportional to the number of digits Time proportional to the number of 7’s Both 3’s and 7’s “Pop out” Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

62 Contrast Creates Pop-out
Color In Information Display, Vis05 4/13/2017 Contrast Creates Pop-out Hue and lightness Lightness only Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

63 Pop-out vs. Distinguishable
Color In Information Display, Vis05 4/13/2017 Pop-out vs. Distinguishable Pop-out Typically, 5-6 distinct values simultaneously Up to 9 under controlled conditions Distinguishable 20 easily for reasonable sized stimuli More if in a controlled context Usually need a legend Get some Tableau examples Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

64 Radio Spectrum Map (33 colors)
Color In Information Display, Vis05 4/13/2017 Radio Spectrum Map (33 colors) Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

65 Distinguishable on Inspection
Color In Information Display, Vis05 4/13/2017 Distinguishable on Inspection Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

66 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Tableau Color Example Color palettes How many? Algorithmic? Basic colors (regular and pastel) Extensible? Customizable? Color appearance As a function of size As a function of background Robust and reliable color names Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

67 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Tableau Colors Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

68 Maximum hue separation
Color In Information Display, Vis05 4/13/2017 Maximum hue separation Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

69 Analogous, yet distinct
Color In Information Display, Vis05 4/13/2017 Analogous, yet distinct Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

70 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Sequential Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

71 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

72 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Color Names Basic names (Berlin & Kay) Linguistic study of names Similar names Similar evolution Many different languages black white gray red green blue yellow orange purple brown pink Perceptual primaries Not necessarily tied to names, but names are tied to memory Memory for precise color is poor, however. Distinct colors = distinct names? Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

73 Distinct, but hard to name
Color In Information Display, Vis05 4/13/2017 Distinct, but hard to name Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

74 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Color Names Research Selection by name Berk, Brownston & Kaufman, 1982 Meier, et. al. 2003 Image recoloring Saito, et. al. Labels in visualization D’Zmura, Cowan (pop out conditions) Healey & Booth (automatic selection) Web experiment Moroney, et. al. 2003 World Color Survey (Kay & Cook) Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

75 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 To Measure Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

76 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Data to Color Types of data values Nominal, ordinal, numeric Qualitative, sequential, diverging Types of color scales Hue scale Nominal (labels) Cyclic (learned order) Lightness or saturation scales Ordered scales Lightness best for high frequency More = darker (or more saturated) Most accurate if quantized These are the principles that provide the best mappings Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

77 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Color Scales Long history in graphics and visualization Ware, Robertson et. al Levkowitz et. al Rheingans PRAVDA Color Rogowitz and Treinish IBM Research Cartography Cynthia Brewer ColorBrewer PRAVDA color Rule-based system Includes spatial frequency Add more recent references? Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

78 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Different Scales Rogowitz & Treinish, “How not to lie with visualization” Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

79 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Density Map Lightness scale Lightness scale with hue and chroma variation Hue scale with lightness variation Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

80 Phase Diagrams (hue scale)
Color In Information Display, Vis05 4/13/2017 Phase Diagrams (hue scale) Singularities occur where all colors meet The optical singularities of bianisotropic crystals, by M. V. Berry Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

81 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Phases of the Tides White line is path of Magellan Figure 1.9. Cotidal chart. Tide phases relative to Greenwich are plotted for all the world’s oceans. Phase progresses from red to orange to yellow to green to blue to purple. The lines converge on anphidromic points, singularities on the earth’s surface where there is no defined tide. [Winfree, 1987 #1195 , p. 17]. Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

82 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Brewer Scales Nominal scales Distinct hues, but similar emphasis Sequential scale Vary in lightness and saturation Vary slightly in hue Diverging scale Complementary sequential scales Neutral at “zero” Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

83 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Thematic Maps US Census Map Thematic map Mapping Census 2000: The Geography of U.S. Diversity Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

84 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Brewer’s Categories Designed to be quantized. Refinement in the diverging scale: Do you want to show relative or absolute Sequential and diverging can be used for all numerical data Cynthia Brewer, Pennsylvania State University Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

85 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Color Brewer Discussion with Cindy. CMYK specification. Note selections for simultaneous contrast. Hue shift helps with that. Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

86 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Tableau Color Example Color scales for encoding data Displayed as charts and graphs Quantized or continuous Issues Color ramps based on Brewer’s principles Not single hue/chroma varying in lightness Create a ramp of the “same color” Legible different than distinguishable Center, balance of diverging ramps Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

87 Heat Map (default ramp)
Color In Information Display, Vis05 4/13/2017 Heat Map (default ramp) Skewed Data Slightly negative Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

88 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Full Range Skewed Data Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

89 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Stepped Skewed Data Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

90 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Threshold Skewed Data Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

91 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Color and Shading Shape is defined by lightness (shading) “Color” (hue, saturation) labels CIC talk, about conventions CT image (defines shape) PET color highlights tumor Image courtesy of Siemens Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

92 Color Overlay (Temperature)
Color In Information Display, Vis05 4/13/2017 Color Overlay (Temperature) 3D line integral convolution to visualize 3D flow (LIC). Color varies from red to yellow with increasing temperature line integral convolution to visualize 3D flow Victoria Interrante and Chester Grosch, U. Minnesota Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

93 Multivariate Color Sequences
Color In Information Display, Vis05 4/13/2017 Multivariate Color Sequences Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

94 Multi-dimensional Scatter plot
Color In Information Display, Vis05 4/13/2017 Multi-dimensional Scatter plot Variable 1, 2  X, Y Variable 3, 4, 5  R, G, B p. 146 Ware Ware and Beatty 1988 Color helps clustering But can be misleading; should double-check with another technique Using Color Dimensions to Display Data Dimensions Beatty and Ware Do people interpret color blends as sums of variables? Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

95 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Color Weaves 6 variables = 6 hues, which vary in brightness Additive mixture (blend) Spatial texture (weave) Weaving versus Blending (APGV06 and SIGGRAPH poster) Haleh Hagh-Shenas, Victoria Interrante, Christopher Healey and Sunghee Kim Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

96 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Brewer System Brewer’s Color Schemes web page Show binary scheme Show qualitative scheme Show sequential scheme Show sequential scheme Munsell chart Show diverging scheme Show diverging scheme Munsell chart Color Brewer web page Diverging schemes vary between a common light colors and two darker hues Two variations: light color a gray vs. not a gray Sequential schemes Gray 1-hue transition Three hue-transition Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

97 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Brewer Examples Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

98 To Represent or Imitate Reality
Color In Information Display, Vis05 4/13/2017 To Represent or Imitate Reality Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

99 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Illustrative Color Gray’s Anatomy of the Human Body   Map of Point Reyes Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

100 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 ThemeView (original) Courtesy of Pacific Northwest National Laboratories Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

101 ThemeScape (commercial)
Color In Information Display, Vis05 4/13/2017 ThemeScape (commercial) Courtesy of Cartia Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

102 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 To Enliven or Decorate Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

103 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Which has more information? Which would you rather look at? Visualization of isoelectron density surfaces around molecules Marc Levoy (1988) Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

104 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 More Tufte Principles Limit the use of bright colors Small bright areas, dull backgrounds Use the colors found in nature Familiar, naturally harmonious Use grayed colors for backgrounds Quiet, versatile Create color unity Repeat, mingle, interweave “Loud, unbearable effects when they stand unrelieved over large areas adjacent to each other, but extraordinary effects can be achieved when they are used sparingly on or between dull background tones” Note suggestion from Delle Maxwell also Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

105 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Controlling Value Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

106 Get it right in black & white
Color In Information Display, Vis05 4/13/2017 Get it right in black & white Value Perceived lightness/darkness Controlling value primary rule for design Value defines shape No edge without lightness difference No shading without lightness variation Value difference (contrast) Defines legibility Controls attention Creates layering Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

107 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Controls Legibility Add some slides showing the effect of an edge colorusage.arc.nasa.gov Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

108 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Legibility Drop Shadows Drop Shadow Drop shadow adds edge Primary colors on black Primary colors on white Add some slides showing the effect of an edge Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

109 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Readability If you can’t use color wisely, it is best to avoid it entirely Above all, do no harm If you can’t use color wisely, it is best to avoid it entirely Above all, do no harm. Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

110 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Why does the logo work? Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

111 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Value Control Rant about luminance controls Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

112 Legibility and Contrast
Color In Information Display, Vis05 4/13/2017 Legibility and Contrast Legibility Function of contrast and spatial frequency “Psychophysics of Reading” Legge, et. al. Legibility standards 5:1 contrast for legibility (ISO standard) 3:1 minimum legibility 10:1 recommended for small text How do we specify contrast? Ratios of foreground to background luminance Different specifications for different patterns Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

113 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Contrast and Layering Value contrast creates layering Context Normal Urgent Context Normal Urgent Context Normal Urgent colorusage.arc.nasa.gov Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

114 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 What Defines Layering? Perceptual features Contrast (especially lightness) Color, shape and texture Task and attention Attention affects perception Display characteristics Brightness, contrast, “gamma” Emergency Emergency Emergency Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

115 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Contrast General formulation Luminance difference (Lf , Lb) Depends on adaptation and size Small symbols, solid background (Weber) C = (Lf –Lb)/Lb Adapted to background Textures, high frequency patterns (Michelson) C = (Lf –Lb)/(Lf +Lb) Adapted to average Luminance is intensity modulated by wavelength sensitivity Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

116 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Contrast (continued) Contrast using L* 1 is ideally visible 10 is easily visible 20 is legible for text Reasons to use a light background More like a reflective surface Contrast metrics are more accurate Easier to look at in mixed environment Dark background better for dark environments L* is the same as Munsell Value, computed as a function of L Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

117 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Grid Example Grid sits unobtrusively in the background Grid sits in foreground, obscuring map Great Grids: How and Why? (APGV06 and SIGGRAPH poster) Maureen Stone, Lyn Bartram and Diane Gromala Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting

118 Color In Information Display, Vis05
4/13/2017 Additional Resources My website Final copy of slides, references A Field Guide to Digital Color A.K. Peters Maureen Stone, StoneSoup Consulting


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