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Introduction: Biology Today

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1 Introduction: Biology Today

2 Introduction: Dining in the Trees
What is biology? Why is it said that an organism is adapted to its environment? Give an example of an adaptation Biology is the scientific study of life The leopard is an excellent example of an organism adapted to its environment It survives because of adaptations to its environment Examples are coat camouflage and hunting and climbing ability Adaptations are the result of evolution Evolution is the process of change that transforms life

3 Biology and Society: Biology All Around Us
We are living in a golden age of biology. Scientists are studying a myriad of questions that are relevant to our lives. How can errors in cell growth lead to cancer? How do plants trap solar energy? How do living creatures form ecological networks and how do human activities disrupt them? © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. 3

4 Biology and Society: Biology All Around Us
How did the great diversity of life on Earth evolve from the first microbes and how does such evolution have an impact on human health? How do mutations in genes lead to disease? How can DNA—the molecular basis of heredity— be used in forensic investigations? © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

5 Figure 1.0 Figure 1.0 Biology is all around us. 5

6 THE SCOPE OF LIFE The Properties of Life
Biology is the scientific study of life. The study of biology encompasses a wide scale of size and a huge variety of life, both past and present. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Many students enter our courses with a limited appreciation of the diversity of life. Ask any group of freshmen at the start of the semester to write down the first type of animal that comes to mind, and the most frequent response is a mammal. (In my courses, over a 21-year period, more than 98% of the examples have been mammals.) As the diversity of life is explored, the common heritage of biological organization can be less, and not more, apparent. The diverse forms, habits, and ecological interactions overwhelm our senses with differences. Emphasizing the diversity and unifying aspects of life is necessary for a greater understanding of the evolutionary history of life on Earth. 2. We live in a world that is largely understood by what we can distinguish and identify with our naked senses. However, the diversity of life and the levels of biological organization extend well below the physical scale of our daily lives. For many students, appreciating the diversity of the microscopic world is abstract, nearly on par with an understanding of the workings of atoms and molecules. A laboratory opportunity to examine the microscopic details of objects from our daily lives (the surface of potato chips, the structure of table salt and sugar, the details of a blade of grass) can be an important sensory extension that prepares the mind for greater comprehension of these minute biological details. Teaching Tips 1. Consider asking students to bring to class a page or two of an article about biology that appeared in the media in the last month. Alternatively, you could have each student a Web address of a recent biology-related news event to you. You might even have them relevant articles to you for each of the main topics you address throughout the semester. 2. The scientific organization Sigma Xi offers a free summary of the major science news articles each weekday. The first few paragraphs of each article are included with a hyperlink to the source of the entire article. The topics are most diverse and can be an excellent way to be aware of daily scientific announcements and reports. Typically, about ten articles are cited each weekday. Science In the News is part of the web site at 3.For a chance to add a little math to the biological levels of organization, consider calculating the general scale differences between each level of biological organization. For example, are cells generally 5, 10, 50, or 100 times more massive than organelles? Are organelles generally 5, 10, 50, or 100 times more massive than macromolecules? For some levels of organization, such as ecosystems, communities, and populations, size or scale differences are perhaps less relevant and more problematic to consider. However, at the smaller levels, the sense of scale might enhance an appreciation for levels of biological organization. 4. Help the class think through the diverse interactions between an organism and its environment. In class, select an organism and have the class develop a list of environmental components that interact with the organism. This list should include living and nonliving categories. 5. The U.S. Census Bureau maintains updated population clocks that estimate the United States and world populations (www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html). If students have a general idea of the human population of the United States, statistics about the number of people affected with a disease or disaster become more significant. For example, the current population of the United States is more than 311,000,000 (2011). It is currently estimated that at least 1 million people in the United States are infected with HIV. The number of people infected with HIV is impressive and concerning, but not perhaps as meaningful as the realization that this represents about one of every 311 people in the United States. Although the infected people are not evenly distributed among geographic and ethnic groups, if you apply this generality to the enrollments in your classes, the students might better understand the tremendous impact of HIV infection. 6. The authors make an analogy between the four bases used to form genes and the 26 letters of the English alphabet used to create words and sentences. One could also make an analogy between the four bases and trains composed of four different types of railroad cars (perhaps an engine, boxcar, tanker, and flatcar). Imagine how many different types of trains one could make using just 100 rail cars of four different types. (The answer is 4100.) 7. An excellent introduction to the domains and kingdoms of life is presented at 6

7 What are the properties of life?

8 The unity of life: All forms of life have common features
(1) Order (2) Regulation (3) Growth and development (4) Energy processing (5) Response to the environment (6) Reproduction (7) Evolutionary adaptation Figure 1.4 All living things share common properties Order—the complex organization of living things Regulation—an ability to maintain an internal environment consistent with life (i.e. temperature, pH) Growth and development—consistent growth and development controlled by DNA (see teaching tips) Energy processing—acquiring energy and transforming it to a form useful for the organism Response to the environment—respond to environmental stimuli Reproduction—Organisms reproduce their own kind, penguins reproduce penguins Evolutionary adaptations—reproduction underlies the capacity of populations to change over time, leopard example

9 Introduction: Dining in the Trees
Why is it said that an organism is adapted to its environment? The leopard is another example of an evolutionary adaptation Biology is the scientific study of life The leopard is an excellent example of an organism adapted to its environment It survives because of adaptations to its environment Examples are coat camouflage and hunting and climbing ability Adaptations are the result of evolution Evolution is the process of change that transforms life

10 Video: Seahorse Camouflage
Life at Its Many Levels Biologists explore life at levels ranging from the biosphere to the molecules that make up cells. Video: Seahorse Camouflage © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Many students enter our courses with a limited appreciation of the diversity of life. Ask any group of freshmen at the start of the semester to write down the first type of animal that comes to mind, and the most frequent response is a mammal. (In my courses, over a 21-year period, more than 98% of the examples have been mammals.) As the diversity of life is explored, the common heritage of biological organization can be less, and not more, apparent. The diverse forms, habits, and ecological interactions overwhelm our senses with differences. Emphasizing the diversity and unifying aspects of life is necessary for a greater understanding of the evolutionary history of life on Earth. 2. We live in a world that is largely understood by what we can distinguish and identify with our naked senses. However, the diversity of life and the levels of biological organization extend well below the physical scale of our daily lives. For many students, appreciating the diversity of the microscopic world is abstract, nearly on par with an understanding of the workings of atoms and molecules. A laboratory opportunity to examine the microscopic details of objects from our daily lives (the surface of potato chips, the structure of table salt and sugar, the details of a blade of grass) can be an important sensory extension that prepares the mind for greater comprehension of these minute biological details. Teaching Tips 1. Consider asking students to bring to class a page or two of an article about biology that appeared in the media in the last month. Alternatively, you could have each student a Web address of a recent biology-related news event to you. You might even have them relevant articles to you for each of the main topics you address throughout the semester. 2. The scientific organization Sigma Xi offers a free summary of the major science news articles each weekday. The first few paragraphs of each article are included with a hyperlink to the source of the entire article. The topics are most diverse and can be an excellent way to be aware of daily scientific announcements and reports. Typically, about ten articles are cited each weekday. Science In the News is part of the web site at 3.For a chance to add a little math to the biological levels of organization, consider calculating the general scale differences between each level of biological organization. For example, are cells generally 5, 10, 50, or 100 times more massive than organelles? Are organelles generally 5, 10, 50, or 100 times more massive than macromolecules? For some levels of organization, such as ecosystems, communities, and populations, size or scale differences are perhaps less relevant and more problematic to consider. However, at the smaller levels, the sense of scale might enhance an appreciation for levels of biological organization. 4. Help the class think through the diverse interactions between an organism and its environment. In class, select an organism and have the class develop a list of environmental components that interact with the organism. This list should include living and nonliving categories. 5. The U.S. Census Bureau maintains updated population clocks that estimate the United States and world populations (www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html). If students have a general idea of the human population of the United States, statistics about the number of people affected with a disease or disaster become more significant. For example, the current population of the United States is more than 311,000,000 (2011). It is currently estimated that at least 1 million people in the United States are infected with HIV. The number of people infected with HIV is impressive and concerning, but not perhaps as meaningful as the realization that this represents about one of every 311 people in the United States. Although the infected people are not evenly distributed among geographic and ethnic groups, if you apply this generality to the enrollments in your classes, the students might better understand the tremendous impact of HIV infection. 6. The authors make an analogy between the four bases used to form genes and the 26 letters of the English alphabet used to create words and sentences. One could also make an analogy between the four bases and trains composed of four different types of railroad cars (perhaps an engine, boxcar, tanker, and flatcar). Imagine how many different types of trains one could make using just 100 rail cars of four different types. (The answer is 4100.) 7. An excellent introduction to the domains and kingdoms of life is presented at 10

11 11 1 2 3 4 5 6 10 9 7 8 Biosphere Ecosystems Communities Populations
Figure 1.2-3 1 Biosphere 2 Ecosystems 3 Communities 4 Populations 5 Organisms 6 Organ Systems and Organs 10 Molecules and Atoms 9 Organelles 7 Tissues Atom Nucleus 8 Cells Figure 1.2 Zooming in on life (step 3) 11

12 In life’s hierarchy of organization, new properties emerge at each level
Biosphere Ecosystem Florida coast Community All organisms on the Florida coast Population Group of brown pelicans Organism Brown pelican Figure 1.1 Life’s hierarchy of organization. Life’s levels of organization define the scope of biology Life emerges through organization of various levels With addition of each new level, novel properties emerge—called emergent properties Biosphere—all the environments on Earth that support life Ecosystem—all the organisms living in a particular area as well as nonliving, physical components Community—the array of organisms living in a particular ecosystem Population—all the individuals of a species within a specific area Organism—an individual living thing

13 Each organism interacts continuously with its environment.
Ecosystems Each organism interacts continuously with its environment. Organisms interact continuously with the living and nonliving factors in the environment. All the living organisms in a specific area, along with all of the nonliving factors with which they interact, form an ecosystem. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Many students enter our courses with a limited appreciation of the diversity of life. Ask any group of freshmen at the start of the semester to write down the first type of animal that comes to mind, and the most frequent response is a mammal. (In my courses, over a 21-year period, more than 98% of the examples have been mammals.) As the diversity of life is explored, the common heritage of biological organization can be less, and not more, apparent. The diverse forms, habits, and ecological interactions overwhelm our senses with differences. Emphasizing the diversity and unifying aspects of life is necessary for a greater understanding of the evolutionary history of life on Earth. 2. We live in a world that is largely understood by what we can distinguish and identify with our naked senses. However, the diversity of life and the levels of biological organization extend well below the physical scale of our daily lives. For many students, appreciating the diversity of the microscopic world is abstract, nearly on par with an understanding of the workings of atoms and molecules. A laboratory opportunity to examine the microscopic details of objects from our daily lives (the surface of potato chips, the structure of table salt and sugar, the details of a blade of grass) can be an important sensory extension that prepares the mind for greater comprehension of these minute biological details. Teaching Tips 1. Consider asking students to bring to class a page or two of an article about biology that appeared in the media in the last month. Alternatively, you could have each student a Web address of a recent biology-related news event to you. You might even have them relevant articles to you for each of the main topics you address throughout the semester. 2. The scientific organization Sigma Xi offers a free summary of the major science news articles each weekday. The first few paragraphs of each article are included with a hyperlink to the source of the entire article. The topics are most diverse and can be an excellent way to be aware of daily scientific announcements and reports. Typically, about ten articles are cited each weekday. Science In the News is part of the web site at 3.For a chance to add a little math to the biological levels of organization, consider calculating the general scale differences between each level of biological organization. For example, are cells generally 5, 10, 50, or 100 times more massive than organelles? Are organelles generally 5, 10, 50, or 100 times more massive than macromolecules? For some levels of organization, such as ecosystems, communities, and populations, size or scale differences are perhaps less relevant and more problematic to consider. However, at the smaller levels, the sense of scale might enhance an appreciation for levels of biological organization. 4. Help the class think through the diverse interactions between an organism and its environment. In class, select an organism and have the class develop a list of environmental components that interact with the organism. This list should include living and nonliving categories. 5. The U.S. Census Bureau maintains updated population clocks that estimate the United States and world populations (www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html). If students have a general idea of the human population of the United States, statistics about the number of people affected with a disease or disaster become more significant. For example, the current population of the United States is more than 311,000,000 (2011). It is currently estimated that at least 1 million people in the United States are infected with HIV. The number of people infected with HIV is impressive and concerning, but not perhaps as meaningful as the realization that this represents about one of every 311 people in the United States. Although the infected people are not evenly distributed among geographic and ethnic groups, if you apply this generality to the enrollments in your classes, the students might better understand the tremendous impact of HIV infection. 6. The authors make an analogy between the four bases used to form genes and the 26 letters of the English alphabet used to create words and sentences. One could also make an analogy between the four bases and trains composed of four different types of railroad cars (perhaps an engine, boxcar, tanker, and flatcar). Imagine how many different types of trains one could make using just 100 rail cars of four different types. (The answer is 4100.) 7. An excellent introduction to the domains and kingdoms of life is presented at 13

14 The dynamics of any ecosystem depend on two main processes:
Ecosystems The dynamics of any ecosystem depend on two main processes: recycling of chemical nutrients and flow of energy. Within ecosystems nutrients are recycled but energy flows through. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Many students enter our courses with a limited appreciation of the diversity of life. Ask any group of freshmen at the start of the semester to write down the first type of animal that comes to mind, and the most frequent response is a mammal. (In my courses, over a 21-year period, more than 98% of the examples have been mammals.) As the diversity of life is explored, the common heritage of biological organization can be less, and not more, apparent. The diverse forms, habits, and ecological interactions overwhelm our senses with differences. Emphasizing the diversity and unifying aspects of life is necessary for a greater understanding of the evolutionary history of life on Earth. 2. We live in a world that is largely understood by what we can distinguish and identify with our naked senses. However, the diversity of life and the levels of biological organization extend well below the physical scale of our daily lives. For many students, appreciating the diversity of the microscopic world is abstract, nearly on par with an understanding of the workings of atoms and molecules. A laboratory opportunity to examine the microscopic details of objects from our daily lives (the surface of potato chips, the structure of table salt and sugar, the details of a blade of grass) can be an important sensory extension that prepares the mind for greater comprehension of these minute biological details. Teaching Tips 1. Consider asking students to bring to class a page or two of an article about biology that appeared in the media in the last month. Alternatively, you could have each student a Web address of a recent biology-related news event to you. You might even have them relevant articles to you for each of the main topics you address throughout the semester. 2. The scientific organization Sigma Xi offers a free summary of the major science news articles each weekday. The first few paragraphs of each article are included with a hyperlink to the source of the entire article. The topics are most diverse and can be an excellent way to be aware of daily scientific announcements and reports. Typically, about ten articles are cited each weekday. Science In the News is part of the web site at 3.For a chance to add a little math to the biological levels of organization, consider calculating the general scale differences between each level of biological organization. For example, are cells generally 5, 10, 50, or 100 times more massive than organelles? Are organelles generally 5, 10, 50, or 100 times more massive than macromolecules? For some levels of organization, such as ecosystems, communities, and populations, size or scale differences are perhaps less relevant and more problematic to consider. However, at the smaller levels, the sense of scale might enhance an appreciation for levels of biological organization. 4. Help the class think through the diverse interactions between an organism and its environment. In class, select an organism and have the class develop a list of environmental components that interact with the organism. This list should include living and nonliving categories. 5. The U.S. Census Bureau maintains updated population clocks that estimate the United States and world populations (www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html). If students have a general idea of the human population of the United States, statistics about the number of people affected with a disease or disaster become more significant. For example, the current population of the United States is more than 311,000,000 (2011). It is currently estimated that at least 1 million people in the United States are infected with HIV. The number of people infected with HIV is impressive and concerning, but not perhaps as meaningful as the realization that this represents about one of every 311 people in the United States. Although the infected people are not evenly distributed among geographic and ethnic groups, if you apply this generality to the enrollments in your classes, the students might better understand the tremendous impact of HIV infection. 6. The authors make an analogy between the four bases used to form genes and the 26 letters of the English alphabet used to create words and sentences. One could also make an analogy between the four bases and trains composed of four different types of railroad cars (perhaps an engine, boxcar, tanker, and flatcar). Imagine how many different types of trains one could make using just 100 rail cars of four different types. (The answer is 4100.) 7. An excellent introduction to the domains and kingdoms of life is presented at 14

15 15 ECOSYSTEM Outflow of heat energy Inflow of light energy Consumers
Figure 1.3 ECOSYSTEM Outflow of heat energy Inflow of light energy Consumers (animals) Chemical energy (food) Producers (plants and other photosynthetic organisms) Decomposers (in soil) Cycling of nutrients Figure 1.3 Nutrient and energy flow in an ecosystem 15

16 What are producers? Examples: What are consumers? Ecosystem Sunlight
(such as plants) Cycling of chemical nutrients Heat Chemical energy Consumers (such as animals) Heat Decomposers in soil Figure 1.2: Ecosystems (living and nonliving components) The cycling of nutrients and flow of energy in an ecosystem. -The nonliving components are recycled and used over and over again. Carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, and various minerals are examples of components cycled within an ecosystem. Life requires interactions between living and nonliving components Photosynthetic organisms provide food and are called producers: chlorophyll-light: CO2 + water  sugar Others eat plants (or animals that profit from plants) and are called consumers: To be successful, an ecosystem must accomplish two things Recycle chemicals necessary for life Move energy through the ecosystem Energy enters as light and exits as heat

17 The cell is the level at which the properties of life emerge.
Cells and Their DNA The cell is the level at which the properties of life emerge. Cells are the lowest level of structure that can perform all activities required for life. All organisms are composed of cells. Cells are the subunits that make up multicellular organisms such as humans and trees. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Many students enter our courses with a limited appreciation of the diversity of life. Ask any group of freshmen at the start of the semester to write down the first type of animal that comes to mind, and the most frequent response is a mammal. (In my courses, over a 21-year period, more than 98% of the examples have been mammals.) As the diversity of life is explored, the common heritage of biological organization can be less, and not more, apparent. The diverse forms, habits, and ecological interactions overwhelm our senses with differences. Emphasizing the diversity and unifying aspects of life is necessary for a greater understanding of the evolutionary history of life on Earth. 2. We live in a world that is largely understood by what we can distinguish and identify with our naked senses. However, the diversity of life and the levels of biological organization extend well below the physical scale of our daily lives. For many students, appreciating the diversity of the microscopic world is abstract, nearly on par with an understanding of the workings of atoms and molecules. A laboratory opportunity to examine the microscopic details of objects from our daily lives (the surface of potato chips, the structure of table salt and sugar, the details of a blade of grass) can be an important sensory extension that prepares the mind for greater comprehension of these minute biological details. Teaching Tips 1. Consider asking students to bring to class a page or two of an article about biology that appeared in the media in the last month. Alternatively, you could have each student a Web address of a recent biology-related news event to you. You might even have them relevant articles to you for each of the main topics you address throughout the semester. 2. The scientific organization Sigma Xi offers a free summary of the major science news articles each weekday. The first few paragraphs of each article are included with a hyperlink to the source of the entire article. The topics are most diverse and can be an excellent way to be aware of daily scientific announcements and reports. Typically, about ten articles are cited each weekday. Science In the News is part of the web site at 3.For a chance to add a little math to the biological levels of organization, consider calculating the general scale differences between each level of biological organization. For example, are cells generally 5, 10, 50, or 100 times more massive than organelles? Are organelles generally 5, 10, 50, or 100 times more massive than macromolecules? For some levels of organization, such as ecosystems, communities, and populations, size or scale differences are perhaps less relevant and more problematic to consider. However, at the smaller levels, the sense of scale might enhance an appreciation for levels of biological organization. 4. Help the class think through the diverse interactions between an organism and its environment. In class, select an organism and have the class develop a list of environmental components that interact with the organism. This list should include living and nonliving categories. 5. The U.S. Census Bureau maintains updated population clocks that estimate the United States and world populations (www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html). If students have a general idea of the human population of the United States, statistics about the number of people affected with a disease or disaster become more significant. For example, the current population of the United States is more than 311,000,000 (2011). It is currently estimated that at least 1 million people in the United States are infected with HIV. The number of people infected with HIV is impressive and concerning, but not perhaps as meaningful as the realization that this represents about one of every 311 people in the United States. Although the infected people are not evenly distributed among geographic and ethnic groups, if you apply this generality to the enrollments in your classes, the students might better understand the tremendous impact of HIV infection. 6. The authors make an analogy between the four bases used to form genes and the 26 letters of the English alphabet used to create words and sentences. One could also make an analogy between the four bases and trains composed of four different types of railroad cars (perhaps an engine, boxcar, tanker, and flatcar). Imagine how many different types of trains one could make using just 100 rail cars of four different types. (The answer is 4100.) 7. An excellent introduction to the domains and kingdoms of life is presented at 17

18 All cells share many characteristics.
Cells and Their DNA All cells share many characteristics. All cells are enclosed by a membrane that regulates the passage of materials between the cell and its surroundings. Every cell uses DNA as its genetic information. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Many students enter our courses with a limited appreciation of the diversity of life. Ask any group of freshmen at the start of the semester to write down the first type of animal that comes to mind, and the most frequent response is a mammal. (In my courses, over a 21-year period, more than 98% of the examples have been mammals.) As the diversity of life is explored, the common heritage of biological organization can be less, and not more, apparent. The diverse forms, habits, and ecological interactions overwhelm our senses with differences. Emphasizing the diversity and unifying aspects of life is necessary for a greater understanding of the evolutionary history of life on Earth. 2. We live in a world that is largely understood by what we can distinguish and identify with our naked senses. However, the diversity of life and the levels of biological organization extend well below the physical scale of our daily lives. For many students, appreciating the diversity of the microscopic world is abstract, nearly on par with an understanding of the workings of atoms and molecules. A laboratory opportunity to examine the microscopic details of objects from our daily lives (the surface of potato chips, the structure of table salt and sugar, the details of a blade of grass) can be an important sensory extension that prepares the mind for greater comprehension of these minute biological details. Teaching Tips 1. Consider asking students to bring to class a page or two of an article about biology that appeared in the media in the last month. Alternatively, you could have each student a Web address of a recent biology-related news event to you. You might even have them relevant articles to you for each of the main topics you address throughout the semester. 2. The scientific organization Sigma Xi offers a free summary of the major science news articles each weekday. The first few paragraphs of each article are included with a hyperlink to the source of the entire article. The topics are most diverse and can be an excellent way to be aware of daily scientific announcements and reports. Typically, about ten articles are cited each weekday. Science In the News is part of the web site at 3.For a chance to add a little math to the biological levels of organization, consider calculating the general scale differences between each level of biological organization. For example, are cells generally 5, 10, 50, or 100 times more massive than organelles? Are organelles generally 5, 10, 50, or 100 times more massive than macromolecules? For some levels of organization, such as ecosystems, communities, and populations, size or scale differences are perhaps less relevant and more problematic to consider. However, at the smaller levels, the sense of scale might enhance an appreciation for levels of biological organization. 4. Help the class think through the diverse interactions between an organism and its environment. In class, select an organism and have the class develop a list of environmental components that interact with the organism. This list should include living and nonliving categories. 5. The U.S. Census Bureau maintains updated population clocks that estimate the United States and world populations (www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html). If students have a general idea of the human population of the United States, statistics about the number of people affected with a disease or disaster become more significant. For example, the current population of the United States is more than 311,000,000 (2011). It is currently estimated that at least 1 million people in the United States are infected with HIV. The number of people infected with HIV is impressive and concerning, but not perhaps as meaningful as the realization that this represents about one of every 311 people in the United States. Although the infected people are not evenly distributed among geographic and ethnic groups, if you apply this generality to the enrollments in your classes, the students might better understand the tremendous impact of HIV infection. 6. The authors make an analogy between the four bases used to form genes and the 26 letters of the English alphabet used to create words and sentences. One could also make an analogy between the four bases and trains composed of four different types of railroad cars (perhaps an engine, boxcar, tanker, and flatcar). Imagine how many different types of trains one could make using just 100 rail cars of four different types. (The answer is 4100.) 7. An excellent introduction to the domains and kingdoms of life is presented at 18

19 We can distinguish two major types of cells:
Cells and Their DNA We can distinguish two major types of cells: The prokaryotic cell is simpler and usually smaller and characteristic of bacteria. The eukaryotic cell is subdivided by internal membranes into different functional compartments called organelles and found in plants and animals. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Many students enter our courses with a limited appreciation of the diversity of life. Ask any group of freshmen at the start of the semester to write down the first type of animal that comes to mind, and the most frequent response is a mammal. (In my courses, over a 21-year period, more than 98% of the examples have been mammals.) As the diversity of life is explored, the common heritage of biological organization can be less, and not more, apparent. The diverse forms, habits, and ecological interactions overwhelm our senses with differences. Emphasizing the diversity and unifying aspects of life is necessary for a greater understanding of the evolutionary history of life on Earth. 2. We live in a world that is largely understood by what we can distinguish and identify with our naked senses. However, the diversity of life and the levels of biological organization extend well below the physical scale of our daily lives. For many students, appreciating the diversity of the microscopic world is abstract, nearly on par with an understanding of the workings of atoms and molecules. A laboratory opportunity to examine the microscopic details of objects from our daily lives (the surface of potato chips, the structure of table salt and sugar, the details of a blade of grass) can be an important sensory extension that prepares the mind for greater comprehension of these minute biological details. Teaching Tips 1. Consider asking students to bring to class a page or two of an article about biology that appeared in the media in the last month. Alternatively, you could have each student a Web address of a recent biology-related news event to you. You might even have them relevant articles to you for each of the main topics you address throughout the semester. 2. The scientific organization Sigma Xi offers a free summary of the major science news articles each weekday. The first few paragraphs of each article are included with a hyperlink to the source of the entire article. The topics are most diverse and can be an excellent way to be aware of daily scientific announcements and reports. Typically, about ten articles are cited each weekday. Science In the News is part of the web site at 3.For a chance to add a little math to the biological levels of organization, consider calculating the general scale differences between each level of biological organization. For example, are cells generally 5, 10, 50, or 100 times more massive than organelles? Are organelles generally 5, 10, 50, or 100 times more massive than macromolecules? For some levels of organization, such as ecosystems, communities, and populations, size or scale differences are perhaps less relevant and more problematic to consider. However, at the smaller levels, the sense of scale might enhance an appreciation for levels of biological organization. 4. Help the class think through the diverse interactions between an organism and its environment. In class, select an organism and have the class develop a list of environmental components that interact with the organism. This list should include living and nonliving categories. 5. The U.S. Census Bureau maintains updated population clocks that estimate the United States and world populations (www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html). If students have a general idea of the human population of the United States, statistics about the number of people affected with a disease or disaster become more significant. For example, the current population of the United States is more than 311,000,000 (2011). It is currently estimated that at least 1 million people in the United States are infected with HIV. The number of people infected with HIV is impressive and concerning, but not perhaps as meaningful as the realization that this represents about one of every 311 people in the United States. Although the infected people are not evenly distributed among geographic and ethnic groups, if you apply this generality to the enrollments in your classes, the students might better understand the tremendous impact of HIV infection. 6. The authors make an analogy between the four bases used to form genes and the 26 letters of the English alphabet used to create words and sentences. One could also make an analogy between the four bases and trains composed of four different types of railroad cars (perhaps an engine, boxcar, tanker, and flatcar). Imagine how many different types of trains one could make using just 100 rail cars of four different types. (The answer is 4100.) 7. An excellent introduction to the domains and kingdoms of life is presented at 19

20 20 • • Prokaryotic cell (bacterium) Eukaryotic cell Smaller Organelles
Figure 1.4 Prokaryotic cell (bacterium) Eukaryotic cell Smaller Simpler structure DNA concentrated in nucleoid region, which is not enclosed by membrane Lacks most organelles Organelles Larger More complex structure Nucleus enclosed by membrane Contains many types of organelles Nucleoid region Nucleus Colorized TEM Figure 1.4 Two main kinds of cells: prokaryotic and eukaryotic 20

21 The chemical language of DNA
Cells and Their DNA All cells use DNA as the chemical material of genes, the units of inheritance that transmit information from parents to offspring. The chemical language of DNA is common to all organisms and consists of just four molecular building blocks with names that are abbreviated as A, G, C, T. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Many students enter our courses with a limited appreciation of the diversity of life. Ask any group of freshmen at the start of the semester to write down the first type of animal that comes to mind, and the most frequent response is a mammal. (In my courses, over a 21-year period, more than 98% of the examples have been mammals.) As the diversity of life is explored, the common heritage of biological organization can be less, and not more, apparent. The diverse forms, habits, and ecological interactions overwhelm our senses with differences. Emphasizing the diversity and unifying aspects of life is necessary for a greater understanding of the evolutionary history of life on Earth. 2. We live in a world that is largely understood by what we can distinguish and identify with our naked senses. However, the diversity of life and the levels of biological organization extend well below the physical scale of our daily lives. For many students, appreciating the diversity of the microscopic world is abstract, nearly on par with an understanding of the workings of atoms and molecules. A laboratory opportunity to examine the microscopic details of objects from our daily lives (the surface of potato chips, the structure of table salt and sugar, the details of a blade of grass) can be an important sensory extension that prepares the mind for greater comprehension of these minute biological details. Teaching Tips 1. Consider asking students to bring to class a page or two of an article about biology that appeared in the media in the last month. Alternatively, you could have each student a Web address of a recent biology-related news event to you. You might even have them relevant articles to you for each of the main topics you address throughout the semester. 2. The scientific organization Sigma Xi offers a free summary of the major science news articles each weekday. The first few paragraphs of each article are included with a hyperlink to the source of the entire article. The topics are most diverse and can be an excellent way to be aware of daily scientific announcements and reports. Typically, about ten articles are cited each weekday. Science In the News is part of the web site at 3.For a chance to add a little math to the biological levels of organization, consider calculating the general scale differences between each level of biological organization. For example, are cells generally 5, 10, 50, or 100 times more massive than organelles? Are organelles generally 5, 10, 50, or 100 times more massive than macromolecules? For some levels of organization, such as ecosystems, communities, and populations, size or scale differences are perhaps less relevant and more problematic to consider. However, at the smaller levels, the sense of scale might enhance an appreciation for levels of biological organization. 4. Help the class think through the diverse interactions between an organism and its environment. In class, select an organism and have the class develop a list of environmental components that interact with the organism. This list should include living and nonliving categories. 5. The U.S. Census Bureau maintains updated population clocks that estimate the United States and world populations (www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html). If students have a general idea of the human population of the United States, statistics about the number of people affected with a disease or disaster become more significant. For example, the current population of the United States is more than 311,000,000 (2011). It is currently estimated that at least 1 million people in the United States are infected with HIV. The number of people infected with HIV is impressive and concerning, but not perhaps as meaningful as the realization that this represents about one of every 311 people in the United States. Although the infected people are not evenly distributed among geographic and ethnic groups, if you apply this generality to the enrollments in your classes, the students might better understand the tremendous impact of HIV infection. 6. The authors make an analogy between the four bases used to form genes and the 26 letters of the English alphabet used to create words and sentences. One could also make an analogy between the four bases and trains composed of four different types of railroad cars (perhaps an engine, boxcar, tanker, and flatcar). Imagine how many different types of trains one could make using just 100 rail cars of four different types. (The answer is 4100.) 7. An excellent introduction to the domains and kingdoms of life is presented at 21

22 22 The four chemical building blocks of DNA A DNA molecule Figure 1.5
Figure 1.5 The language of DNA the authors make an analogy between the four bases used to form genes and the 26 letters of the English alphabet used to create words and sentences. One could also make an analogy between the four bases and trains composed of four different types of railroad cars (perhaps an engine, boxcar, tanker, and flatcar). Imagine how many different types of trains one could make using just 100 rail cars of four different types. (The answer is 4 raised to 100.) 22

23 Cells and Their DNA Genetic engineering has transformed the pharmaceutical industry and extended millions of lives. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Many students enter our courses with a limited appreciation of the diversity of life. Ask any group of freshmen at the start of the semester to write down the first type of animal that comes to mind, and the most frequent response is a mammal. (In my courses, over a 21-year period, more than 98% of the examples have been mammals.) As the diversity of life is explored, the common heritage of biological organization can be less, and not more, apparent. The diverse forms, habits, and ecological interactions overwhelm our senses with differences. Emphasizing the diversity and unifying aspects of life is necessary for a greater understanding of the evolutionary history of life on Earth. 2. We live in a world that is largely understood by what we can distinguish and identify with our naked senses. However, the diversity of life and the levels of biological organization extend well below the physical scale of our daily lives. For many students, appreciating the diversity of the microscopic world is abstract, nearly on par with an understanding of the workings of atoms and molecules. A laboratory opportunity to examine the microscopic details of objects from our daily lives (the surface of potato chips, the structure of table salt and sugar, the details of a blade of grass) can be an important sensory extension that prepares the mind for greater comprehension of these minute biological details. Teaching Tips 1. Consider asking students to bring to class a page or two of an article about biology that appeared in the media in the last month. Alternatively, you could have each student a Web address of a recent biology-related news event to you. You might even have them relevant articles to you for each of the main topics you address throughout the semester. 2. The scientific organization Sigma Xi offers a free summary of the major science news articles each weekday. The first few paragraphs of each article are included with a hyperlink to the source of the entire article. The topics are most diverse and can be an excellent way to be aware of daily scientific announcements and reports. Typically, about ten articles are cited each weekday. Science In the News is part of the web site at 3.For a chance to add a little math to the biological levels of organization, consider calculating the general scale differences between each level of biological organization. For example, are cells generally 5, 10, 50, or 100 times more massive than organelles? Are organelles generally 5, 10, 50, or 100 times more massive than macromolecules? For some levels of organization, such as ecosystems, communities, and populations, size or scale differences are perhaps less relevant and more problematic to consider. However, at the smaller levels, the sense of scale might enhance an appreciation for levels of biological organization. 4. Help the class think through the diverse interactions between an organism and its environment. In class, select an organism and have the class develop a list of environmental components that interact with the organism. This list should include living and nonliving categories. 5. The U.S. Census Bureau maintains updated population clocks that estimate the United States and world populations (www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html). If students have a general idea of the human population of the United States, statistics about the number of people affected with a disease or disaster become more significant. For example, the current population of the United States is more than 311,000,000 (2011). It is currently estimated that at least 1 million people in the United States are infected with HIV. The number of people infected with HIV is impressive and concerning, but not perhaps as meaningful as the realization that this represents about one of every 311 people in the United States. Although the infected people are not evenly distributed among geographic and ethnic groups, if you apply this generality to the enrollments in your classes, the students might better understand the tremendous impact of HIV infection. 6. The authors make an analogy between the four bases used to form genes and the 26 letters of the English alphabet used to create words and sentences. One could also make an analogy between the four bases and trains composed of four different types of railroad cars (perhaps an engine, boxcar, tanker, and flatcar). Imagine how many different types of trains one could make using just 100 rail cars of four different types. (The answer is 4100.) 7. An excellent introduction to the domains and kingdoms of life is presented at 23

24 Cells and Their DNA The entire “book” of genetic instructions that an organism inherits is called its genome. The nucleus of each human cell packs a genome that is about 3 billion chemical letters long. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Many students enter our courses with a limited appreciation of the diversity of life. Ask any group of freshmen at the start of the semester to write down the first type of animal that comes to mind, and the most frequent response is a mammal. (In my courses, over a 21-year period, more than 98% of the examples have been mammals.) As the diversity of life is explored, the common heritage of biological organization can be less, and not more, apparent. The diverse forms, habits, and ecological interactions overwhelm our senses with differences. Emphasizing the diversity and unifying aspects of life is necessary for a greater understanding of the evolutionary history of life on Earth. 2. We live in a world that is largely understood by what we can distinguish and identify with our naked senses. However, the diversity of life and the levels of biological organization extend well below the physical scale of our daily lives. For many students, appreciating the diversity of the microscopic world is abstract, nearly on par with an understanding of the workings of atoms and molecules. A laboratory opportunity to examine the microscopic details of objects from our daily lives (the surface of potato chips, the structure of table salt and sugar, the details of a blade of grass) can be an important sensory extension that prepares the mind for greater comprehension of these minute biological details. Teaching Tips 1. Consider asking students to bring to class a page or two of an article about biology that appeared in the media in the last month. Alternatively, you could have each student a Web address of a recent biology-related news event to you. You might even have them relevant articles to you for each of the main topics you address throughout the semester. 2. The scientific organization Sigma Xi offers a free summary of the major science news articles each weekday. The first few paragraphs of each article are included with a hyperlink to the source of the entire article. The topics are most diverse and can be an excellent way to be aware of daily scientific announcements and reports. Typically, about ten articles are cited each weekday. Science In the News is part of the web site at 3.For a chance to add a little math to the biological levels of organization, consider calculating the general scale differences between each level of biological organization. For example, are cells generally 5, 10, 50, or 100 times more massive than organelles? Are organelles generally 5, 10, 50, or 100 times more massive than macromolecules? For some levels of organization, such as ecosystems, communities, and populations, size or scale differences are perhaps less relevant and more problematic to consider. However, at the smaller levels, the sense of scale might enhance an appreciation for levels of biological organization. 4. Help the class think through the diverse interactions between an organism and its environment. In class, select an organism and have the class develop a list of environmental components that interact with the organism. This list should include living and nonliving categories. 5. The U.S. Census Bureau maintains updated population clocks that estimate the United States and world populations (www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html). If students have a general idea of the human population of the United States, statistics about the number of people affected with a disease or disaster become more significant. For example, the current population of the United States is more than 311,000,000 (2011). It is currently estimated that at least 1 million people in the United States are infected with HIV. The number of people infected with HIV is impressive and concerning, but not perhaps as meaningful as the realization that this represents about one of every 311 people in the United States. Although the infected people are not evenly distributed among geographic and ethnic groups, if you apply this generality to the enrollments in your classes, the students might better understand the tremendous impact of HIV infection. 6. The authors make an analogy between the four bases used to form genes and the 26 letters of the English alphabet used to create words and sentences. One could also make an analogy between the four bases and trains composed of four different types of railroad cars (perhaps an engine, boxcar, tanker, and flatcar). Imagine how many different types of trains one could make using just 100 rail cars of four different types. (The answer is 4100.) 7. An excellent introduction to the domains and kingdoms of life is presented at 24

25 Life in Its Diverse Forms
Diversity is a hallmark of life. The diversity of known life includes about 1.8 million species that biologists have identified and named. Estimates of the total number of species range from 10 million to over 100 million. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Many students enter our courses with a limited appreciation of the diversity of life. Ask any group of freshmen at the start of the semester to write down the first type of animal that comes to mind, and the most frequent response is a mammal. (In my courses, over a 21-year period, more than 98% of the examples have been mammals.) As the diversity of life is explored, the common heritage of biological organization can be less, and not more, apparent. The diverse forms, habits, and ecological interactions overwhelm our senses with differences. Emphasizing the diversity and unifying aspects of life is necessary for a greater understanding of the evolutionary history of life on Earth. 2. We live in a world that is largely understood by what we can distinguish and identify with our naked senses. However, the diversity of life and the levels of biological organization extend well below the physical scale of our daily lives. For many students, appreciating the diversity of the microscopic world is abstract, nearly on par with an understanding of the workings of atoms and molecules. A laboratory opportunity to examine the microscopic details of objects from our daily lives (the surface of potato chips, the structure of table salt and sugar, the details of a blade of grass) can be an important sensory extension that prepares the mind for greater comprehension of these minute biological details. Teaching Tips 1. Consider asking students to bring to class a page or two of an article about biology that appeared in the media in the last month. Alternatively, you could have each student a Web address of a recent biology-related news event to you. You might even have them relevant articles to you for each of the main topics you address throughout the semester. 2. The scientific organization Sigma Xi offers a free summary of the major science news articles each weekday. The first few paragraphs of each article are included with a hyperlink to the source of the entire article. The topics are most diverse and can be an excellent way to be aware of daily scientific announcements and reports. Typically, about ten articles are cited each weekday. Science In the News is part of the web site at 3.For a chance to add a little math to the biological levels of organization, consider calculating the general scale differences between each level of biological organization. For example, are cells generally 5, 10, 50, or 100 times more massive than organelles? Are organelles generally 5, 10, 50, or 100 times more massive than macromolecules? For some levels of organization, such as ecosystems, communities, and populations, size or scale differences are perhaps less relevant and more problematic to consider. However, at the smaller levels, the sense of scale might enhance an appreciation for levels of biological organization. 4. Help the class think through the diverse interactions between an organism and its environment. In class, select an organism and have the class develop a list of environmental components that interact with the organism. This list should include living and nonliving categories. 5. The U.S. Census Bureau maintains updated population clocks that estimate the United States and world populations (www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html). If students have a general idea of the human population of the United States, statistics about the number of people affected with a disease or disaster become more significant. For example, the current population of the United States is more than 311,000,000 (2011). It is currently estimated that at least 1 million people in the United States are infected with HIV. The number of people infected with HIV is impressive and concerning, but not perhaps as meaningful as the realization that this represents about one of every 311 people in the United States. Although the infected people are not evenly distributed among geographic and ethnic groups, if you apply this generality to the enrollments in your classes, the students might better understand the tremendous impact of HIV infection. 6. The authors make an analogy between the four bases used to form genes and the 26 letters of the English alphabet used to create words and sentences. One could also make an analogy between the four bases and trains composed of four different types of railroad cars (perhaps an engine, boxcar, tanker, and flatcar). Imagine how many different types of trains one could make using just 100 rail cars of four different types. (The answer is 4100.) 7. An excellent introduction to the domains and kingdoms of life is presented at 25

26 Figure 1.7 Figure 1.7 A small sample of biological diversity 26

27 Grouping Species: The Basic Concept
Biodiversity can be beautiful but overwhelming. Categorizing life into groups helps us deal with this complexity. Taxonomy is the branch of biology that names and classifies species. It formalizes the hierarchical ordering of organisms into broader and broader groups. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Many students enter our courses with a limited appreciation of the diversity of life. Ask any group of freshmen at the start of the semester to write down the first type of animal that comes to mind, and the most frequent response is a mammal. (In my courses, over a 21-year period, more than 98% of the examples have been mammals.) As the diversity of life is explored, the common heritage of biological organization can be less, and not more, apparent. The diverse forms, habits, and ecological interactions overwhelm our senses with differences. Emphasizing the diversity and unifying aspects of life is necessary for a greater understanding of the evolutionary history of life on Earth. 2. We live in a world that is largely understood by what we can distinguish and identify with our naked senses. However, the diversity of life and the levels of biological organization extend well below the physical scale of our daily lives. For many students, appreciating the diversity of the microscopic world is abstract, nearly on par with an understanding of the workings of atoms and molecules. A laboratory opportunity to examine the microscopic details of objects from our daily lives (the surface of potato chips, the structure of table salt and sugar, the details of a blade of grass) can be an important sensory extension that prepares the mind for greater comprehension of these minute biological details. Teaching Tips 1. Consider asking students to bring to class a page or two of an article about biology that appeared in the media in the last month. Alternatively, you could have each student a Web address of a recent biology-related news event to you. You might even have them relevant articles to you for each of the main topics you address throughout the semester. 2. The scientific organization Sigma Xi offers a free summary of the major science news articles each weekday. The first few paragraphs of each article are included with a hyperlink to the source of the entire article. The topics are most diverse and can be an excellent way to be aware of daily scientific announcements and reports. Typically, about ten articles are cited each weekday. Science In the News is part of the web site at 3.For a chance to add a little math to the biological levels of organization, consider calculating the general scale differences between each level of biological organization. For example, are cells generally 5, 10, 50, or 100 times more massive than organelles? Are organelles generally 5, 10, 50, or 100 times more massive than macromolecules? For some levels of organization, such as ecosystems, communities, and populations, size or scale differences are perhaps less relevant and more problematic to consider. However, at the smaller levels, the sense of scale might enhance an appreciation for levels of biological organization. 4. Help the class think through the diverse interactions between an organism and its environment. In class, select an organism and have the class develop a list of environmental components that interact with the organism. This list should include living and nonliving categories. 5. The U.S. Census Bureau maintains updated population clocks that estimate the United States and world populations (www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html). If students have a general idea of the human population of the United States, statistics about the number of people affected with a disease or disaster become more significant. For example, the current population of the United States is more than 311,000,000 (2011). It is currently estimated that at least 1 million people in the United States are infected with HIV. The number of people infected with HIV is impressive and concerning, but not perhaps as meaningful as the realization that this represents about one of every 311 people in the United States. Although the infected people are not evenly distributed among geographic and ethnic groups, if you apply this generality to the enrollments in your classes, the students might better understand the tremendous impact of HIV infection. 6. The authors make an analogy between the four bases used to form genes and the 26 letters of the English alphabet used to create words and sentences. One could also make an analogy between the four bases and trains composed of four different types of railroad cars (perhaps an engine, boxcar, tanker, and flatcar). Imagine how many different types of trains one could make using just 100 rail cars of four different types. (The answer is 4100.) 7. An excellent introduction to the domains and kingdoms of life is presented at 27

28 GROUPING SPECIES THE BASIC CONCEPT

29 The Three Domains of Life
The three domains of life are Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. Bacteria and Archaea have prokaryotic cells. Eukarya have eukaryotic cells. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Many students enter our courses with a limited appreciation of the diversity of life. Ask any group of freshmen at the start of the semester to write down the first type of animal that comes to mind, and the most frequent response is a mammal. (In my courses, over a 21-year period, more than 98% of the examples have been mammals.) As the diversity of life is explored, the common heritage of biological organization can be less, and not more, apparent. The diverse forms, habits, and ecological interactions overwhelm our senses with differences. Emphasizing the diversity and unifying aspects of life is necessary for a greater understanding of the evolutionary history of life on Earth. 2. We live in a world that is largely understood by what we can distinguish and identify with our naked senses. However, the diversity of life and the levels of biological organization extend well below the physical scale of our daily lives. For many students, appreciating the diversity of the microscopic world is abstract, nearly on par with an understanding of the workings of atoms and molecules. A laboratory opportunity to examine the microscopic details of objects from our daily lives (the surface of potato chips, the structure of table salt and sugar, the details of a blade of grass) can be an important sensory extension that prepares the mind for greater comprehension of these minute biological details. Teaching Tips 1. Consider asking students to bring to class a page or two of an article about biology that appeared in the media in the last month. Alternatively, you could have each student a Web address of a recent biology-related news event to you. You might even have them relevant articles to you for each of the main topics you address throughout the semester. 2. The scientific organization Sigma Xi offers a free summary of the major science news articles each weekday. The first few paragraphs of each article are included with a hyperlink to the source of the entire article. The topics are most diverse and can be an excellent way to be aware of daily scientific announcements and reports. Typically, about ten articles are cited each weekday. Science In the News is part of the web site at 3.For a chance to add a little math to the biological levels of organization, consider calculating the general scale differences between each level of biological organization. For example, are cells generally 5, 10, 50, or 100 times more massive than organelles? Are organelles generally 5, 10, 50, or 100 times more massive than macromolecules? For some levels of organization, such as ecosystems, communities, and populations, size or scale differences are perhaps less relevant and more problematic to consider. However, at the smaller levels, the sense of scale might enhance an appreciation for levels of biological organization. 4. Help the class think through the diverse interactions between an organism and its environment. In class, select an organism and have the class develop a list of environmental components that interact with the organism. This list should include living and nonliving categories. 5. The U.S. Census Bureau maintains updated population clocks that estimate the United States and world populations (www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html). If students have a general idea of the human population of the United States, statistics about the number of people affected with a disease or disaster become more significant. For example, the current population of the United States is more than 311,000,000 (2011). It is currently estimated that at least 1 million people in the United States are infected with HIV. The number of people infected with HIV is impressive and concerning, but not perhaps as meaningful as the realization that this represents about one of every 311 people in the United States. Although the infected people are not evenly distributed among geographic and ethnic groups, if you apply this generality to the enrollments in your classes, the students might better understand the tremendous impact of HIV infection. 6. The authors make an analogy between the four bases used to form genes and the 26 letters of the English alphabet used to create words and sentences. One could also make an analogy between the four bases and trains composed of four different types of railroad cars (perhaps an engine, boxcar, tanker, and flatcar). Imagine how many different types of trains one could make using just 100 rail cars of four different types. (The answer is 4100.) 7. An excellent introduction to the domains and kingdoms of life is presented at 29

30 The Three Domains of Life
Eukarya include Kingdom Plantae, Kingdom Fungi, Kingdom Animalia, and Protists (multiple kingdoms). Most plants, fungi, and animals are multicellular. Protists are generally single-celled. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Many students enter our courses with a limited appreciation of the diversity of life. Ask any group of freshmen at the start of the semester to write down the first type of animal that comes to mind, and the most frequent response is a mammal. (In my courses, over a 21-year period, more than 98% of the examples have been mammals.) As the diversity of life is explored, the common heritage of biological organization can be less, and not more, apparent. The diverse forms, habits, and ecological interactions overwhelm our senses with differences. Emphasizing the diversity and unifying aspects of life is necessary for a greater understanding of the evolutionary history of life on Earth. 2. We live in a world that is largely understood by what we can distinguish and identify with our naked senses. However, the diversity of life and the levels of biological organization extend well below the physical scale of our daily lives. For many students, appreciating the diversity of the microscopic world is abstract, nearly on par with an understanding of the workings of atoms and molecules. A laboratory opportunity to examine the microscopic details of objects from our daily lives (the surface of potato chips, the structure of table salt and sugar, the details of a blade of grass) can be an important sensory extension that prepares the mind for greater comprehension of these minute biological details. Teaching Tips 1. Consider asking students to bring to class a page or two of an article about biology that appeared in the media in the last month. Alternatively, you could have each student a Web address of a recent biology-related news event to you. You might even have them relevant articles to you for each of the main topics you address throughout the semester. 2. The scientific organization Sigma Xi offers a free summary of the major science news articles each weekday. The first few paragraphs of each article are included with a hyperlink to the source of the entire article. The topics are most diverse and can be an excellent way to be aware of daily scientific announcements and reports. Typically, about ten articles are cited each weekday. Science In the News is part of the web site at 3.For a chance to add a little math to the biological levels of organization, consider calculating the general scale differences between each level of biological organization. For example, are cells generally 5, 10, 50, or 100 times more massive than organelles? Are organelles generally 5, 10, 50, or 100 times more massive than macromolecules? For some levels of organization, such as ecosystems, communities, and populations, size or scale differences are perhaps less relevant and more problematic to consider. However, at the smaller levels, the sense of scale might enhance an appreciation for levels of biological organization. 4. Help the class think through the diverse interactions between an organism and its environment. In class, select an organism and have the class develop a list of environmental components that interact with the organism. This list should include living and nonliving categories. 5. The U.S. Census Bureau maintains updated population clocks that estimate the United States and world populations (www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html). If students have a general idea of the human population of the United States, statistics about the number of people affected with a disease or disaster become more significant. For example, the current population of the United States is more than 311,000,000 (2011). It is currently estimated that at least 1 million people in the United States are infected with HIV. The number of people infected with HIV is impressive and concerning, but not perhaps as meaningful as the realization that this represents about one of every 311 people in the United States. Although the infected people are not evenly distributed among geographic and ethnic groups, if you apply this generality to the enrollments in your classes, the students might better understand the tremendous impact of HIV infection. 6. The authors make an analogy between the four bases used to form genes and the 26 letters of the English alphabet used to create words and sentences. One could also make an analogy between the four bases and trains composed of four different types of railroad cars (perhaps an engine, boxcar, tanker, and flatcar). Imagine how many different types of trains one could make using just 100 rail cars of four different types. (The answer is 4100.) 7. An excellent introduction to the domains and kingdoms of life is presented at

31 The Three Domains of Life
These three multicellular kingdoms are distinguished by how they obtain food. Plants produce their own sugars and other foods by photosynthesis. Fungi are mostly decomposers, digesting dead organisms. Animals obtain food by ingesting (eating) and digesting other organisms. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Many students enter our courses with a limited appreciation of the diversity of life. Ask any group of freshmen at the start of the semester to write down the first type of animal that comes to mind, and the most frequent response is a mammal. (In my courses, over a 21-year period, more than 98% of the examples have been mammals.) As the diversity of life is explored, the common heritage of biological organization can be less, and not more, apparent. The diverse forms, habits, and ecological interactions overwhelm our senses with differences. Emphasizing the diversity and unifying aspects of life is necessary for a greater understanding of the evolutionary history of life on Earth. 2. We live in a world that is largely understood by what we can distinguish and identify with our naked senses. However, the diversity of life and the levels of biological organization extend well below the physical scale of our daily lives. For many students, appreciating the diversity of the microscopic world is abstract, nearly on par with an understanding of the workings of atoms and molecules. A laboratory opportunity to examine the microscopic details of objects from our daily lives (the surface of potato chips, the structure of table salt and sugar, the details of a blade of grass) can be an important sensory extension that prepares the mind for greater comprehension of these minute biological details. Teaching Tips 1. Consider asking students to bring to class a page or two of an article about biology that appeared in the media in the last month. Alternatively, you could have each student a Web address of a recent biology-related news event to you. You might even have them relevant articles to you for each of the main topics you address throughout the semester. 2. The scientific organization Sigma Xi offers a free summary of the major science news articles each weekday. The first few paragraphs of each article are included with a hyperlink to the source of the entire article. The topics are most diverse and can be an excellent way to be aware of daily scientific announcements and reports. Typically, about ten articles are cited each weekday. Science In the News is part of the web site at 3.For a chance to add a little math to the biological levels of organization, consider calculating the general scale differences between each level of biological organization. For example, are cells generally 5, 10, 50, or 100 times more massive than organelles? Are organelles generally 5, 10, 50, or 100 times more massive than macromolecules? For some levels of organization, such as ecosystems, communities, and populations, size or scale differences are perhaps less relevant and more problematic to consider. However, at the smaller levels, the sense of scale might enhance an appreciation for levels of biological organization. 4. Help the class think through the diverse interactions between an organism and its environment. In class, select an organism and have the class develop a list of environmental components that interact with the organism. This list should include living and nonliving categories. 5. The U.S. Census Bureau maintains updated population clocks that estimate the United States and world populations (www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html). If students have a general idea of the human population of the United States, statistics about the number of people affected with a disease or disaster become more significant. For example, the current population of the United States is more than 311,000,000 (2011). It is currently estimated that at least 1 million people in the United States are infected with HIV. The number of people infected with HIV is impressive and concerning, but not perhaps as meaningful as the realization that this represents about one of every 311 people in the United States. Although the infected people are not evenly distributed among geographic and ethnic groups, if you apply this generality to the enrollments in your classes, the students might better understand the tremendous impact of HIV infection. 6. The authors make an analogy between the four bases used to form genes and the 26 letters of the English alphabet used to create words and sentences. One could also make an analogy between the four bases and trains composed of four different types of railroad cars (perhaps an engine, boxcar, tanker, and flatcar). Imagine how many different types of trains one could make using just 100 rail cars of four different types. (The answer is 4100.) 7. An excellent introduction to the domains and kingdoms of life is presented at

32 32 DOMAIN BACTERIA Kingdom Plantae DOMAIN ARCHAEA DOMAIN EUKARYA
Figure 1.8 DOMAIN BACTERIA Kingdom Plantae DOMAIN ARCHAEA Kingdom Fungi DOMAIN EUKARYA Kingdom Animalia Protists (multiple kingdoms) Figure 1.8 The three domains of life 32

33 Unity in the Diversity of Life
Underlying the diversity of life is a striking unity, especially at the lower levels of biological organization. For example, all life uses the genetic language of DNA. Biological evolution accounts for this combination of unity and diversity. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Many students enter our courses with a limited appreciation of the diversity of life. Ask any group of freshmen at the start of the semester to write down the first type of animal that comes to mind, and the most frequent response is a mammal. (In my courses, over a 21-year period, more than 98% of the examples have been mammals.) As the diversity of life is explored, the common heritage of biological organization can be less, and not more, apparent. The diverse forms, habits, and ecological interactions overwhelm our senses with differences. Emphasizing the diversity and unifying aspects of life is necessary for a greater understanding of the evolutionary history of life on Earth. 2. We live in a world that is largely understood by what we can distinguish and identify with our naked senses. However, the diversity of life and the levels of biological organization extend well below the physical scale of our daily lives. For many students, appreciating the diversity of the microscopic world is abstract, nearly on par with an understanding of the workings of atoms and molecules. A laboratory opportunity to examine the microscopic details of objects from our daily lives (the surface of potato chips, the structure of table salt and sugar, the details of a blade of grass) can be an important sensory extension that prepares the mind for greater comprehension of these minute biological details. Teaching Tips 1. Consider asking students to bring to class a page or two of an article about biology that appeared in the media in the last month. Alternatively, you could have each student a Web address of a recent biology-related news event to you. You might even have them relevant articles to you for each of the main topics you address throughout the semester. 2. The scientific organization Sigma Xi offers a free summary of the major science news articles each weekday. The first few paragraphs of each article are included with a hyperlink to the source of the entire article. The topics are most diverse and can be an excellent way to be aware of daily scientific announcements and reports. Typically, about ten articles are cited each weekday. Science In the News is part of the web site at 3.For a chance to add a little math to the biological levels of organization, consider calculating the general scale differences between each level of biological organization. For example, are cells generally 5, 10, 50, or 100 times more massive than organelles? Are organelles generally 5, 10, 50, or 100 times more massive than macromolecules? For some levels of organization, such as ecosystems, communities, and populations, size or scale differences are perhaps less relevant and more problematic to consider. However, at the smaller levels, the sense of scale might enhance an appreciation for levels of biological organization. 4. Help the class think through the diverse interactions between an organism and its environment. In class, select an organism and have the class develop a list of environmental components that interact with the organism. This list should include living and nonliving categories. 5. The U.S. Census Bureau maintains updated population clocks that estimate the United States and world populations (www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html). If students have a general idea of the human population of the United States, statistics about the number of people affected with a disease or disaster become more significant. For example, the current population of the United States is more than 311,000,000 (2011). It is currently estimated that at least 1 million people in the United States are infected with HIV. The number of people infected with HIV is impressive and concerning, but not perhaps as meaningful as the realization that this represents about one of every 311 people in the United States. Although the infected people are not evenly distributed among geographic and ethnic groups, if you apply this generality to the enrollments in your classes, the students might better understand the tremendous impact of HIV infection. 6. The authors make an analogy between the four bases used to form genes and the 26 letters of the English alphabet used to create words and sentences. One could also make an analogy between the four bases and trains composed of four different types of railroad cars (perhaps an engine, boxcar, tanker, and flatcar). Imagine how many different types of trains one could make using just 100 rail cars of four different types. (The answer is 4100.) 7. An excellent introduction to the domains and kingdoms of life is presented at 33

34 EVOLUTION: BIOLOGY’S UNIFYING THEME
The history of life is a saga of a constantly changing Earth billions of years old. Fossils document this history. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Students often believe that Charles Darwin was the first to suggest that life evolves; the early contributions by Greek philosophers and the work of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck may be unappreciated. Consider emphasizing this earlier work in your introduction to Darwin’s contributions. 2. Students often misunderstand the basic process of evolution and instead reflect a Lamarckian point of view. Organisms do not evolve structures deliberately or out of want or need. Individuals do not evolve. Evolution is a passive process in which the environment favors one or more variations of a trait that naturally exist within a population. Teaching Tips 1. Many resources related to Charles Darwin are available on the Internet: a. General evolution resources: b. The complete works of Charles Darwin can be found at c. Details of Charles Darwin’s home are located at 2. There are many variations of games that model aspects of natural selection. Here is one that is appropriate for a laboratory exercise. Purchase several bags of dried grocery store beans of diverse sizes and colors. Large lima beans, small white beans, red beans, and black beans are all good options. Consider the beans “food” for the “predatory” students. To begin, randomly distribute (throw) 100 beans of each of four colors onto a green lawn. Allow individual students to collect beans over a set period, perhaps 3 minutes. Then count the total number of each color of bean collected. Assume that the beans remaining undetected (still in the lawn) reproduce by doubling in number. Calculate the number of beans of each color remaining in the field. For the next round, count out the number of each color to add to the lawn so that the new totals on the lawn will double the number of beans that students did not find in the first “generation.” Before each predatory episode, record the total number of each color of beans that have “survived” in the field. Then let your student “predators” out for another round of collection (generation). Repeat the process for at least three or four “generations.” Note what colors of beans are favored by the environment. Apply Darwin’s “facts” and inescapable conclusions to this exercise. Ask students to speculate which colors might have been favored during another season or on a parking lot. 3. Many websites devoted to domesticated species can be used to illustrate the variety of forms produced by artificial selection. Those devoted to pigeons, chickens, and dogs have proven to be especially useful. . 34

35 Figure 1.9 Figure 1.9 Digging into the past 35

36 EVOLUTION: BIOLOGY’S UNIFYING THEME
Life evolves. Each species is one twig of a branching tree of life extending back in time through ancestral species more and more remote. Species that are very similar, such as the brown bear and polar bear, share a more recent common ancestor. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Students often believe that Charles Darwin was the first to suggest that life evolves; the early contributions by Greek philosophers and the work of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck may be unappreciated. Consider emphasizing this earlier work in your introduction to Darwin’s contributions. 2. Students often misunderstand the basic process of evolution and instead reflect a Lamarckian point of view. Organisms do not evolve structures deliberately or out of want or need. Individuals do not evolve. Evolution is a passive process in which the environment favors one or more variations of a trait that naturally exist within a population. Teaching Tips 1. Many resources related to Charles Darwin are available on the Internet: a. General evolution resources: b. The complete works of Charles Darwin can be found at c. Details of Charles Darwin’s home are located at 2. There are many variations of games that model aspects of natural selection. Here is one that is appropriate for a laboratory exercise. Purchase several bags of dried grocery store beans of diverse sizes and colors. Large lima beans, small white beans, red beans, and black beans are all good options. Consider the beans “food” for the “predatory” students. To begin, randomly distribute (throw) 100 beans of each of four colors onto a green lawn. Allow individual students to collect beans over a set period, perhaps 3 minutes. Then count the total number of each color of bean collected. Assume that the beans remaining undetected (still in the lawn) reproduce by doubling in number. Calculate the number of beans of each color remaining in the field. For the next round, count out the number of each color to add to the lawn so that the new totals on the lawn will double the number of beans that students did not find in the first “generation.” Before each predatory episode, record the total number of each color of beans that have “survived” in the field. Then let your student “predators” out for another round of collection (generation). Repeat the process for at least three or four “generations.” Note what colors of beans are favored by the environment. Apply Darwin’s “facts” and inescapable conclusions to this exercise. Ask students to speculate which colors might have been favored during another season or on a parking lot. 3. Many websites devoted to domesticated species can be used to illustrate the variety of forms produced by artificial selection. Those devoted to pigeons, chickens, and dogs have proven to be especially useful. 36

37 polar bear and brown bear
Figure 1.10 Giant panda Spectacled bear Ancestral bear Sloth bear Sun bear Common ancestor of all modern bears American black bear Asiatic black bear Common ancestor of polar bear and brown bear Polar bear Brown bear 30 25 20 15 10 5 Millions of years ago Figure 1.10 An evolutionary tree of bears 37

38 The Darwinian View of Life
The evolutionary view of life came into focus in 1859 when Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Students often believe that Charles Darwin was the first to suggest that life evolves; the early contributions by Greek philosophers and the work of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck may be unappreciated. Consider emphasizing this earlier work in your introduction to Darwin’s contributions. 2. Students often misunderstand the basic process of evolution and instead reflect a Lamarckian point of view. Organisms do not evolve structures deliberately or out of want or need. Individuals do not evolve. Evolution is a passive process in which the environment favors one or more variations of a trait that naturally exist within a population. Teaching Tips 1. Many resources related to Charles Darwin are available on the Internet: a. General evolution resources: b. The complete works of Charles Darwin can be found at c. Details of Charles Darwin’s home are located at 2. There are many variations of games that model aspects of natural selection. Here is one that is appropriate for a laboratory exercise. Purchase several bags of dried grocery store beans of diverse sizes and colors. Large lima beans, small white beans, red beans, and black beans are all good options. Consider the beans “food” for the “predatory” students. To begin, randomly distribute (throw) 100 beans of each of four colors onto a green lawn. Allow individual students to collect beans over a set period, perhaps 3 minutes. Then count the total number of each color of bean collected. Assume that the beans remaining undetected (still in the lawn) reproduce by doubling in number. Calculate the number of beans of each color remaining in the field. For the next round, count out the number of each color to add to the lawn so that the new totals on the lawn will double the number of beans that students did not find in the first “generation.” Before each predatory episode, record the total number of each color of beans that have “survived” in the field. Then let your student “predators” out for another round of collection (generation). Repeat the process for at least three or four “generations.” Note what colors of beans are favored by the environment. Apply Darwin’s “facts” and inescapable conclusions to this exercise. Ask students to speculate which colors might have been favored during another season or on a parking lot. 3. Many websites devoted to domesticated species can be used to illustrate the variety of forms produced by artificial selection. Those devoted to pigeons, chickens, and dogs have proven to be especially useful. 38

39 The Darwinian View of Life
Darwin’s book developed two main points: Species living today descended from a succession of ancestral species in what Darwin called “descent with modification,” capturing the duality of life’s unity (descent) and diversity (modification). Natural selection is the mechanism for descent with modification. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Students often believe that Charles Darwin was the first to suggest that life evolves; the early contributions by Greek philosophers and the work of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck may be unappreciated. Consider emphasizing this earlier work in your introduction to Darwin’s contributions. 2. Students often misunderstand the basic process of evolution and instead reflect a Lamarckian point of view. Organisms do not evolve structures deliberately or out of want or need. Individuals do not evolve. Evolution is a passive process in which the environment favors one or more variations of a trait that naturally exist within a population. Teaching Tips 1. Many resources related to Charles Darwin are available on the Internet: a. General evolution resources: b. The complete works of Charles Darwin can be found at c. Details of Charles Darwin’s home are located at 2. There are many variations of games that model aspects of natural selection. Here is one that is appropriate for a laboratory exercise. Purchase several bags of dried grocery store beans of diverse sizes and colors. Large lima beans, small white beans, red beans, and black beans are all good options. Consider the beans “food” for the “predatory” students. To begin, randomly distribute (throw) 100 beans of each of four colors onto a green lawn. Allow individual students to collect beans over a set period, perhaps 3 minutes. Then count the total number of each color of bean collected. Assume that the beans remaining undetected (still in the lawn) reproduce by doubling in number. Calculate the number of beans of each color remaining in the field. For the next round, count out the number of each color to add to the lawn so that the new totals on the lawn will double the number of beans that students did not find in the first “generation.” Before each predatory episode, record the total number of each color of beans that have “survived” in the field. Then let your student “predators” out for another round of collection (generation). Repeat the process for at least three or four “generations.” Note what colors of beans are favored by the environment. Apply Darwin’s “facts” and inescapable conclusions to this exercise. Ask students to speculate which colors might have been favored during another season or on a parking lot. 3. Many websites devoted to domesticated species can be used to illustrate the variety of forms produced by artificial selection. Those devoted to pigeons, chickens, and dogs have proven to be especially useful. 39

40 Natural Selection Darwin was struck by the diversity of animals on the Galápagos Islands. He thought that adaptation to the environment and the origin of new species were closely related processes. As populations separated by a geographic barrier adapted to local environments, they became separate species. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Students often believe that Charles Darwin was the first to suggest that life evolves; the early contributions by Greek philosophers and the work of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck may be unappreciated. Consider emphasizing this earlier work in your introduction to Darwin’s contributions. 2. Students often misunderstand the basic process of evolution and instead reflect a Lamarckian point of view. Organisms do not evolve structures deliberately or out of want or need. Individuals do not evolve. Evolution is a passive process in which the environment favors one or more variations of a trait that naturally exist within a population. Teaching Tips 1. Many resources related to Charles Darwin are available on the Internet: a. General evolution resources: b. The complete works of Charles Darwin can be found at c. Details of Charles Darwin’s home are located at 2. There are many variations of games that model aspects of natural selection. Here is one that is appropriate for a laboratory exercise. Purchase several bags of dried grocery store beans of diverse sizes and colors. Large lima beans, small white beans, red beans, and black beans are all good options. Consider the beans “food” for the “predatory” students. To begin, randomly distribute (throw) 100 beans of each of four colors onto a green lawn. Allow individual students to collect beans over a set period, perhaps 3 minutes. Then count the total number of each color of bean collected. Assume that the beans remaining undetected (still in the lawn) reproduce by doubling in number. Calculate the number of beans of each color remaining in the field. For the next round, count out the number of each color to add to the lawn so that the new totals on the lawn will double the number of beans that students did not find in the first “generation.” Before each predatory episode, record the total number of each color of beans that have “survived” in the field. Then let your student “predators” out for another round of collection (generation). Repeat the process for at least three or four “generations.” Note what colors of beans are favored by the environment. Apply Darwin’s “facts” and inescapable conclusions to this exercise. Ask students to speculate which colors might have been favored during another season or on a parking lot. 3. Many websites devoted to domesticated species can be used to illustrate the variety of forms produced by artificial selection. Those devoted to pigeons, chickens, and dogs have proven to be especially useful. 40

41 Figure 1.11 Figure 1.11 Charles Darwin (1809–1882), The Origin of Species, and blue-footed boobies on the Galápagos Islands 41

42 Figure 1.11a Figure 1.11 Charles Darwin (1809–1882), The Origin of Species, and blue-footed boobies on the Galápagos Islands (part 1) 42

43 Figure 1.11b Figure 1.11 Charles Darwin (1809–1882), The Origin of Species, and blue-footed boobies on the Galápagos Islands (part 2) 43

44 Darwin’s Inescapable Conclusion
Darwin synthesized the theory of natural selection from two observations that were neither profound nor original. Others had the pieces of the puzzle, but Darwin could see how they fit together. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Students often believe that Charles Darwin was the first to suggest that life evolves; the early contributions by Greek philosophers and the work of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck may be unappreciated. Consider emphasizing this earlier work in your introduction to Darwin’s contributions. 2. Students often misunderstand the basic process of evolution and instead reflect a Lamarckian point of view. Organisms do not evolve structures deliberately or out of want or need. Individuals do not evolve. Evolution is a passive process in which the environment favors one or more variations of a trait that naturally exist within a population. Teaching Tips 1. Many resources related to Charles Darwin are available on the Internet: a. General evolution resources: b. The complete works of Charles Darwin can be found at c. Details of Charles Darwin’s home are located at 2. There are many variations of games that model aspects of natural selection. Here is one that is appropriate for a laboratory exercise. Purchase several bags of dried grocery store beans of diverse sizes and colors. Large lima beans, small white beans, red beans, and black beans are all good options. Consider the beans “food” for the “predatory” students. To begin, randomly distribute (throw) 100 beans of each of four colors onto a green lawn. Allow individual students to collect beans over a set period, perhaps 3 minutes. Then count the total number of each color of bean collected. Assume that the beans remaining undetected (still in the lawn) reproduce by doubling in number. Calculate the number of beans of each color remaining in the field. For the next round, count out the number of each color to add to the lawn so that the new totals on the lawn will double the number of beans that students did not find in the first “generation.” Before each predatory episode, record the total number of each color of beans that have “survived” in the field. Then let your student “predators” out for another round of collection (generation). Repeat the process for at least three or four “generations.” Note what colors of beans are favored by the environment. Apply Darwin’s “facts” and inescapable conclusions to this exercise. Ask students to speculate which colors might have been favored during another season or on a parking lot. 3. Many websites devoted to domesticated species can be used to illustrate the variety of forms produced by artificial selection. Those devoted to pigeons, chickens, and dogs have proven to be especially useful. 44

45 Darwin’s Inescapable Conclusion
Observation 1: Overproduction and competition Observation 2: Individual variation Conclusion: Unequal reproductive success It is this unequal reproductive success that Darwin called natural selection. The product of natural selection is adaptation. Natural selection is the mechanism of evolution. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Students often believe that Charles Darwin was the first to suggest that life evolves; the early contributions by Greek philosophers and the work of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck may be unappreciated. Consider emphasizing this earlier work in your introduction to Darwin’s contributions. 2. Students often misunderstand the basic process of evolution and instead reflect a Lamarckian point of view. Organisms do not evolve structures deliberately or out of want or need. Individuals do not evolve. Evolution is a passive process in which the environment favors one or more variations of a trait that naturally exist within a population. Teaching Tips 1. Many resources related to Charles Darwin are available on the Internet: a. General evolution resources: b. The complete works of Charles Darwin can be found at c. Details of Charles Darwin’s home are located at 2. There are many variations of games that model aspects of natural selection. Here is one that is appropriate for a laboratory exercise. Purchase several bags of dried grocery store beans of diverse sizes and colors. Large lima beans, small white beans, red beans, and black beans are all good options. Consider the beans “food” for the “predatory” students. To begin, randomly distribute (throw) 100 beans of each of four colors onto a green lawn. Allow individual students to collect beans over a set period, perhaps 3 minutes. Then count the total number of each color of bean collected. Assume that the beans remaining undetected (still in the lawn) reproduce by doubling in number. Calculate the number of beans of each color remaining in the field. For the next round, count out the number of each color to add to the lawn so that the new totals on the lawn will double the number of beans that students did not find in the first “generation.” Before each predatory episode, record the total number of each color of beans that have “survived” in the field. Then let your student “predators” out for another round of collection (generation). Repeat the process for at least three or four “generations.” Note what colors of beans are favored by the environment. Apply Darwin’s “facts” and inescapable conclusions to this exercise. Ask students to speculate which colors might have been favored during another season or on a parking lot. 3. Many websites devoted to domesticated species can be used to illustrate the variety of forms produced by artificial selection. Those devoted to pigeons, chickens, and dogs have proven to be especially useful. 45

46 46 Figure 1.12 1 Population with varied inherited traits 2
Elimination of individuals with certain traits 3 Reproduction of survivors 4 Increasing frequency of traits that enhance survival and reproductive success Figure 1.12 Natural selection 46

47 47 1 Population with varied inherited traits 2
Figure 1.12a 1 Population with varied inherited traits 2 Elimination of individuals with certain traits Figure 1.12 Natural selection (part 1) 47

48 3 4 48 Reproduction of survivors
Figure 1.12b 3 Reproduction of survivors 4 Increasing frequency of traits that enhance survival and reproductive success Figure 1.12 Natural selection (part 2) 48

49 Observing Artificial Selection
Artificial selection is the selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals by humans. In artificial selection, humans do the selecting instead of the environment. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Students often believe that Charles Darwin was the first to suggest that life evolves; the early contributions by Greek philosophers and the work of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck may be unappreciated. Consider emphasizing this earlier work in your introduction to Darwin’s contributions. 2. Students often misunderstand the basic process of evolution and instead reflect a Lamarckian point of view. Organisms do not evolve structures deliberately or out of want or need. Individuals do not evolve. Evolution is a passive process in which the environment favors one or more variations of a trait that naturally exist within a population. Teaching Tips 1. Many resources related to Charles Darwin are available on the Internet: a. General evolution resources: b. The complete works of Charles Darwin can be found at c. Details of Charles Darwin’s home are located at 2. There are many variations of games that model aspects of natural selection. Here is one that is appropriate for a laboratory exercise. Purchase several bags of dried grocery store beans of diverse sizes and colors. Large lima beans, small white beans, red beans, and black beans are all good options. Consider the beans “food” for the “predatory” students. To begin, randomly distribute (throw) 100 beans of each of four colors onto a green lawn. Allow individual students to collect beans over a set period, perhaps 3 minutes. Then count the total number of each color of bean collected. Assume that the beans remaining undetected (still in the lawn) reproduce by doubling in number. Calculate the number of beans of each color remaining in the field. For the next round, count out the number of each color to add to the lawn so that the new totals on the lawn will double the number of beans that students did not find in the first “generation.” Before each predatory episode, record the total number of each color of beans that have “survived” in the field. Then let your student “predators” out for another round of collection (generation). Repeat the process for at least three or four “generations.” Note what colors of beans are favored by the environment. Apply Darwin’s “facts” and inescapable conclusions to this exercise. Ask students to speculate which colors might have been favored during another season or on a parking lot. 3. Many websites devoted to domesticated species can be used to illustrate the variety of forms produced by artificial selection. Those devoted to pigeons, chickens, and dogs have proven to be especially useful. 49

50 50 (a) Vegetables descended from wild mustard Wild mustard Cabbage
Figure 1.13a (a) Vegetables descended from wild mustard Wild mustard Cabbage from end buds Brussels sprouts from side buds Kohlrabi from stems Kale from leaves Broccoli from flowers and stems Cauliflower from flower clusters Figure 1.13 Examples of artificial selection (part 1) 50

51 51 (b) Domesticated dogs descended from wolves Gray wolves
Figure 1.13b (b) Domesticated dogs descended from wolves Gray wolves Domesticated dogs Figure 1.13 Examples of artificial selection (part 2) 51

52 Figure 1.13ba Gray wolves Figure 1.13 Examples of artificial selection (part 3) 52

53 Domesticated dogs 53 Figure 1.13bb
Figure 1.13 Examples of artificial selection (part 4) 53

54 Observing Natural Selection
There are many examples of natural selection in action. In Galápagos finches, beak size becomes better suited to the size and shape of available seeds. Antibiotic-resistance in bacteria evolves in response to the overuse of antibiotics. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Students often believe that Charles Darwin was the first to suggest that life evolves; the early contributions by Greek philosophers and the work of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck may be unappreciated. Consider emphasizing this earlier work in your introduction to Darwin’s contributions. 2. Students often misunderstand the basic process of evolution and instead reflect a Lamarckian point of view. Organisms do not evolve structures deliberately or out of want or need. Individuals do not evolve. Evolution is a passive process in which the environment favors one or more variations of a trait that naturally exist within a population. Teaching Tips 1. Many resources related to Charles Darwin are available on the Internet: a. General evolution resources: b. The complete works of Charles Darwin can be found at c. Details of Charles Darwin’s home are located at 2. There are many variations of games that model aspects of natural selection. Here is one that is appropriate for a laboratory exercise. Purchase several bags of dried grocery store beans of diverse sizes and colors. Large lima beans, small white beans, red beans, and black beans are all good options. Consider the beans “food” for the “predatory” students. To begin, randomly distribute (throw) 100 beans of each of four colors onto a green lawn. Allow individual students to collect beans over a set period, perhaps 3 minutes. Then count the total number of each color of bean collected. Assume that the beans remaining undetected (still in the lawn) reproduce by doubling in number. Calculate the number of beans of each color remaining in the field. For the next round, count out the number of each color to add to the lawn so that the new totals on the lawn will double the number of beans that students did not find in the first “generation.” Before each predatory episode, record the total number of each color of beans that have “survived” in the field. Then let your student “predators” out for another round of collection (generation). Repeat the process for at least three or four “generations.” Note what colors of beans are favored by the environment. Apply Darwin’s “facts” and inescapable conclusions to this exercise. Ask students to speculate which colors might have been favored during another season or on a parking lot. 3. Many websites devoted to domesticated species can be used to illustrate the variety of forms produced by artificial selection. Those devoted to pigeons, chickens, and dogs have proven to be especially useful. 54

55 Observing Natural Selection
Darwin’s publication of The Origin of Species fueled an explosion in biological research. Evolution is one of biology’s best demonstrated, most comprehensive, and longest-lasting theories. Evolution is the unifying theme of biology. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Students often believe that Charles Darwin was the first to suggest that life evolves; the early contributions by Greek philosophers and the work of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck may be unappreciated. Consider emphasizing this earlier work in your introduction to Darwin’s contributions. 2. Students often misunderstand the basic process of evolution and instead reflect a Lamarckian point of view. Organisms do not evolve structures deliberately or out of want or need. Individuals do not evolve. Evolution is a passive process in which the environment favors one or more variations of a trait that naturally exist within a population. Teaching Tips 1. Many resources related to Charles Darwin are available on the Internet: a. General evolution resources: b. The complete works of Charles Darwin can be found at c. Details of Charles Darwin’s home are located at 2. There are many variations of games that model aspects of natural selection. Here is one that is appropriate for a laboratory exercise. Purchase several bags of dried grocery store beans of diverse sizes and colors. Large lima beans, small white beans, red beans, and black beans are all good options. Consider the beans “food” for the “predatory” students. To begin, randomly distribute (throw) 100 beans of each of four colors onto a green lawn. Allow individual students to collect beans over a set period, perhaps 3 minutes. Then count the total number of each color of bean collected. Assume that the beans remaining undetected (still in the lawn) reproduce by doubling in number. Calculate the number of beans of each color remaining in the field. For the next round, count out the number of each color to add to the lawn so that the new totals on the lawn will double the number of beans that students did not find in the first “generation.” Before each predatory episode, record the total number of each color of beans that have “survived” in the field. Then let your student “predators” out for another round of collection (generation). Repeat the process for at least three or four “generations.” Note what colors of beans are favored by the environment. Apply Darwin’s “facts” and inescapable conclusions to this exercise. Ask students to speculate which colors might have been favored during another season or on a parking lot. 3. Many websites devoted to domesticated species can be used to illustrate the variety of forms produced by artificial selection. Those devoted to pigeons, chickens, and dogs have proven to be especially useful. 55

56 THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE The word science is derived from a Latin verb meaning “to know.” Science is a way of knowing, based on inquiry. Science developed from our curiosity about ourselves and the world around us. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Contrasting the concept of faith with the tentative nature of science can help to define and distinguish science from other ways of knowing. Students sometimes enter science classes expecting absolutes of facts and rigid dogma. Instead, scientific knowledge is tentative, reflecting degrees of confidence closely correlated to the strength of the evidence. 2. The authors’ distinction between natural and supernatural explanations is essential to understanding the power and limits of scientific explanations. 3. Some students think that variables are somehow restricted in a controlled experiment. That is, everything about the experiment is “controlled”. But as the textbook notes, controlled experiments limit the differences between experimental and control groups, with only one difference in most situations. That way, when a difference between the groups is identified, it can be explained by the single difference between the groups. Teaching Tips 1. Consider using a laboratory exercise to have your students plan and perhaps conduct investigations using discovery science and a hypothesis-driven approach. Emphasize the processes and not the significance of the questions. Students can conduct descriptive surveys of student behavior (use of pens or pencils for taking notes, use of backpacks) or test hypotheses using controlled trials. Students may need considerable supervision and advice while planning and conducting their experiments. 2. Consider presenting your class with several descriptions of scientific investigations. Then ask students to categorize each type of experiment as discovery science or hypothesis-driven science. If students can work in small groups, encourage quick discussions to clarify these two types of scientific investigations. 3. You might also present to your class descriptions of several scientific investigations that you have written. Include in your descriptions numerous examples of improper methodology (small sample size, several variables existing between the control and experimental groups, failure to specifically test the hypothesis, and the like). Let small groups or individuals analyze the experiments in class to identify the flaws. This critical analysis allows students the opportunity to suggest the characteristics of good investigations in class. 4. Have your students explain why a coordinated “conspiracy” promoting a specific idea in science is unlikely to succeed. Have your students describe aspects of science that would check fraudulent or erroneous claims and/or political efforts. 5. The authors of Campbell’s Essential Biology note that the discovery of the structure and functions of DNA has led to a variety of DNA technologies. This technology is discussed in detail in Chapter 12.   56

57 THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE There are two main scientific approaches:
Discovery science is mostly about describing nature. Hypothesis-driven science is mostly about explaining nature. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Contrasting the concept of faith with the tentative nature of science can help to define and distinguish science from other ways of knowing. Students sometimes enter science classes expecting absolutes of facts and rigid dogma. Instead, scientific knowledge is tentative, reflecting degrees of confidence closely correlated to the strength of the evidence. 2. The authors’ distinction between natural and supernatural explanations is essential to understanding the power and limits of scientific explanations. 3. Some students think that variables are somehow restricted in a controlled experiment. That is, everything about the experiment is “controlled”. But as the textbook notes, controlled experiments limit the differences between experimental and control groups, with only one difference in most situations. That way, when a difference between the groups is identified, it can be explained by the single difference between the groups. Teaching Tips 1. Consider using a laboratory exercise to have your students plan and perhaps conduct investigations using discovery science and a hypothesis-driven approach. Emphasize the processes and not the significance of the questions. Students can conduct descriptive surveys of student behavior (use of pens or pencils for taking notes, use of backpacks) or test hypotheses using controlled trials. Students may need considerable supervision and advice while planning and conducting their experiments. 2. Consider presenting your class with several descriptions of scientific investigations. Then ask students to categorize each type of experiment as discovery science or hypothesis-driven science. If students can work in small groups, encourage quick discussions to clarify these two types of scientific investigations. 3. You might also present to your class descriptions of several scientific investigations that you have written. Include in your descriptions numerous examples of improper methodology (small sample size, several variables existing between the control and experimental groups, failure to specifically test the hypothesis, and the like). Let small groups or individuals analyze the experiments in class to identify the flaws. This critical analysis allows students the opportunity to suggest the characteristics of good investigations in class. 4. Have your students explain why a coordinated “conspiracy” promoting a specific idea in science is unlikely to succeed. Have your students describe aspects of science that would check fraudulent or erroneous claims and/or political efforts. 5. The authors of Campbell’s Essential Biology note that the discovery of the structure and functions of DNA has led to a variety of DNA technologies. This technology is discussed in detail in Chapter 12.   57

58 Discovery Science Science seeks natural causes for natural phenomena.
This limits the scope of science to the study of structures and processes that we can observe and measure directly or indirectly. The dependence on observations that people can confirm demystifies nature and distinguishes science from belief in the supernatural. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Contrasting the concept of faith with the tentative nature of science can help to define and distinguish science from other ways of knowing. Students sometimes enter science classes expecting absolutes of facts and rigid dogma. Instead, scientific knowledge is tentative, reflecting degrees of confidence closely correlated to the strength of the evidence. 2. The authors’ distinction between natural and supernatural explanations is essential to understanding the power and limits of scientific explanations. 3. Some students think that variables are somehow restricted in a controlled experiment. That is, everything about the experiment is “controlled”. But as the textbook notes, controlled experiments limit the differences between experimental and control groups, with only one difference in most situations. That way, when a difference between the groups is identified, it can be explained by the single difference between the groups. Teaching Tips 1. Consider using a laboratory exercise to have your students plan and perhaps conduct investigations using discovery science and a hypothesis-driven approach. Emphasize the processes and not the significance of the questions. Students can conduct descriptive surveys of student behavior (use of pens or pencils for taking notes, use of backpacks) or test hypotheses using controlled trials. Students may need considerable supervision and advice while planning and conducting their experiments. 2. Consider presenting your class with several descriptions of scientific investigations. Then ask students to categorize each type of experiment as discovery science or hypothesis-driven science. If students can work in small groups, encourage quick discussions to clarify these two types of scientific investigations. 3. You might also present to your class descriptions of several scientific investigations that you have written. Include in your descriptions numerous examples of improper methodology (small sample size, several variables existing between the control and experimental groups, failure to specifically test the hypothesis, and the like). Let small groups or individuals analyze the experiments in class to identify the flaws. This critical analysis allows students the opportunity to suggest the characteristics of good investigations in class. 4. Have your students explain why a coordinated “conspiracy” promoting a specific idea in science is unlikely to succeed. Have your students describe aspects of science that would check fraudulent or erroneous claims and/or political efforts. 5. The authors of Campbell’s Essential Biology note that the discovery of the structure and functions of DNA has led to a variety of DNA technologies. This technology is discussed in detail in Chapter 12.   58

59 Discovery Science Verifiable observations and measurements are the data of discovery science. In biology, discovery science enables us to describe life at its many levels, from ecosystems down to cells and molecules. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Contrasting the concept of faith with the tentative nature of science can help to define and distinguish science from other ways of knowing. Students sometimes enter science classes expecting absolutes of facts and rigid dogma. Instead, scientific knowledge is tentative, reflecting degrees of confidence closely correlated to the strength of the evidence. 2. The authors’ distinction between natural and supernatural explanations is essential to understanding the power and limits of scientific explanations. 3. Some students think that variables are somehow restricted in a controlled experiment. That is, everything about the experiment is “controlled”. But as the textbook notes, controlled experiments limit the differences between experimental and control groups, with only one difference in most situations. That way, when a difference between the groups is identified, it can be explained by the single difference between the groups. Teaching Tips 1. Consider using a laboratory exercise to have your students plan and perhaps conduct investigations using discovery science and a hypothesis-driven approach. Emphasize the processes and not the significance of the questions. Students can conduct descriptive surveys of student behavior (use of pens or pencils for taking notes, use of backpacks) or test hypotheses using controlled trials. Students may need considerable supervision and advice while planning and conducting their experiments. 2. Consider presenting your class with several descriptions of scientific investigations. Then ask students to categorize each type of experiment as discovery science or hypothesis-driven science. If students can work in small groups, encourage quick discussions to clarify these two types of scientific investigations. 3. You might also present to your class descriptions of several scientific investigations that you have written. Include in your descriptions numerous examples of improper methodology (small sample size, several variables existing between the control and experimental groups, failure to specifically test the hypothesis, and the like). Let small groups or individuals analyze the experiments in class to identify the flaws. This critical analysis allows students the opportunity to suggest the characteristics of good investigations in class. 4. Have your students explain why a coordinated “conspiracy” promoting a specific idea in science is unlikely to succeed. Have your students describe aspects of science that would check fraudulent or erroneous claims and/or political efforts. 5. The authors of Campbell’s Essential Biology note that the discovery of the structure and functions of DNA has led to a variety of DNA technologies. This technology is discussed in detail in Chapter 12.   59

60 Figure 1.14a Figure 1.14 Careful observation and measurement: the raw data for discovery science (part 1) 60

61 Figure 1.14b Figure 1.14 Careful observation and measurement: the raw data for discovery science (part 2) 61

62 Discovery Science Discovery science
can stimulate us to ask questions and seek explanations and uses a process of inquiry called the scientific method, consisting of a series of steps that provide a loose guideline for scientific investigations. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Contrasting the concept of faith with the tentative nature of science can help to define and distinguish science from other ways of knowing. Students sometimes enter science classes expecting absolutes of facts and rigid dogma. Instead, scientific knowledge is tentative, reflecting degrees of confidence closely correlated to the strength of the evidence. 2. The authors’ distinction between natural and supernatural explanations is essential to understanding the power and limits of scientific explanations. 3. Some students think that variables are somehow restricted in a controlled experiment. That is, everything about the experiment is “controlled”. But as the textbook notes, controlled experiments limit the differences between experimental and control groups, with only one difference in most situations. That way, when a difference between the groups is identified, it can be explained by the single difference between the groups. Teaching Tips 1. Consider using a laboratory exercise to have your students plan and perhaps conduct investigations using discovery science and a hypothesis-driven approach. Emphasize the processes and not the significance of the questions. Students can conduct descriptive surveys of student behavior (use of pens or pencils for taking notes, use of backpacks) or test hypotheses using controlled trials. Students may need considerable supervision and advice while planning and conducting their experiments. 2. Consider presenting your class with several descriptions of scientific investigations. Then ask students to categorize each type of experiment as discovery science or hypothesis-driven science. If students can work in small groups, encourage quick discussions to clarify these two types of scientific investigations. 3. You might also present to your class descriptions of several scientific investigations that you have written. Include in your descriptions numerous examples of improper methodology (small sample size, several variables existing between the control and experimental groups, failure to specifically test the hypothesis, and the like). Let small groups or individuals analyze the experiments in class to identify the flaws. This critical analysis allows students the opportunity to suggest the characteristics of good investigations in class. 4. Have your students explain why a coordinated “conspiracy” promoting a specific idea in science is unlikely to succeed. Have your students describe aspects of science that would check fraudulent or erroneous claims and/or political efforts. 5. The authors of Campbell’s Essential Biology note that the discovery of the structure and functions of DNA has led to a variety of DNA technologies. This technology is discussed in detail in Chapter 12.   62

63 Hypothesis-Driven Science
Most modern scientific investigations can be described as hypothesis-driven science. A hypothesis is a tentative answer to a question—an explanation on trial. Although we don’t think of it in those terms, we use hypotheses in solving everyday problems, like figuring out why a TV remote fails. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Contrasting the concept of faith with the tentative nature of science can help to define and distinguish science from other ways of knowing. Students sometimes enter science classes expecting absolutes of facts and rigid dogma. Instead, scientific knowledge is tentative, reflecting degrees of confidence closely correlated to the strength of the evidence. 2. The authors’ distinction between natural and supernatural explanations is essential to understanding the power and limits of scientific explanations. 3. Some students think that variables are somehow restricted in a controlled experiment. That is, everything about the experiment is “controlled”. But as the textbook notes, controlled experiments limit the differences between experimental and control groups, with only one difference in most situations. That way, when a difference between the groups is identified, it can be explained by the single difference between the groups. Teaching Tips 1. Consider using a laboratory exercise to have your students plan and perhaps conduct investigations using discovery science and a hypothesis-driven approach. Emphasize the processes and not the significance of the questions. Students can conduct descriptive surveys of student behavior (use of pens or pencils for taking notes, use of backpacks) or test hypotheses using controlled trials. Students may need considerable supervision and advice while planning and conducting their experiments. 2. Consider presenting your class with several descriptions of scientific investigations. Then ask students to categorize each type of experiment as discovery science or hypothesis-driven science. If students can work in small groups, encourage quick discussions to clarify these two types of scientific investigations. 3. You might also present to your class descriptions of several scientific investigations that you have written. Include in your descriptions numerous examples of improper methodology (small sample size, several variables existing between the control and experimental groups, failure to specifically test the hypothesis, and the like). Let small groups or individuals analyze the experiments in class to identify the flaws. This critical analysis allows students the opportunity to suggest the characteristics of good investigations in class. 4. Have your students explain why a coordinated “conspiracy” promoting a specific idea in science is unlikely to succeed. Have your students describe aspects of science that would check fraudulent or erroneous claims and/or political efforts. 5. The authors of Campbell’s Essential Biology note that the discovery of the structure and functions of DNA has led to a variety of DNA technologies. This technology is discussed in detail in Chapter 12.   63

64 Hypothesis-Driven Science
Once a hypothesis is formed, an investigator can use logic to test it. A hypothesis is tested by performing an experiment to see whether results are as predicted. This deductive reasoning takes the form of “If…then” logic. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Contrasting the concept of faith with the tentative nature of science can help to define and distinguish science from other ways of knowing. Students sometimes enter science classes expecting absolutes of facts and rigid dogma. Instead, scientific knowledge is tentative, reflecting degrees of confidence closely correlated to the strength of the evidence. 2. The authors’ distinction between natural and supernatural explanations is essential to understanding the power and limits of scientific explanations. 3. Some students think that variables are somehow restricted in a controlled experiment. That is, everything about the experiment is “controlled”. But as the textbook notes, controlled experiments limit the differences between experimental and control groups, with only one difference in most situations. That way, when a difference between the groups is identified, it can be explained by the single difference between the groups. Teaching Tips 1. Consider using a laboratory exercise to have your students plan and perhaps conduct investigations using discovery science and a hypothesis-driven approach. Emphasize the processes and not the significance of the questions. Students can conduct descriptive surveys of student behavior (use of pens or pencils for taking notes, use of backpacks) or test hypotheses using controlled trials. Students may need considerable supervision and advice while planning and conducting their experiments. 2. Consider presenting your class with several descriptions of scientific investigations. Then ask students to categorize each type of experiment as discovery science or hypothesis-driven science. If students can work in small groups, encourage quick discussions to clarify these two types of scientific investigations. 3. You might also present to your class descriptions of several scientific investigations that you have written. Include in your descriptions numerous examples of improper methodology (small sample size, several variables existing between the control and experimental groups, failure to specifically test the hypothesis, and the like). Let small groups or individuals analyze the experiments in class to identify the flaws. This critical analysis allows students the opportunity to suggest the characteristics of good investigations in class. 4. Have your students explain why a coordinated “conspiracy” promoting a specific idea in science is unlikely to succeed. Have your students describe aspects of science that would check fraudulent or erroneous claims and/or political efforts. 5. The authors of Campbell’s Essential Biology note that the discovery of the structure and functions of DNA has led to a variety of DNA technologies. This technology is discussed in detail in Chapter 12.   64

65 65 Observation The remote doesn’t work. Hypothesis The batteries
Figure Observation The remote doesn’t work. Hypothesis The batteries are dead. Prediction With new batteries, it will work. Question What’s wrong? Figure 1.15 Applying the scientific method to a common problem (step 1) 65

66 66 Observation The remote doesn’t work. Hypothesis The batteries
Figure Observation The remote doesn’t work. Hypothesis The batteries are dead. Prediction With new batteries, it will work. Question What’s wrong? Experiment Replace batteries. Experiment supports hypothesis; make more predictions and test. Figure 1.15 Applying the scientific method to a common problem (step 2) 66

67 67 Experiment does not support hypothesis. Revise. Observation
Figure Experiment does not support hypothesis. Revise. Observation The remote doesn’t work. Hypothesis The batteries are dead. Prediction With new batteries, it will work. Question What’s wrong? Experiment Replace batteries. Experiment supports hypothesis; make more predictions and test. Figure 1.15 Applying the scientific method to a common problem (step 3) 67

68 The Process of Science: Are Trans Fats Bad for You?
One way to better understand how the process of science can be applied to real-world problems is to examine a case study, an in-depth examination of an actual investigation. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Contrasting the concept of faith with the tentative nature of science can help to define and distinguish science from other ways of knowing. Students sometimes enter science classes expecting absolutes of facts and rigid dogma. Instead, scientific knowledge is tentative, reflecting degrees of confidence closely correlated to the strength of the evidence. 2. The authors’ distinction between natural and supernatural explanations is essential to understanding the power and limits of scientific explanations. 3. Some students think that variables are somehow restricted in a controlled experiment. That is, everything about the experiment is “controlled”. But as the textbook notes, controlled experiments limit the differences between experimental and control groups, with only one difference in most situations. That way, when a difference between the groups is identified, it can be explained by the single difference between the groups. Teaching Tips 1. Consider using a laboratory exercise to have your students plan and perhaps conduct investigations using discovery science and a hypothesis-driven approach. Emphasize the processes and not the significance of the questions. Students can conduct descriptive surveys of student behavior (use of pens or pencils for taking notes, use of backpacks) or test hypotheses using controlled trials. Students may need considerable supervision and advice while planning and conducting their experiments. 2. Consider presenting your class with several descriptions of scientific investigations. Then ask students to categorize each type of experiment as discovery science or hypothesis-driven science. If students can work in small groups, encourage quick discussions to clarify these two types of scientific investigations. 3. You might also present to your class descriptions of several scientific investigations that you have written. Include in your descriptions numerous examples of improper methodology (small sample size, several variables existing between the control and experimental groups, failure to specifically test the hypothesis, and the like). Let small groups or individuals analyze the experiments in class to identify the flaws. This critical analysis allows students the opportunity to suggest the characteristics of good investigations in class. 4. Have your students explain why a coordinated “conspiracy” promoting a specific idea in science is unlikely to succeed. Have your students describe aspects of science that would check fraudulent or erroneous claims and/or political efforts. 5. The authors of Campbell’s Essential Biology note that the discovery of the structure and functions of DNA has led to a variety of DNA technologies. This technology is discussed in detail in Chapter 12.   68

69 The Process of Science: Are Trans Fats Bad for You?
Dietary fat comes in different forms. Trans fats are a non-natural form produced through manufacturing processes called hydrogenation. Trans fats add texture, increase shelf life, and are inexpensive to prepare. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Contrasting the concept of faith with the tentative nature of science can help to define and distinguish science from other ways of knowing. Students sometimes enter science classes expecting absolutes of facts and rigid dogma. Instead, scientific knowledge is tentative, reflecting degrees of confidence closely correlated to the strength of the evidence. 2. The authors’ distinction between natural and supernatural explanations is essential to understanding the power and limits of scientific explanations. 3. Some students think that variables are somehow restricted in a controlled experiment. That is, everything about the experiment is “controlled”. But as the textbook notes, controlled experiments limit the differences between experimental and control groups, with only one difference in most situations. That way, when a difference between the groups is identified, it can be explained by the single difference between the groups. Teaching Tips 1. Consider using a laboratory exercise to have your students plan and perhaps conduct investigations using discovery science and a hypothesis-driven approach. Emphasize the processes and not the significance of the questions. Students can conduct descriptive surveys of student behavior (use of pens or pencils for taking notes, use of backpacks) or test hypotheses using controlled trials. Students may need considerable supervision and advice while planning and conducting their experiments. 2. Consider presenting your class with several descriptions of scientific investigations. Then ask students to categorize each type of experiment as discovery science or hypothesis-driven science. If students can work in small groups, encourage quick discussions to clarify these two types of scientific investigations. 3. You might also present to your class descriptions of several scientific investigations that you have written. Include in your descriptions numerous examples of improper methodology (small sample size, several variables existing between the control and experimental groups, failure to specifically test the hypothesis, and the like). Let small groups or individuals analyze the experiments in class to identify the flaws. This critical analysis allows students the opportunity to suggest the characteristics of good investigations in class. 4. Have your students explain why a coordinated “conspiracy” promoting a specific idea in science is unlikely to succeed. Have your students describe aspects of science that would check fraudulent or erroneous claims and/or political efforts. 5. The authors of Campbell’s Essential Biology note that the discovery of the structure and functions of DNA has led to a variety of DNA technologies. This technology is discussed in detail in Chapter 12.   69

70 The Process of Science: Are Trans Fats Bad for You?
A study of 120,000 female nurses found that a diet with high levels of trans fats nearly doubled the risk of heart disease. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Contrasting the concept of faith with the tentative nature of science can help to define and distinguish science from other ways of knowing. Students sometimes enter science classes expecting absolutes of facts and rigid dogma. Instead, scientific knowledge is tentative, reflecting degrees of confidence closely correlated to the strength of the evidence. 2. The authors’ distinction between natural and supernatural explanations is essential to understanding the power and limits of scientific explanations. 3. Some students think that variables are somehow restricted in a controlled experiment. That is, everything about the experiment is “controlled”. But as the textbook notes, controlled experiments limit the differences between experimental and control groups, with only one difference in most situations. That way, when a difference between the groups is identified, it can be explained by the single difference between the groups. Teaching Tips 1. Consider using a laboratory exercise to have your students plan and perhaps conduct investigations using discovery science and a hypothesis-driven approach. Emphasize the processes and not the significance of the questions. Students can conduct descriptive surveys of student behavior (use of pens or pencils for taking notes, use of backpacks) or test hypotheses using controlled trials. Students may need considerable supervision and advice while planning and conducting their experiments. 2. Consider presenting your class with several descriptions of scientific investigations. Then ask students to categorize each type of experiment as discovery science or hypothesis-driven science. If students can work in small groups, encourage quick discussions to clarify these two types of scientific investigations. 3. You might also present to your class descriptions of several scientific investigations that you have written. Include in your descriptions numerous examples of improper methodology (small sample size, several variables existing between the control and experimental groups, failure to specifically test the hypothesis, and the like). Let small groups or individuals analyze the experiments in class to identify the flaws. This critical analysis allows students the opportunity to suggest the characteristics of good investigations in class. 4. Have your students explain why a coordinated “conspiracy” promoting a specific idea in science is unlikely to succeed. Have your students describe aspects of science that would check fraudulent or erroneous claims and/or political efforts. 5. The authors of Campbell’s Essential Biology note that the discovery of the structure and functions of DNA has led to a variety of DNA technologies. This technology is discussed in detail in Chapter 12.   70

71 The Process of Science: Are Trans Fats Bad for You?
A hypothesis-driven study published in 2004 started with the observation that human body fat retains traces of consumed dietary fat, asked the question, Would the adipose tissue of heart attack patients be different from a similar group of healthy patients?, and formed the hypothesis that healthy patients’ body fat would contain less trans fats than the body fat in heart attack victims. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Contrasting the concept of faith with the tentative nature of science can help to define and distinguish science from other ways of knowing. Students sometimes enter science classes expecting absolutes of facts and rigid dogma. Instead, scientific knowledge is tentative, reflecting degrees of confidence closely correlated to the strength of the evidence. 2. The authors’ distinction between natural and supernatural explanations is essential to understanding the power and limits of scientific explanations. 3. Some students think that variables are somehow restricted in a controlled experiment. That is, everything about the experiment is “controlled”. But as the textbook notes, controlled experiments limit the differences between experimental and control groups, with only one difference in most situations. That way, when a difference between the groups is identified, it can be explained by the single difference between the groups. Teaching Tips 1. Consider using a laboratory exercise to have your students plan and perhaps conduct investigations using discovery science and a hypothesis-driven approach. Emphasize the processes and not the significance of the questions. Students can conduct descriptive surveys of student behavior (use of pens or pencils for taking notes, use of backpacks) or test hypotheses using controlled trials. Students may need considerable supervision and advice while planning and conducting their experiments. 2. Consider presenting your class with several descriptions of scientific investigations. Then ask students to categorize each type of experiment as discovery science or hypothesis-driven science. If students can work in small groups, encourage quick discussions to clarify these two types of scientific investigations. 3. You might also present to your class descriptions of several scientific investigations that you have written. Include in your descriptions numerous examples of improper methodology (small sample size, several variables existing between the control and experimental groups, failure to specifically test the hypothesis, and the like). Let small groups or individuals analyze the experiments in class to identify the flaws. This critical analysis allows students the opportunity to suggest the characteristics of good investigations in class. 4. Have your students explain why a coordinated “conspiracy” promoting a specific idea in science is unlikely to succeed. Have your students describe aspects of science that would check fraudulent or erroneous claims and/or political efforts. 5. The authors of Campbell’s Essential Biology note that the discovery of the structure and functions of DNA has led to a variety of DNA technologies. This technology is discussed in detail in Chapter 12.   71

72 The Process of Science: Are Trans Fats Bad for You?
The researchers set up an experiment to determine the amounts of fat in the adipose tissue of 79 patients who had experienced a heart attack. They compared these patients to the data for 167 patients who had not experienced a heart attack. This is an example of a controlled experiment, in which the control and experimental groups differ only in one variable—the occurrence of a heart attack. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Contrasting the concept of faith with the tentative nature of science can help to define and distinguish science from other ways of knowing. Students sometimes enter science classes expecting absolutes of facts and rigid dogma. Instead, scientific knowledge is tentative, reflecting degrees of confidence closely correlated to the strength of the evidence. 2. The authors’ distinction between natural and supernatural explanations is essential to understanding the power and limits of scientific explanations. 3. Some students think that variables are somehow restricted in a controlled experiment. That is, everything about the experiment is “controlled”. But as the textbook notes, controlled experiments limit the differences between experimental and control groups, with only one difference in most situations. That way, when a difference between the groups is identified, it can be explained by the single difference between the groups. Teaching Tips 1. Consider using a laboratory exercise to have your students plan and perhaps conduct investigations using discovery science and a hypothesis-driven approach. Emphasize the processes and not the significance of the questions. Students can conduct descriptive surveys of student behavior (use of pens or pencils for taking notes, use of backpacks) or test hypotheses using controlled trials. Students may need considerable supervision and advice while planning and conducting their experiments. 2. Consider presenting your class with several descriptions of scientific investigations. Then ask students to categorize each type of experiment as discovery science or hypothesis-driven science. If students can work in small groups, encourage quick discussions to clarify these two types of scientific investigations. 3. You might also present to your class descriptions of several scientific investigations that you have written. Include in your descriptions numerous examples of improper methodology (small sample size, several variables existing between the control and experimental groups, failure to specifically test the hypothesis, and the like). Let small groups or individuals analyze the experiments in class to identify the flaws. This critical analysis allows students the opportunity to suggest the characteristics of good investigations in class. 4. Have your students explain why a coordinated “conspiracy” promoting a specific idea in science is unlikely to succeed. Have your students describe aspects of science that would check fraudulent or erroneous claims and/or political efforts. 5. The authors of Campbell’s Essential Biology note that the discovery of the structure and functions of DNA has led to a variety of DNA technologies. This technology is discussed in detail in Chapter 12.   72

73 The Process of Science: Are Trans Fats Bad for You?
The results showed significantly higher levels of trans fats in the bodies of the heart attack patients. You would do well to read nutrition labels and avoid trans fats as much as possible in your own diet. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Contrasting the concept of faith with the tentative nature of science can help to define and distinguish science from other ways of knowing. Students sometimes enter science classes expecting absolutes of facts and rigid dogma. Instead, scientific knowledge is tentative, reflecting degrees of confidence closely correlated to the strength of the evidence. 2. The authors’ distinction between natural and supernatural explanations is essential to understanding the power and limits of scientific explanations. 3. Some students think that variables are somehow restricted in a controlled experiment. That is, everything about the experiment is “controlled”. But as the textbook notes, controlled experiments limit the differences between experimental and control groups, with only one difference in most situations. That way, when a difference between the groups is identified, it can be explained by the single difference between the groups. Teaching Tips 1. Consider using a laboratory exercise to have your students plan and perhaps conduct investigations using discovery science and a hypothesis-driven approach. Emphasize the processes and not the significance of the questions. Students can conduct descriptive surveys of student behavior (use of pens or pencils for taking notes, use of backpacks) or test hypotheses using controlled trials. Students may need considerable supervision and advice while planning and conducting their experiments. 2. Consider presenting your class with several descriptions of scientific investigations. Then ask students to categorize each type of experiment as discovery science or hypothesis-driven science. If students can work in small groups, encourage quick discussions to clarify these two types of scientific investigations. 3. You might also present to your class descriptions of several scientific investigations that you have written. Include in your descriptions numerous examples of improper methodology (small sample size, several variables existing between the control and experimental groups, failure to specifically test the hypothesis, and the like). Let small groups or individuals analyze the experiments in class to identify the flaws. This critical analysis allows students the opportunity to suggest the characteristics of good investigations in class. 4. Have your students explain why a coordinated “conspiracy” promoting a specific idea in science is unlikely to succeed. Have your students describe aspects of science that would check fraudulent or erroneous claims and/or political efforts. 5. The authors of Campbell’s Essential Biology note that the discovery of the structure and functions of DNA has led to a variety of DNA technologies. This technology is discussed in detail in Chapter 12.   73

74 Trans fats in adipose tissue (g trans fat per 100 g total fat)
Figure 1.16 2.0 1.77 1.48 1.5 Trans fats in adipose tissue (g trans fat per 100 g total fat) 1.0 0.5 Heart attack patients Control group Figure 1.16 Levels of trans fats 74

75 Theories in Science What is a scientific theory, and how is it different from a hypothesis? A scientific theory is much broader in scope than a hypothesis. Theories only become widely accepted in science if they are supported by an accumulation of extensive and varied evidence. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Contrasting the concept of faith with the tentative nature of science can help to define and distinguish science from other ways of knowing. Students sometimes enter science classes expecting absolutes of facts and rigid dogma. Instead, scientific knowledge is tentative, reflecting degrees of confidence closely correlated to the strength of the evidence. 2. The authors’ distinction between natural and supernatural explanations is essential to understanding the power and limits of scientific explanations. 3. Some students think that variables are somehow restricted in a controlled experiment. That is, everything about the experiment is “controlled”. But as the textbook notes, controlled experiments limit the differences between experimental and control groups, with only one difference in most situations. That way, when a difference between the groups is identified, it can be explained by the single difference between the groups. Teaching Tips 1. Consider using a laboratory exercise to have your students plan and perhaps conduct investigations using discovery science and a hypothesis-driven approach. Emphasize the processes and not the significance of the questions. Students can conduct descriptive surveys of student behavior (use of pens or pencils for taking notes, use of backpacks) or test hypotheses using controlled trials. Students may need considerable supervision and advice while planning and conducting their experiments. 2. Consider presenting your class with several descriptions of scientific investigations. Then ask students to categorize each type of experiment as discovery science or hypothesis-driven science. If students can work in small groups, encourage quick discussions to clarify these two types of scientific investigations. 3. You might also present to your class descriptions of several scientific investigations that you have written. Include in your descriptions numerous examples of improper methodology (small sample size, several variables existing between the control and experimental groups, failure to specifically test the hypothesis, and the like). Let small groups or individuals analyze the experiments in class to identify the flaws. This critical analysis allows students the opportunity to suggest the characteristics of good investigations in class. 4. Have your students explain why a coordinated “conspiracy” promoting a specific idea in science is unlikely to succeed. Have your students describe aspects of science that would check fraudulent or erroneous claims and/or political efforts. 5. The authors of Campbell’s Essential Biology note that the discovery of the structure and functions of DNA has led to a variety of DNA technologies. This technology is discussed in detail in Chapter 12.   75

76 Theories in Science Scientific theories are not the only way of “knowing nature.” Science, religion, and art are very different ways of trying to make sense of nature. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Contrasting the concept of faith with the tentative nature of science can help to define and distinguish science from other ways of knowing. Students sometimes enter science classes expecting absolutes of facts and rigid dogma. Instead, scientific knowledge is tentative, reflecting degrees of confidence closely correlated to the strength of the evidence. 2. The authors’ distinction between natural and supernatural explanations is essential to understanding the power and limits of scientific explanations. 3. Some students think that variables are somehow restricted in a controlled experiment. That is, everything about the experiment is “controlled”. But as the textbook notes, controlled experiments limit the differences between experimental and control groups, with only one difference in most situations. That way, when a difference between the groups is identified, it can be explained by the single difference between the groups. Teaching Tips 1. Consider using a laboratory exercise to have your students plan and perhaps conduct investigations using discovery science and a hypothesis-driven approach. Emphasize the processes and not the significance of the questions. Students can conduct descriptive surveys of student behavior (use of pens or pencils for taking notes, use of backpacks) or test hypotheses using controlled trials. Students may need considerable supervision and advice while planning and conducting their experiments. 2. Consider presenting your class with several descriptions of scientific investigations. Then ask students to categorize each type of experiment as discovery science or hypothesis-driven science. If students can work in small groups, encourage quick discussions to clarify these two types of scientific investigations. 3. You might also present to your class descriptions of several scientific investigations that you have written. Include in your descriptions numerous examples of improper methodology (small sample size, several variables existing between the control and experimental groups, failure to specifically test the hypothesis, and the like). Let small groups or individuals analyze the experiments in class to identify the flaws. This critical analysis allows students the opportunity to suggest the characteristics of good investigations in class. 4. Have your students explain why a coordinated “conspiracy” promoting a specific idea in science is unlikely to succeed. Have your students describe aspects of science that would check fraudulent or erroneous claims and/or political efforts. 5. The authors of Campbell’s Essential Biology note that the discovery of the structure and functions of DNA has led to a variety of DNA technologies. This technology is discussed in detail in Chapter 12.   76

77 The Culture of Science Scientists build on what has been learned from earlier research. They pay close attention to contemporary scientists working on the same problem. Cooperation and competition characterize the scientific culture. Scientists check the conclusions of others by attempting to repeat experiments. Scientists are generally skeptics. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Contrasting the concept of faith with the tentative nature of science can help to define and distinguish science from other ways of knowing. Students sometimes enter science classes expecting absolutes of facts and rigid dogma. Instead, scientific knowledge is tentative, reflecting degrees of confidence closely correlated to the strength of the evidence. 2. The authors’ distinction between natural and supernatural explanations is essential to understanding the power and limits of scientific explanations. 3. Some students think that variables are somehow restricted in a controlled experiment. That is, everything about the experiment is “controlled”. But as the textbook notes, controlled experiments limit the differences between experimental and control groups, with only one difference in most situations. That way, when a difference between the groups is identified, it can be explained by the single difference between the groups. Teaching Tips 1. Consider using a laboratory exercise to have your students plan and perhaps conduct investigations using discovery science and a hypothesis-driven approach. Emphasize the processes and not the significance of the questions. Students can conduct descriptive surveys of student behavior (use of pens or pencils for taking notes, use of backpacks) or test hypotheses using controlled trials. Students may need considerable supervision and advice while planning and conducting their experiments. 2. Consider presenting your class with several descriptions of scientific investigations. Then ask students to categorize each type of experiment as discovery science or hypothesis-driven science. If students can work in small groups, encourage quick discussions to clarify these two types of scientific investigations. 3. You might also present to your class descriptions of several scientific investigations that you have written. Include in your descriptions numerous examples of improper methodology (small sample size, several variables existing between the control and experimental groups, failure to specifically test the hypothesis, and the like). Let small groups or individuals analyze the experiments in class to identify the flaws. This critical analysis allows students the opportunity to suggest the characteristics of good investigations in class. 4. Have your students explain why a coordinated “conspiracy” promoting a specific idea in science is unlikely to succeed. Have your students describe aspects of science that would check fraudulent or erroneous claims and/or political efforts. 5. The authors of Campbell’s Essential Biology note that the discovery of the structure and functions of DNA has led to a variety of DNA technologies. This technology is discussed in detail in Chapter 12.   77

78 Figure 1.17 Figure 1.17 Science as a social process 78

79 The Culture of Science Science has two key features that distinguish it from other forms of inquiry. Science depends on observations and measurements that others can verify and requires that ideas (hypotheses) are testable by experiments that others can repeat. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Contrasting the concept of faith with the tentative nature of science can help to define and distinguish science from other ways of knowing. Students sometimes enter science classes expecting absolutes of facts and rigid dogma. Instead, scientific knowledge is tentative, reflecting degrees of confidence closely correlated to the strength of the evidence. 2. The authors’ distinction between natural and supernatural explanations is essential to understanding the power and limits of scientific explanations. 3. Some students think that variables are somehow restricted in a controlled experiment. That is, everything about the experiment is “controlled”. But as the textbook notes, controlled experiments limit the differences between experimental and control groups, with only one difference in most situations. That way, when a difference between the groups is identified, it can be explained by the single difference between the groups. Teaching Tips 1. Consider using a laboratory exercise to have your students plan and perhaps conduct investigations using discovery science and a hypothesis-driven approach. Emphasize the processes and not the significance of the questions. Students can conduct descriptive surveys of student behavior (use of pens or pencils for taking notes, use of backpacks) or test hypotheses using controlled trials. Students may need considerable supervision and advice while planning and conducting their experiments. 2. Consider presenting your class with several descriptions of scientific investigations. Then ask students to categorize each type of experiment as discovery science or hypothesis-driven science. If students can work in small groups, encourage quick discussions to clarify these two types of scientific investigations. 3. You might also present to your class descriptions of several scientific investigations that you have written. Include in your descriptions numerous examples of improper methodology (small sample size, several variables existing between the control and experimental groups, failure to specifically test the hypothesis, and the like). Let small groups or individuals analyze the experiments in class to identify the flaws. This critical analysis allows students the opportunity to suggest the characteristics of good investigations in class. 4. Have your students explain why a coordinated “conspiracy” promoting a specific idea in science is unlikely to succeed. Have your students describe aspects of science that would check fraudulent or erroneous claims and/or political efforts. 5. The authors of Campbell’s Essential Biology note that the discovery of the structure and functions of DNA has led to a variety of DNA technologies. This technology is discussed in detail in Chapter 12.   79

80 Science, Technology, and Society
Science and technology are interdependent. New technologies advance science. Scientific discoveries lead to new technologies. For example, the discovery of the structure of DNA about 60 years ago led to a variety of DNA technologies. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Contrasting the concept of faith with the tentative nature of science can help to define and distinguish science from other ways of knowing. Students sometimes enter science classes expecting absolutes of facts and rigid dogma. Instead, scientific knowledge is tentative, reflecting degrees of confidence closely correlated to the strength of the evidence. 2. The authors’ distinction between natural and supernatural explanations is essential to understanding the power and limits of scientific explanations. 3. Some students think that variables are somehow restricted in a controlled experiment. That is, everything about the experiment is “controlled”. But as the textbook notes, controlled experiments limit the differences between experimental and control groups, with only one difference in most situations. That way, when a difference between the groups is identified, it can be explained by the single difference between the groups. Teaching Tips 1. Consider using a laboratory exercise to have your students plan and perhaps conduct investigations using discovery science and a hypothesis-driven approach. Emphasize the processes and not the significance of the questions. Students can conduct descriptive surveys of student behavior (use of pens or pencils for taking notes, use of backpacks) or test hypotheses using controlled trials. Students may need considerable supervision and advice while planning and conducting their experiments. 2. Consider presenting your class with several descriptions of scientific investigations. Then ask students to categorize each type of experiment as discovery science or hypothesis-driven science. If students can work in small groups, encourage quick discussions to clarify these two types of scientific investigations. 3. You might also present to your class descriptions of several scientific investigations that you have written. Include in your descriptions numerous examples of improper methodology (small sample size, several variables existing between the control and experimental groups, failure to specifically test the hypothesis, and the like). Let small groups or individuals analyze the experiments in class to identify the flaws. This critical analysis allows students the opportunity to suggest the characteristics of good investigations in class. 4. Have your students explain why a coordinated “conspiracy” promoting a specific idea in science is unlikely to succeed. Have your students describe aspects of science that would check fraudulent or erroneous claims and/or political efforts. 5. The authors of Campbell’s Essential Biology note that the discovery of the structure and functions of DNA has led to a variety of DNA technologies. This technology is discussed in detail in Chapter 12.   80

81 Figure 1.18 Figure 1.18 DNA technology and the law 81

82 Science, Technology, and Society
Technology has improved our standard of living in many ways, but it is a double-edged sword. Technology that keeps people healthier has enabled the human population to double to 7 billion in just the past 40 years. The environmental consequences of this population growth may be devastating. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Contrasting the concept of faith with the tentative nature of science can help to define and distinguish science from other ways of knowing. Students sometimes enter science classes expecting absolutes of facts and rigid dogma. Instead, scientific knowledge is tentative, reflecting degrees of confidence closely correlated to the strength of the evidence. 2. The authors’ distinction between natural and supernatural explanations is essential to understanding the power and limits of scientific explanations. 3. Some students think that variables are somehow restricted in a controlled experiment. That is, everything about the experiment is “controlled”. But as the textbook notes, controlled experiments limit the differences between experimental and control groups, with only one difference in most situations. That way, when a difference between the groups is identified, it can be explained by the single difference between the groups. Teaching Tips 1. Consider using a laboratory exercise to have your students plan and perhaps conduct investigations using discovery science and a hypothesis-driven approach. Emphasize the processes and not the significance of the questions. Students can conduct descriptive surveys of student behavior (use of pens or pencils for taking notes, use of backpacks) or test hypotheses using controlled trials. Students may need considerable supervision and advice while planning and conducting their experiments. 2. Consider presenting your class with several descriptions of scientific investigations. Then ask students to categorize each type of experiment as discovery science or hypothesis-driven science. If students can work in small groups, encourage quick discussions to clarify these two types of scientific investigations. 3. You might also present to your class descriptions of several scientific investigations that you have written. Include in your descriptions numerous examples of improper methodology (small sample size, several variables existing between the control and experimental groups, failure to specifically test the hypothesis, and the like). Let small groups or individuals analyze the experiments in class to identify the flaws. This critical analysis allows students the opportunity to suggest the characteristics of good investigations in class. 4. Have your students explain why a coordinated “conspiracy” promoting a specific idea in science is unlikely to succeed. Have your students describe aspects of science that would check fraudulent or erroneous claims and/or political efforts. 5. The authors of Campbell’s Essential Biology note that the discovery of the structure and functions of DNA has led to a variety of DNA technologies. This technology is discussed in detail in Chapter 12.   82

83 Evolution Connection: Evolution in Our Everyday Lives
Antibiotics are drugs that help cure bacterial infections. When an antibiotic is taken, most bacteria are typically killed. Those bacteria most naturally resistant to the drug can still survive. Those few resistant bacteria can soon multiply and become the norm and not the exception. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Contrasting the concept of faith with the tentative nature of science can help to define and distinguish science from other ways of knowing. Students sometimes enter science classes expecting absolutes of facts and rigid dogma. Instead, scientific knowledge is tentative, reflecting degrees of confidence closely correlated to the strength of the evidence. 2. The authors’ distinction between natural and supernatural explanations is essential to understanding the power and limits of scientific explanations. 3. Some students think that variables are somehow restricted in a controlled experiment. That is, everything about the experiment is “controlled”. But as the textbook notes, controlled experiments limit the differences between experimental and control groups, with only one difference in most situations. That way, when a difference between the groups is identified, it can be explained by the single difference between the groups. Teaching Tips 1. Consider using a laboratory exercise to have your students plan and perhaps conduct investigations using discovery science and a hypothesis-driven approach. Emphasize the processes and not the significance of the questions. Students can conduct descriptive surveys of student behavior (use of pens or pencils for taking notes, use of backpacks) or test hypotheses using controlled trials. Students may need considerable supervision and advice while planning and conducting their experiments. 2. Consider presenting your class with several descriptions of scientific investigations. Then ask students to categorize each type of experiment as discovery science or hypothesis-driven science. If students can work in small groups, encourage quick discussions to clarify these two types of scientific investigations. 3. You might also present to your class descriptions of several scientific investigations that you have written. Include in your descriptions numerous examples of improper methodology (small sample size, several variables existing between the control and experimental groups, failure to specifically test the hypothesis, and the like). Let small groups or individuals analyze the experiments in class to identify the flaws. This critical analysis allows students the opportunity to suggest the characteristics of good investigations in class. 4. Have your students explain why a coordinated “conspiracy” promoting a specific idea in science is unlikely to succeed. Have your students describe aspects of science that would check fraudulent or erroneous claims and/or political efforts. 5. The authors of Campbell’s Essential Biology note that the discovery of the structure and functions of DNA has led to a variety of DNA technologies. This technology is discussed in detail in Chapter 12.   83

84 Evolution Connection: Evolution in Our Everyday Lives
The evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a huge problem in public health. Antibiotics are being used more selectively. Many farmers are reducing the use of antibiotics in animal feed. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Contrasting the concept of faith with the tentative nature of science can help to define and distinguish science from other ways of knowing. Students sometimes enter science classes expecting absolutes of facts and rigid dogma. Instead, scientific knowledge is tentative, reflecting degrees of confidence closely correlated to the strength of the evidence. 2. The authors’ distinction between natural and supernatural explanations is essential to understanding the power and limits of scientific explanations. 3. Some students think that variables are somehow restricted in a controlled experiment. That is, everything about the experiment is “controlled”. But as the textbook notes, controlled experiments limit the differences between experimental and control groups, with only one difference in most situations. That way, when a difference between the groups is identified, it can be explained by the single difference between the groups. Teaching Tips 1. Consider using a laboratory exercise to have your students plan and perhaps conduct investigations using discovery science and a hypothesis-driven approach. Emphasize the processes and not the significance of the questions. Students can conduct descriptive surveys of student behavior (use of pens or pencils for taking notes, use of backpacks) or test hypotheses using controlled trials. Students may need considerable supervision and advice while planning and conducting their experiments. 2. Consider presenting your class with several descriptions of scientific investigations. Then ask students to categorize each type of experiment as discovery science or hypothesis-driven science. If students can work in small groups, encourage quick discussions to clarify these two types of scientific investigations. 3. You might also present to your class descriptions of several scientific investigations that you have written. Include in your descriptions numerous examples of improper methodology (small sample size, several variables existing between the control and experimental groups, failure to specifically test the hypothesis, and the like). Let small groups or individuals analyze the experiments in class to identify the flaws. This critical analysis allows students the opportunity to suggest the characteristics of good investigations in class. 4. Have your students explain why a coordinated “conspiracy” promoting a specific idea in science is unlikely to succeed. Have your students describe aspects of science that would check fraudulent or erroneous claims and/or political efforts. 5. The authors of Campbell’s Essential Biology note that the discovery of the structure and functions of DNA has led to a variety of DNA technologies. This technology is discussed in detail in Chapter 12. 84

85 Evolution Connection: Evolution in Our Everyday Lives
It is important to note that the adaptation of bacteria to an environment containing an antibiotic does not mean that the drug created the antibiotic resistance. Instead, the environment screened the heritable variations that already existed among the existing bacteria. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Student Misconceptions and Concerns 1. Contrasting the concept of faith with the tentative nature of science can help to define and distinguish science from other ways of knowing. Students sometimes enter science classes expecting absolutes of facts and rigid dogma. Instead, scientific knowledge is tentative, reflecting degrees of confidence closely correlated to the strength of the evidence. 2. The authors’ distinction between natural and supernatural explanations is essential to understanding the power and limits of scientific explanations. 3. Some students think that variables are somehow restricted in a controlled experiment. That is, everything about the experiment is “controlled”. But as the textbook notes, controlled experiments limit the differences between experimental and control groups, with only one difference in most situations. That way, when a difference between the groups is identified, it can be explained by the single difference between the groups. Teaching Tips 1. Consider using a laboratory exercise to have your students plan and perhaps conduct investigations using discovery science and a hypothesis-driven approach. Emphasize the processes and not the significance of the questions. Students can conduct descriptive surveys of student behavior (use of pens or pencils for taking notes, use of backpacks) or test hypotheses using controlled trials. Students may need considerable supervision and advice while planning and conducting their experiments. 2. Consider presenting your class with several descriptions of scientific investigations. Then ask students to categorize each type of experiment as discovery science or hypothesis-driven science. If students can work in small groups, encourage quick discussions to clarify these two types of scientific investigations. 3. You might also present to your class descriptions of several scientific investigations that you have written. Include in your descriptions numerous examples of improper methodology (small sample size, several variables existing between the control and experimental groups, failure to specifically test the hypothesis, and the like). Let small groups or individuals analyze the experiments in class to identify the flaws. This critical analysis allows students the opportunity to suggest the characteristics of good investigations in class. 4. Have your students explain why a coordinated “conspiracy” promoting a specific idea in science is unlikely to succeed. Have your students describe aspects of science that would check fraudulent or erroneous claims and/or political efforts. 5. The authors of Campbell’s Essential Biology note that the discovery of the structure and functions of DNA has led to a variety of DNA technologies. This technology is discussed in detail in Chapter 12. 85

86 Figure 1.19 Colorized SEM Figure 1.19 Natural selection in action 86

87 Figure 1.19a Figure 1.19 Natural selection in action (part 1) 87

88 Figure 1.19b Colorized SEM Figure 1.19 Natural selection in action (part 2) 88

89 89 Growth and development Order Regulation Energy processing
Figure 1.UN01 Growth and development Order Regulation Energy processing Response to the environment Reproduction Evolution Figure 1.UN01 Summary of Key Concepts: The Properties of Life 89

90 90 Life Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Domain Bacteria Domain Archaea
Figure 1.UN02 Life Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Plantae Fungi Animalia Protists (all other eukaryotes) Three kingdoms Domain Bacteria Domain Archaea Domain Eukarya Figure 1.UN02 Summary of Key Concepts: Life in Its Diverse Forms 90

91 91 Observations Conclusion Overproduction and competition
Figure 1.UN03 Observations Conclusion Overproduction and competition Unequal reproductive success (natural selection) Individual variation Figure 1.UN03 Summary of Key Concepts: Natural Selection 91

92 92 Revise and repeat Observation Question Hypothesis Prediction
Figure 1.UN04 Revise and repeat Observation Question Hypothesis Prediction Experiment Figure 1.UN04 Summary of Key Concepts: Hypothesis-Driven Science 92

93 complete maze (min) Average time to
Figure 1.UN05 25 20 complete maze (min) Average time to 15 Key 10 No reward Food reward 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 Day Figure 1.UN05 The Process of Science, question 11 93


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