Presentation on theme: "Culture Regions Urban culture regions Cultural diffusion in the city"— Presentation transcript:
1 Culture Regions Urban culture regions Cultural diffusion in the city The cultural ecology of the cityCultural integration and models of the cityUrban landscapes
2 Six processes at work in the city Concentration — differential distribution of population and economic activities in a city, and the manner in which they have focused on the center of the cityDecentralization — the location of activity away from the central citySegregation — the sorting out of population groups according to conscious preferences for associating with one group or another through bias and prejudice
3 Six processes at work in the city Specialization — similar to segregation only refers to the economic sectorInvasion — traditionally, a process through which a new activity or social group enters an areaSuccession — a new use or social group gradually replaces the former occupantsThe following models were constructed to examine single cities and do not necessarily apply to metropolitan coalescences so common in today’s world
4 Concentric zone model Developed in 1925 by Ernest W. Burgess A model with five zones.
6 Concentric zone model A model with five zones. Zone 1 The central business district (CBD)Distinct pattern of income levels out to the commuters’ zoneExtension of trolley lines had a lot to do with this pattern)
7 Concentric zone model A model with five zones. Zone 2 Characterized by mixed pattern of industrial and residential land useRooming houses, small apartments, and tenements attract the lowest income segmentOften includes slums and skid rows, many ethnic ghettos began hereUsually called the transition zone
9 Concentric zone model A model with five zones. Zone 3 The “workingmen’s quarters”Solid blue-collar, located close to factories of zones 1 and 2More stable than the transition zone around the CBDOften characterized by ethnic neighborhoods — blocks of immigrants who broke free from the ghettosSpreading outward because of pressure from transition zone and because blue-collar workers demanded better housing
10 Concentric zone model A model with five zones. Zone 4 Middle class area of “better housing”Established city dwellers, many of whom moved outward with the first streetcar networkCommute to work in the CBD
11 Concentric zone model A model with five zones. Zone 5 Consists of higher-income families clustered together in older suburbsLocated either on the farthest extension of the trolley or commuter railroad linesSpacious lots and large housesFrom here the rich pressed outward to avoid congestion and social heterogeneity caused by expansion of zone 4
12 Concentric zone modelTheory represented the American city in a new stage of developmentBefore the 1870s, cities such as New York had mixed neighborhoods where merchants’ stores and sweatshop factories were intermingled with mansions and hovelsRich and poor, immigrant and native-born, rubbed shoulders in the same neighborhoods
13 Concentric zone modelIn Chicago, Burgess’s home town, the great fire of 1871 leveled the coreThe result of rebuilding was a more explicit social patterningChicago became a segregated city with a concentric patternThis was the city Burgess used for his modelThe actual map of the residential area does not exactly match his simplified concentric zones
15 Concentric zone model Critics of the model Pointed out even though portions of each zone did exist, rarely were they linked to totally surround the cityBurgess countered there were distinct barriers, such as old industrial centers, preventing the completion of the arcOthers felt Burgess, as a sociologist, overemphasized residential patterns and did not give proper credit to other land uses
16 Sector modelHomer Hoyt, an economist, presented his sector model in 1939Maintained high-rent districts were instrumental in shaping land-use structure of the cityBecause these areas were reinforced by transportation routes, the pattern of their development was one of sectors or wedges
18 Sector modelHoyt suggested high-rent sector would expand according to four factorsMoves from its point of origin near the CBD, along established routes of travel, toward another nucleus of high-rent buildingsWill progress toward high ground or along waterfronts, when these areas are not used for industryWill move along the route of fastest transportationWill move toward open space
19 Sector modelAs high-rent sectors develop, areas between them are filled inMiddle-rent areas move directly next to them, drawing on their prestigeLow-rent areas fill remaining areasMoving away from major routes of travel, rents go from high to lowThere are distinct patterns in today’s cities that echo Hoyt’s modelHe had the advantage of writing later than Burgess — in the age of the automobile
20 Sector modelToday, major transportation arteries are generally freewaysSurrounding areas are often low-rent districtsContrary to Hoyt’s theoryFreeways were imposed on existing urban patternOften built through low-rent areas where land was cheaper and political opposition was less
21 Multiple nuclei modelSuggested by Chauncey Harris and Edward Ullman in 1945Maintained a city developed with equal intensity around various pointsThe CBD was not the sole generator of change
23 Multiple nuclei model Equal weight must be given to: An old community on city outskirts around which new suburbs clusteredAn industrial district that grew from an original waterfront locationLow-income area that began because of some social stigma attached to site
24 Multiple nuclei model Rooted their model in four geographic principles Certain activities require highly specialized facilitiesAccessible transportation for a factoryLarge areas of open land for a housing tractCertain activities cluster because they profit from mutual associationCertain activities repel each other and will not be found in the same areaCertain activities could not make a profit if they paid the high rent of the most desirable locations
25 Multiple nuclei modelMore than any other model takes into account the varied factors of decentralization in the structure of the North American cityMany criticize the concentric zone and sector theories as being rather deterministic because they emphasize one single factorMultiple nuclei theory encompasses a larger spectrum of economic and social possibilitiesMost urban scholars feel Harris and Ullman succeeded in trying to integrate the disparate element of culture into workable model
26 Feminist critiquesMost criticisms of above models focus or their inability to account for all the complexities of urban formsAll three models assume urban patterns are shaped by economic trade-offs between:Desire to live in suburban neighborhood appropriate to one’s economic statusNeed to live close to the city center for employment opportunities
27 Feminist critiquesModels assume only one person is a wage worker — the male headIgnore dual-income families and households headed by single womenWomen contend with a larger array of factors in making locational decisionsDistances to child care and school facilitiesOther important services important for different members of a familyTraditional models that assume a spatial separation of workplace and home are no longer appropriate
28 Feminist critiquesResults of a study of activity patterns of working parentsWomen living in a city have access to wider array of employment opportunitiesBetter able to combine domestic and wage labor than women in suburbsMany middle class women choose a gentrified inner-city location to liveHope this area will offer amenities of suburbs—good schools and safetyAccommodate their activity patternsOther research has shown some businesses locate offices in suburbs because they rely on labor of highly educated, middle class women spatially constrained by domestic work
29 Feminist critiquesMost women seek employment closer to home than men even those without small childrenCriticism of models by womenMost families require two real wage earnersModels tend to reflect an urban structure that isolates women who do not participate in the urban labor marketRaises problems of timing and organization for those who combine waged and domestic laborCreated by men who shared certain assumptions about how cities operate, and represent a partial view of urban life
30 Feminist critiquesOther theories incorporated alternative perspective of female scholarsStudies using mostly female students, focused on “race,” ethnicity, class, and housing in ChicagoEmphasized role of landlords in shaping discrimination in the housing marketStudy by urban historian Raymond MohlFollows the making of black ghettos in Miami between 1940 and 1960Reveals role of public policy decisions, landlordism, and discrimination
31 Apartheid and post-apartheid city Apartheid —state-sanctioned policies of segregating “races”Intended effects of these policies on urban form are delineated in next slide
33 Apartheid and post-apartheid city Important components of the apartheid statePolicies of economic and political discrimination were formalized under National Party rule after 1948Government passed two major pieces of legislation in 1950First was the Population Registration Act — mandated classification of population into discrete racial groups: white, black, and coloredSecond called the Group Areas Act — goal was to divide cities into sections that could be inhabited only by members of one population group
34 Apartheid and post-apartheid city Important components of the apartheid statePolicies of economic and political discrimination were formalized under National Party rule after 1948Government passed two major pieces of legislation in 1950First was the Population Registration Act — mandated classification of population into discrete racial groups: white, black, and coloredSecond called the Group Areas Act — goal was to divide cities into sections that could be inhabited only by members of one population group
35 Apartheid and post-apartheid city Important components of the apartheid stateGovernment passed two major pieces of legislation in 1950Effects of the two actsDowntowns were restricted to whitesAreas for non-whites were peripheral, restricted, and often without urban services—transportation or shoppingLarge numbers of non-whites were displaced with little or no compensationBuffer zones were created between residential to curtail contact
36 Apartheid and post-apartheid city Model apartheid city most closely resembles the sector modelCities were artificially divided into discrete areasNon-white populations suffered the consequencesNotorious example — Sophiatown in JohannesburgRemains to be seen what form the post-apartheid will take
37 The Soviet and post-Soviet city Cities were shaped by the Bolshevik revolution of 1917Socialist principles called for the nationalization of all resourcesEconomics would no longer dictate land-use—allocation planners wouldNew ideals had profound effect on urban form of Soviet cities
38 The Soviet and post-Soviet city Soviet policies attempted to create a more equitable arrangement of land usesRelative absence of residential segregation according to socioeconomic statusEquitable housing facilities for most citizensRelatively equal accessibility to sites for distribution of consumer itemsCultural amenities located and priced to be accessible to as many people as possibleAdequate and accessible public transportation
39 The Soviet and post-Soviet city The situation outlined above was less than idealBy the 1970s and 1980s many Soviets realized their standards of living were well below those in the westCentralized planning system was not successfulIn the late 1980s economic restructuring introduced perestroykaThe post-Soviet cityMarket forces are again the dominant force in shaping urban land usesPace and scale of urban change are unprecedented
41 The Soviet and post-Soviet city The privatization of the housing market —example of MoscowPrivate housing grew from 9.3 percent in 1990 to 49.6 percent in 1994Does not mean better housing for all peopleMany people cannot afford the high pricesApartments are particularly expensive in the center of MoscowMost people have no choice but to live in communal apartments from the old Soviet system
42 The Soviet and post-Soviet city Cities are taking on the look of Western citiesDowntowns now have most expensive landIncreasingly dominated by retailing outlets of familiar Western companiesTall office buildings housing financial activities are replacing industrial buildingsProcesses akin to gentrification are taking place in city centers displacing residents to peripheral portions of the citiesThe outcome of the new changes is not certain and will be continued to be studied
43 Latin American modelMore complex because of influence of local cultures on urban developmentDifficult to group cities of the developing world into one or two comprehensive modelsLatin American model is shown in next slide
45 Latin American modelGeneralized scheme both sensitive to local cultures and articulates pervasive influence of international forces, both Western and non-WesternIn contrast to today’s cities in the U.S., the CBDs of Latin American cities are vibrant, dynamic, and increasingly specializedA reliance on public transit that serves the central cityExistence of a large and relatively affluent population closest to CBD
46 Latin American modelOutside the CBD, the dominant component is a commercial spine surrounded bythe elite residential sectorThese two zones are interrelated and called the spine/sectorEssentially an extension of the CBD down a major boulevardHere are the city’s important amenities — parks, theaters, restaurants, and even golf coursesStrict zoning and land controls ensure continuation of these activities, protecting elite from incursions by low-income squatters
47 Latin American model Inner-city zone of maturity Less prestigious collection of traditional colonial homes and upgraded self-built homesHomes occupied by people unable to participate in the spine/sectorArea of upward mobility
48 Latin American model Zone of accretion Diverse collection of housing types, sizes, and qualityTransition between zone of maturity and next zoneArea of ongoing construction and changeSome neighborhoods have city-provided utilitiesOther blocks must rely on water and butane delivery trucks for essential services
49 Latin American model Zone of peripheral squatter settlements Where most recent migrants are foundFringe contrasts with affluent and comfortable suburbs that ring North American citiesHouses often built from scavenged materialsGives the appearance of a refugee camp
50 Latin American model Zone of peripheral squatter settlements Surrounded by landscape bare of vegetation that was cut for fuel and building materialsStreets unpaved, open trenches carry wastes, residents carry water from long distances, electricity is often “pirated”Residents who work have a long commuteMany are transformed through time into permanent neighborhoods
51 Culture Regions Urban culture regions Cultural diffusion in the city The cultural ecology of the cityCultural integration and models of the cityUrban landscapes
52 Themes in cityscape study Landscape dynamicsBecause North Americans are a restless people, settlements are cauldrons of changeDowntown activities creeping into residential areasDeteriorated farmland on city outskirtsOlder buildings demolished for newWhen visual clues are mapped and analyzed, they offer evidence for current of change
54 Themes in cityscape study Equally interesting is to note where change in not occurringAn unchanging landscape conveys an important messagePart of the city is stagnant because it is removed those forces effecting change in other partsConscious attempt by local residents to inhibit changePreserve open space by resisting suburban development.Preserving a historical landmark
56 Landscape Dynamics: Alexandria, Virginia Cities grow through intensification of already urbanized areas and by extensification into rural areas.This new development is on agricultural land near Washington, DC.Many farmers on urban peripheries, lured by rising land prices, ultimately sell to developers
57 Landscape Dynamics: Alexandria, Virginia As a mixture of open land and urban structures, this is a good example of leapfrog, or checkerboard development.Moreover, the houses are being sold as “Gentlemen Farms,” a landscape of the elite.
58 Themes in cityscape study The city as palimpsestBecause city landscapes change, they offer a field for uncovering remnants of the pastPalimpsestAn old parchment used over and over for written messagesBefore a new message could be written, the old was erased, but rarely were all previous characters and words completely obliteratedThe mosaic of old and new is called a palimpsest — used by geographers to describe visual mixture of old and new in cultural landscapes
60 City as Palimpsest: Singapore Like many cities, Singapore’s landscape is one of historic artifacts amidst the contemporary fabric. This is the core of old Singapore, as developed by the British after Strategically situated on the Straits of Melaka, the city functioned as an important entreport in Southeast Asia attracting a population of Chinese, Indians, Malays, and Europeans.
61 City as Palimpsest: Singapore Trade offices, shophouses, and godowns (warehouses) lined the Singapore river and commercial activity choked the area. After Singapore became independent in , the combination of rapid population growth and aging infrastructure called for a renewal plan. Old housing stock and godowns were razed to be replaced by modern public housing, malls and office buildings.
62 City as Palimpsest: Singapore In the 1980s, people realized that they were destroying the character of the city and efforts were made to preserve and restore some of old Singapore. Waterfront shophouses have been “boutiqued” into clubs and restaurants. Here, remnants of the past stand in the shadow of the symbols fo the future: The Bank of the People’s Republic of China (left) and the Telecom building.
63 Themes in cityscape study Symbolic cityscapesLandscapes contain more than literal messages about economic functionsLoaded with figurative or metaphorical meaningSubjectivized emotion, memories, and content essential to the social fabricTo some, skyscrapers are more than high-rise buildingsHistoric landscapes help people define themselves in timeEstablish social continuity with the pastCodify a forgotten, yet sometimes idealized, past
64 Themes in cityscape study D.W. Minig maintains there are three highly symbolized townscapes in theUnited StatesThe New England villageMain Street of Middle AmericaCalifornia SuburbiaEach is based upon an actual landscape of a particular regionEach has influenced the shaping of the American scene over broader areas
66 Themes in cityscape study Cultural landscape is important vehicle for constructing and maintaining social and ethnic distinctionsConspicuous consumption is a major means for conveying social identityElite landscapes are created through large-lot zoning, imitation country estates, and detailed ornamental iconographyCultural geographers are interested in how townscapes and landmarks take on symbolic significanceQuestion whether idealizations are based on some sort of reality or fabricated from diverse predilectionsInterested in how to assess the impact of symbolic landscapesMessages inherent in loaded landscapes determine how we treat our environment-bow it is managed, changed, or protected
68 Pigeon Problems: Rome, Italy Pigeons, starlings, and sparrows thrive in urban environments. Feral pigeons, descended from rock doves, favoring cliff-face roosts, like to nest in similar building niches. Accumulated droppings raise serious problems. They corrode stonework, particularly limestone, and many historic buildings and statues have been irreparably damaged.
69 Pigeon Problems: Rome, Italy Fouled pavements are slippery and hazardous to pedestrians. Pigeon excreta, feathers and detritus can block gutters and drains providing a potential health hazard. In many cities today, people are discouraged from feeding pigeons and renovated buildings are fitted with spiked rails to discourage roosting.
70 Themes in cityscape study Perception of the citySocial scientists assume if we know what people see and react to in the city we can design and create a more humane urban environmentKevin Lynch, an urban designer, assumed all residents have a mental map of the cityFigured out ways people could convey their mental map to othersWhat do people react favorably or negatively to?What do they block out?
71 Themes in cityscape study Perception of the cityOn the basis of interviews, Lynch suggested five important elements in mental maps of citiesPathways — threads that hold our maps togetherEdges — tend to define the extremes of our urban visionNodes — any place where important pathways come togetherDistricts — small areas with a common identityLandmarks — reference points that stand out because of shape, height, color, or historic importance
72 Themes in cityscape study Lynch saw some parts of the cities were more legible than othersLegibility comes when urban landscape offers clear pathways, nodes, district, edges, and landmarksLess legible parts of the city do not offer such precise landscapeLynch found some cities more legible than othersJersey City is a city of low legibilityWedged between New York City and NewarkFragmented by railroads and highwaysResidents’ mental maps of Jersey City have large blank areas
73 Themes in cityscape study Distinct ethnic, gender, and age variables to mental maps of citiesOften influence everyday behaviorWomen feel more vulnerable to crime, especially rapeWomen will tend to avoid certain areas of a city at night
74 The new urban landscape Shopping mallsMost are not designed to be seen from the outsideRetail districts of the 18O0s~and early 1900s cities had grand architectural displays along the major boulevardsMalls are often located near an off ramp of a major freewayClose to middle and upper-class residential neighborhoods
75 The new urban landscape Shopping mallsCharacteristic form of malls of the 1960sSimple, linear form, with department stores at each end functioning as anchorsUsually had 20 to 30 smaller shops connecting the two endsIn the 1970s and 1980s, larger malls had a more complex formExample: Mall of America in Bloomington, MinnesotaMalls today are often several stories tall and may have 5 or 6 anchor stores, and up to 400 smaller shops
77 The new urban landscape Office parksOffice buildings no longer need to be located in the center cityDevelopment of communication technologiesMajor interstates connect metropolitan areasCheaper rent in suburban locationsConvenience of easy-access parking and privacy of a separate locationBeing constructed throughout suburban America
78 The new urban landscape Office parksNext slide shows location of office parks in metropolitan AtlantaMany are occupied by regional and national headquarters of large corporations or local sales and professional officesMany offices will locate together and rent or buy space from a land development company to take advantage of economies of scale
80 The new urban landscape Office parksThe use of the term park points to conscious anti-urban imageryTend to be horizontal in shape — three to six stories tallMany are surrounded by a well-landscaped outdoor spaceHuman-made lakes and waterfalls, jogging paths, fitness trails, and picnic tables
82 The new urban landscape Office parksDo remove workers from social diversity of an urban locationMany office parks are located along what have been called high-tech corridors — areas along limited-access highwaysThis new type of commercial landscape is gradually replacing downtowns as the workplace for most Americans
83 The new urban landscape Master-planned communitiesMany newer residential developments on suburban fringes are planned and built as complete neighborhoods by private development companiesInclude architecturally compatible housingHave a variety of recreational facilitiesExploit various land-use restrictions and zoning regulations to maintain control over land values
84 The new urban landscape Master-planned communitiesExample of Weston in south FloridaCovers approximately ten thousand acresLand use is completely regulated within gated area and also along the road system connecting Weston to the interstateShrubbery is planted to shield residents from roadway viewSigns are uniform in style
86 The new urban landscape Festival settingsOften gentrification efforts focus on a multiuse redevelopment scheme built around a particular setting, often one with historical associationWaterfronts are commonly chosen as focal pointsComplexes integrate retailing, office, and entertainment activitiesKnox suggests these developments are “distinctive as new landscape elements merely because of their scale and their consequent ability to stage — or merely to be — the spectacular”
88 Festival Marketplace: Hong Kong Festival settings, both outdoors and indoors, are used to attract customers. There is typically one or more themes with flamboyant flags, signs, music and entertainment. Retail establishments include trendy shops, restaurants, and entertainment facilities.
89 Festival Marketplace: Hong Kong This is one of the several ultra-modern, enclosed malls in Hong Kong. The theme here is the Dragon Boat Festival, held annually in the lunar calendar’s fifth month. This view is from an open, tiered restaurant.
90 The new urban landscape Festival settingsSome festival settings serve as sites for concerts, ethnic festivals, and street performancesAlso focal points for more informal human interactions usually associated with urban lifeIn this sense do perform a vital function in the attempt to revitalize downtownsMassive displays of wealth and consumption often stand in contrast to neighboring areas that have received little benefit from these projects
92 The new urban landscape “Militarized” spaceMeaning the increasing use of space to set up defenses against elements of the city considered undesirableIncludes landscaping development that range from:Lack of street furniture to stop homeless living on the streetsGated and guarded residential communitiesComplete segregation of classes and races’ within the cityAs Davis says, “cities of all sizes are rushing to apply and profit from a formula that links together clustered development, social homogeneity, and a perception of security”Has taken on epic proportions as many big American cities become “militarized” spaces
94 The new urban landscape Decline of public spaceRelated to the increase in “militarized” spaceChange in shopping patterns from downtown to shopping mallsMany city governments have joined with developers to built enclosed walkways above or below city streetsProvides climate-controlled conditionsProvides pedestrians with a “safe” environment to avoid possible confrontations on the street
95 The new urban landscape Decline of public spaceRelated to the increase in “militarized” spaceChange in shopping patterns from downtown to shopping mallsMany city governments have joined with developers to built enclosed walkways above or below city streetsProvides climate-controlled conditionsProvides pedestrians with a “safe” environment to avoid possible confrontations on the streetSome scholars suggest the Internet is a new forum for social and political interaction
97 A New Landmark: London, England This is the high-tech, engineering style (1986) of Lloyd’s of London Insurance building. Designed by Richard Rogers, co-designer of the Pompidou Center in Paris, it stands as a challenge to those in love with the past.
98 A New Landmark: London, England It stimulates controversy and has become a landmark enhancing the legibility of the city. Not only is it made of reflective materials and the glass atrium suspended on central pillars, but much of what is traditionally inside, such as stairways, elevators and lavatories, is now on the outside. It is a building with its guts exposed. The black structure is Barclay’s Bank.