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Introduction to Cartographic Design

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Cartographic Design"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Cartographic Design
Richard Taketa Associate Professor Department of Geography San Jose State University

2 Basic Map Design Visual organization Improve legibility
Focus attention Maps do not have a natural sequence Design can guide the map reader Make the reader’s job easier

3 Today’s Design Topics Figure-ground Layout Generalization

4 Figure-Ground

5 Figure-Ground Graphic characteristics Some elements as figures
Other elements as background

6 Can’t easily distinguish elements
Figure-Ground Can’t easily distinguish elements

7 Figure-Ground How people see graphics Elements Contrast Contour
Closure Enclosure Visual organization

8 More contrast = stronger figure

9 Not just the darker element
Contrast Not just the darker element

10 Sharper contour (edge) = stronger figure

11 Closed element = stronger figure
Closure Closed element = stronger figure

12 More enclosed = stronger figure
Enclosure More enclosed = stronger figure

13 Create Visual Levels

14 Figure-Ground

15 Figure-Ground

16 Figure-Ground

17 Figure-Ground

18 Layout

19 Layout Arrangement of map elements Objectives Visual balance Structure

20 Centering is a good starting point...

21 Poor balance = harder to read

22 Assign appropriate emphasis

23 Text Placement: Figural Object

24 Text Placement: Background Object

25 Text Placement: Enhance Pattern

26 Text Placement: Hide Pattern

27 Generalization

28 Generalization Level of detail Function of Purpose Scale
Graphic limits Quality of data

29 Generalization Simplification Selection Classification Symbolization

30 GIS Data Detailed

31 Detail a Problem for Symbolization

32 Simplifying for Clarity
Loss of information…negligible

33 Detail Changes with Scale

34 Symbolization

35 Symbolization Most maps involve abstract symbols
Represent features of interest Can’t always show them as they actually look

36 Graphic Variables Shape Size Color Hue Lightness Saturation
Orientation Pattern Texture

37 Levels of Measurement Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio

38 Symbolization & Measurement
Nominal Ordinal Interval/Ratio x x x x - Shape Size Color Hue Lightness Saturation Orientation Pattern Texture

39 Symbolization

40 Symbolization Can affect ability to see patterns
Complex symbolization and classifications can obscure







47 Map Design Summary Organize graphic information Provide structure
Make the map legible Focus the reader’s attention

48 Guide the reader...

49 Contact Information Richard Taketa Department of Geography San Jose State University One Washington Square San Jose, CA

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