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Vascular Trauma Carla Fisher October 27, 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "Vascular Trauma Carla Fisher October 27, 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 Vascular Trauma Carla Fisher October 27, 2009

2 Trauma Algorithm Airway Breathing Circulation 60 – carotid
70 – femoral 80 - radial

3 Signs of Arterial Injury
Hard Signs (Operation Mandatory) Soft Signs (Further Evaluation Desirable) Pulsatile hemorrhage Proximity Significant hemorrhage Minor hemorrhage Thrill or bruit Small hematoma Acute ischemia Associated nerve injury Soft signs….angio?

4 Injury patterns Penetrating Blunt
Fully transected vs partially transected vessel Blunt Small intimal flap vs transmural damage Free vs contained bleed (pseudoaneurysm) Arteriovenous fistula Iatrogenic injury Fully transected may retract and thrombose, partially may bleed more

5 General Definitive therapy vs damage control Open vs endovascular
Control hemorrhage Maintain distal perfusion Open vs endovascular Trauma patients tend to be healthier and younger than most vascular patients ? Ligate artery

6 What are your options? Observation Ligation Lateral suture
Ok to ligate external carotid, celiac axis, internal iliac Maintain one major vessel to extremity Lateral suture End-to-end anastomosis Interposition grafts Vein Artery PTFE Dacron Extra-anatomic bypass Interventional radiology

7 Endovascular management
Can be considered in hemodynamically stable patient with no active bleeding Examples: Access to vertebral artery Repair renal artery injury Repair subclavian artery injury Repair of blunt injury to descending thoracic aorta Benefits are obvious: low morbidity, better in patients with compromised physiology Good for inaccessible sites Lack of prospective trials/poor long term follow up

8 Operative Principles Obtain proximal and, if possible, distal control

9 Neck Injuries Major vascular injury occurs in 1 of every 4 patients with penetrating cervical injury Airway, airway, airway Asymptomatic patients with penetrating injury to zones require 4 vessel angiography Asymptomatic patients with zone 2 injuries may get angiography or immediate surgical exploration

10 Blunt Cerebrovascular Injuries
Incidence of clinically significant injuries to carotid/vertebral arteries is 1-3 per patients admitted to trauma center With increased screening protocols, incidence of injury is 1% Usually an intimal tear Most patients are treating with systemic anticoagulation Again, f/u is key Results with endovascular repair unclear and disturbing

11 Thoracic Vascular Injuries
Choice of incision If unsure about location of injury, anterolateral thoractomy Just below nipples in men; below retracted breast in women. On R side consider ex lap for liver injury first.

12 Thoracic vascular injury – choice of incision
Median sternotomy Ascending aorta Innominate artery Proximal R subclavian artery Innominate vein Proximal L common carotid Left thoracotomy L subclavian artery Descending aorta Distal R subclavian artery – midclavicular incision Median sternotomy-R sided vessels Thoracotomy- L subclavian

13 Management of specific thoracic injuries
Pulmonary hilar injuries Mortality is 70% Usually pneumonectomy with linear stapler is indicated

14 Blunt Thoracic Aortic Injury
Cause of 10-15% of motor vehicle deaths Most commonly seen injury to proximal descending thoracic aorta Patients invariably have associated injuries: 50% head 46% rib fxs 38% lung contusions 20-35% orthopedic injuries

15 Blunt thoracic aortic injuries
Mechanism is commonly sudden deceleration with shear force between mobile and fixed portion of the thoracic aorta A contained injury is almost NEVER the cause of hemodynamic instability – look elsewhere!

16 CXR findings Widened mediastinum (>8cm)
Obscured or indistinct aortic knob Deviation of L mainstem bronchus Obliteration of aortopulmonary window

17 Operative management of blunt thoracic aortic injury
Traditional therapy has always been prompt operative repair Consider non operative therapy with severe head injury or multi organ trauma Estimated risk for free rupture is 1%/hour Control BP and afterload reduction Remember follow up imaging when necessary

18 Endovascular repair Increasingly being used despite poor clinical data
Open repair Mortality 13% (0-55%) Paraplegia 10% (0-20%) Endovascular repair Mortality 3.8% Paraplegia <1% Technical Obstacles Size of graft vs aorta Angulation of aorta

19 Abdominal Vascular Injuries
Definitive repair vs damage control Aortic cross clamping (easiest is supraceliac aorta) Profound physiologic consequences of aortic crossclamping

20 Cattell-Braasch maneuver
With regards for retroperitoneal exposure match the corresponding action with the maneuver. Mattox maneuver Kocher maneuver Cattell-Braasch maneuver Medial reflection of the right colon and duodenum by incising their lateral peritoneal attachments. The lateral peritoneal attachment of the sigmoid and left colon are incised. Used for extensive retroperitoneal exposure by detaching the posterior attachments of the small bowel mesentery toward the duodenojejunal ligament. Used for SMA exposure

21 Retroperitoneal exposure
Can see all but R renal a.

22 Retroperitoneal hematomas
Zone 1 injury Mandates exploration for both blunt and penetrating injury Zone 2 injury Exploration for penetrating Observation for stable blunt trauma Zone 3 injury Same as zone 2

23 Retrohepatic IVC injuries
Atrio-caval, or Schrock, shunt Mortality in excess of 80%

24 Peripheral Vascular Trauma
Assess neurologic status of affected extremity Look for signs of compartment syndrome Traditional window of opportunity ≤ 6 hours Hand held Doppler Arteriography indicated for any >10 mm Hg difference between extremities 6 P’s: pain out of proportion to exam, parathesias, passive stretch pain, pulselessness, paralysis, pressure on passive movement

25 Role of Arteriography No use in actively bleeding patient
Questionable use in patient with proximity injury but normal PE Helpful for identification of area of injury prior to going to OR Remember soft signs of arterial injury

26 Operative Repair Usually bony injuries are repaired first
Consider temporary shunt if needed Small arteries of arm and below the knee usually preclude use of synthetic graft PTFE may be ok in contaminated field Principles include soft tissue coverage

27 Fasciotomy Why elevated compartment pressures? Difficult to diagnose
Direct muscular trauma Hypotension Reperfusion of ischemic extremity Ligation of injured veins Difficult to diagnose

28 Fasciotomy The anterior and lateral compartments are approached through a lateral longitudinal incision following the anterior margin of the fibula. The superficial and deep posterior compartments are decompressed through a medial incision slightly posterior to the edge of the tibia.

29 Iatrogenic Injury Hemorrhage/hematoma from puncture site
Usually related to inadequate compression following puncture or removal of catheter Pseudoaneurysm US guided compression effective 80-90% Arterial thrombosis

30 Peripheral vascular injuries
Popliteal injuries have highest rate of limb loss (20%) Posterior dislocation of knee Brachial artery most commonly injured peripheral artery (20-30% of cases)

31 Vascular Trauma Review
Always remember ABC’s Compression, control hemorrhage Imaging if indicated and patient stable Try to think about operative approach/incision ahead of time Follow up imaging when indicated


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