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Introduction to Cartographic Design Richard Taketa Associate Professor Department of Geography San Jose State University.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Cartographic Design Richard Taketa Associate Professor Department of Geography San Jose State University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Cartographic Design Richard Taketa Associate Professor Department of Geography San Jose State University

2 Basic Map Design Visual organization –Improve legibility –Focus attention Maps do not have a natural sequence –Design can guide the map reader Make the reader’s job easier

3 Today’s Design Topics Figure-ground Layout Generalization Symbolization

4 Figure-Ground

5 Graphic characteristics Some elements as figures Other elements as background

6 Figure-Ground Can’t easily distinguish elements

7 Figure-Ground How people see graphics Elements –Contrast –Contour –Closure –Enclosure Visual organization

8 Contrast More contrast = stronger figure

9 Contrast Not just the darker element

10 Contour Sharper contour (edge) = stronger figure

11 Closure Closed element = stronger figure

12 Enclosure More enclosed = stronger figure

13 Create Visual Levels

14 Figure-Ground

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18 Layout

19 Arrangement of map elements Objectives –Visual balance –Structure

20 Centering is a good starting point...

21 Poor balance = harder to read

22 Assign appropriate emphasis

23 Text Placement: Figural Object

24 Text Placement: Background Object

25 Text Placement: Enhance Pattern

26 Text Placement: Hide Pattern

27 Generalization

28 Level of detail Function of –Purpose –Scale –Graphic limits –Quality of data

29 Generalization Simplification Selection Classification Symbolization Induction

30 GIS Data Detailed

31 Detail a Problem for Symbolization

32 Simplifying for Clarity Loss of information…negligible

33 Detail Changes with Scale

34 Symbolization

35 Most maps involve abstract symbols –Represent features of interest –Can’t always show them as they actually look

36 Graphic Variables Shape Size Color –Hue –Lightness –Saturation Orientation Pattern Texture

37 Levels of Measurement Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio

38 Symbolization & Measurement Shape Size Color Hue Lightness Saturation Orientation Pattern Texture NominalOrdinalInterval/Ratio xx x-x x

39 Symbolization

40 Can affect ability to see patterns Complex symbolization and classifications can obscure

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47 Map Design Summary Organize graphic information Provide structure Make the map legible Focus the reader’s attention

48 Guide the reader...

49 Contact Information Richard Taketa Department of Geography San Jose State University One Washington Square San Jose, CA


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