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Evaluating Wayfinding Ability Within Urban Environment Abd Elbaseer A. Mohamed, CUAS.

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Presentation on theme: "Evaluating Wayfinding Ability Within Urban Environment Abd Elbaseer A. Mohamed, CUAS."— Presentation transcript:

1 Evaluating Wayfinding Ability Within Urban Environment Abd Elbaseer A. Mohamed, CUAS

2 Outline  Overview - Urban Legibility - Ineligibility - Related Works In Legibility and Intelligibility  Method and Findings - Mapping Case Studies According to Lynchian Method - Mapping Case Studies According To Space Syntax Technique - The Juxtaposition Between Legibility And Intelligibility

3 Visual Form  Kevin Lynch in The Image of The City (1960, MIT Press) categorized urban Legibility into: - Paths: highways, railroads, canals. - Edges: rivers, shores, railroad cuts. - Districts: commercial, residential, industrial. - Nodes: squares, intersections. - Landmarks: Pyramids, Empire state building. Evaluating Wayfinding Ability Within Urban Environment SSS8 2012 Legibility: “…the ease with which a city's parts can be recognized and organized into a coherent pattern” Urban Legibility The visual form of Boston as seen in the field. (Lynch, 1960)

4 Figure 3.12.a. Intelligible spatial layout (source: Kim Y O, 1999 ) Figure 3.12.b. Unintelligible spatial layout (source: Kim Y O, 1999) Intelligibility Evaluating Wayfinding Ability Within Urban Environment SSS8 2012 The intelligibility is defined as “ the degree to which what can be seen and experienced locally in the system allows the large–scale system to be learnt without conscious efforts” ( Hillier, 1996: 171). Intelligible spatial layout (Kim Y O, 1999) Unintelligible spatial layout (Kim Y O, 1999)

5 Related Works in Legibility and Intelligibility Evaluating Wayfinding Ability Within Urban Environment SSS8 2012  [ Dalton and Bafna, 2003]  [kim and Penn, 2004]  [Long and Baran, 2006]  [Turner, 2007]

6 Case Studies Evaluating Wayfinding Ability Within Urban Environment SSS8 2012 Cairo CBDMaadiH eliopolis

7 MaadiCairo CBDHeliopolisCriterion It was built in English countryside cottage style. Its unique villas reflects its distinct character. It has a unique western-style designed in a combination of art deco, art nouveau, baroque and, a little later, neo-Islamic styles. It looks as a part of Europe. It has a unique character of Islamic look in facades that were ornamented by arcades. Character It has a radical urban fabric with rigid grid pattern. It has a French touch in its layout like Hussman planning of Paris. It has a radical urban fabric. It has a western urban layout presented in radical urban fabric with rigid grid pattern Urban fabric It is filled with Americans, plus an assortment of wealthy Egyptians, Gulf Arabs, and other nationalities that together comprise a distinct and broad international community. It shows a variety of residential districts ranging from slum areas within which low or middle class live to distinct housing as upper class and collar bills live. It is filled mostly with cosmopolitans and native aristocratic Egyptians. Social aspects Results of a questionnaire distributed amongst 70 subjects. They were asked at what area they had most difficulties in wayfinding. %CountsArea 3021Heliopolis 8157Maadi 4834Cairo CBD

8 Kevin Lynch’s mapping methods Field Reconnaissance Mental map Interviews and questionnaires Measuring Urban Legibility physical form map Legibility Evaluating Wayfinding Ability Within Urban Environment SSS8 2012 Mapping Case Studies according to Lynchian Method

9 Cairo CBD image as seen in the fieldCairo CBD image as derived from sketch maps Mapping Case Studies according to Lynchian Method

10 Cairo CBD problems Mapping Case Studies according to Lynchian Method

11 Maadi image as seen in the fieldMaadi image as derived from sketch maps Mapping Case Studies according to Lynchian Method

12 Maadi problems Mapping Case Studies according to Lynchian Method

13 Heliopolis image as seen in the fieldHeliopolis image as derived from sketch maps Mapping Case Studies according to Lynchian Method

14 Heliopolis problems Mapping Case Studies according to Lynchian Method

15 HeliopolisMaadiCairo CBDDesign element Low ModeratePath ModerateHighLowEdge ModerateLowHighLandmark Moderate HighNode Low District Table 2. Overall Legibility Score for the case study areas. Legibility of the five elements for each area is derived form mental maps and interview responses using the following: High: 50or more respondents thought the element had high legibility. Moderate: 50or more respondents thought the element had moderate legibility. Low: 50or more respondents thought the element had low legibility. Mapping Case Studies according to Lynchian Method

16 Mapping Case Studies according to Space Syntax Technique Global & Local Integration Values Cairo CBD ConnectivityIntegration R-3Global Integration Evaluating Wayfinding Ability Within Urban Environment SSS8 2012

17 Mapping Case Studies according to Space Syntax Technique Cairo CBD Map showing degree of appearance of axis in mental maps. The map of the high-integrated axis. Evaluating Wayfinding Ability Within Urban Environment SSS8 2012

18 Mapping Case Studies according to Space Syntax Technique Global & Local Integration Values Maadi ConnectivityIntegration R-3Global Integration Evaluating Wayfinding Ability Within Urban Environment SSS8 2012

19 Mapping Case Studies according to Space Syntax Technique Evaluating Wayfinding Ability Within Urban Environment SSS8 2012 Maadi Map showing degree of appearance of axis in mental maps. The map of the high-integrated axis.

20 Mapping Case Studies according to Space Syntax Technique Global & Local Integration Values Heliopolis ConnectivityIntegration R-3Global Integration Evaluating Wayfinding Ability Within Urban Environment SSS8 2012

21 Mapping Case Studies according to Space Syntax Technique Heliopolis Map showing degree of appearance of axis in mental maps, Heliopolis. The map of the high-integrated axis, Heliopolis. Evaluating Wayfinding Ability Within Urban Environment SSS8 2012

22 Intelligibility scattergram, Maadi Synergy scattergram, Maadi Intelligibility scattergram, Cairo CBD Synergy scattergram, Cairo CBD Intelligibility scattergram, Heliopolis Synergy scattergram, Heliopolis

23 Findings  The spatial configuration of an environment and spatial cognition are closely related.  There is a juxtaposition between legibility and intelligibility; and there is a positive relation between them.  In a special case like Maadi where longer and shorter axial lines have the same width, the results of spatial analysis using axial map won't be accurate and therefore space syntax methodology won't be appropriate for analyzing this kind of axial maps. This means that road hierarchy enhances wayfinding ability, and that Cities should be legible visually and structurally for better wayfinding ability. Evaluating Wayfinding Ability Within Urban Environment SSS8 2012

24 Special Thanks to DAAD and CNRD


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