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Introduction: Biology Today. Introduction: Dining in the Trees  What is biology?  Why is it said that an organism is adapted to its environment? Give.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction: Biology Today. Introduction: Dining in the Trees  What is biology?  Why is it said that an organism is adapted to its environment? Give."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction: Biology Today

2 Introduction: Dining in the Trees  What is biology?  Why is it said that an organism is adapted to its environment? Give an example of an adaptation

3 We are living in a golden age of biology. Scientists are studying a myriad of questions that are relevant to our lives. –How can errors in cell growth lead to cancer? –How do plants trap solar energy? –How do living creatures form ecological networks and how do human activities disrupt them? Biology and Society: Biology All Around Us © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

4 Biology and Society: Biology All Around Us –How did the great diversity of life on Earth evolve from the first microbes and how does such evolution have an impact on human health? –How do mutations in genes lead to disease? –How can DNA—the molecular basis of heredity— be used in forensic investigations? © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

5 Figure 1.0

6 Biology is the scientific study of life. The study of biology encompasses –a wide scale of size and –a huge variety of life, both past and present. THE SCOPE OF LIFE The Properties of Life © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

7 What are the properties of life?

8 (3) Growth and development (4) Energy processing (2) Regulation (1) Order (5) Response to the environment (6) Reproduction(7) Evolutionary adaptation The unity of life: All forms of life have common features

9 Introduction: Dining in the Trees  Why is it said that an organism is adapted to its environment? The leopard is another example of an evolutionary adaptation

10 Biologists explore life at levels ranging from the biosphere to the molecules that make up cells. Life at Its Many Levels © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Video: Seahorse Camouflage

11 Figure Organisms Biosphere Ecosystems Populations Communities Organ Systems and Organs Tissues Cells Organelles Molecules and Atoms Nucleus Atom

12 Biosphere Ecosystem Florida coast Community All organisms on the Florida coast Population Group of brown pelicans Organism Brown pelican In life’s hierarchy of organization, new properties emerge at each level

13 Ecosystems Each organism interacts continuously with its environment. –Organisms interact continuously with the living and nonliving factors in the environment. –All the living organisms in a specific area, along with all of the nonliving factors with which they interact, form an ecosystem. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

14 Ecosystems The dynamics of any ecosystem depend on two main processes: –recycling of chemical nutrients and –flow of energy. Within ecosystems –nutrients are recycled but –energy flows through. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

15 Figure 1.3 ECOSYSTEM Inflow of light energy Outflow of heat energy Producers (plants and other photosynthetic organisms) Chemical energy (food) Cycling of nutrients Consumers (animals) Decomposers (in soil)

16 Ecosystem Producers (such as plants) Sunlight Cycling of chemical nutrients Chemical energy Consumers (such as animals) Heat What are producers? Examples: What are consumers? Examples: Decomposers  in soil 

17 Cells and Their DNA The cell is the level at which the properties of life emerge. Cells are the lowest level of structure that can perform all activities required for life. All organisms are composed of cells. Cells are the subunits that make up multicellular organisms such as humans and trees. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

18 All cells share many characteristics. –All cells are enclosed by a membrane that regulates the passage of materials between the cell and its surroundings. –Every cell uses DNA as its genetic information. Cells and Their DNA © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

19 We can distinguish two major types of cells: 1.The prokaryotic cell is –simpler and usually smaller and –characteristic of bacteria. 2.The eukaryotic cell is –subdivided by internal membranes into different functional compartments called organelles and –found in plants and animals. Cells and Their DNA © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

20 Figure 1.4 Nucleoid region Nucleus Organelles Prokaryotic cell (bacterium) Smaller Simpler structure DNA concentrated in nucleoid region, which is not enclosed by membrane Lacks most organelles Larger More complex structure Nucleus enclosed by membrane Contains many types of organelles Eukaryotic cell Colorized TEM

21 All cells use DNA as the chemical material of genes, the units of inheritance that transmit information from parents to offspring. The chemical language of DNA –is common to all organisms and –consists of just four molecular building blocks with names that are abbreviated as A, G, C, T. Cells and Their DNA © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

22 Figure 1.5 A DNA molecule The four chemical building blocks of DNA

23 Genetic engineering has transformed the pharmaceutical industry and extended millions of lives. Cells and Their DNA © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

24 The entire “book” of genetic instructions that an organism inherits is called its genome. The nucleus of each human cell packs a genome that is about 3 billion chemical letters long. Cells and Their DNA © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

25 Life in Its Diverse Forms Diversity is a hallmark of life. –The diversity of known life includes about 1.8 million species that biologists have identified and named. –Estimates of the total number of species range from 10 million to over 100 million. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

26 Figure 1.7

27 Grouping Species: The Basic Concept Biodiversity can be beautiful but overwhelming. Categorizing life into groups helps us deal with this complexity. Taxonomy is the branch of biology that names and classifies species. –It formalizes the hierarchical ordering of organisms into broader and broader groups. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

28 GROUPING SPECIES THE BASIC CONCEPT

29 The Three Domains of Life The three domains of life are –Bacteria, –Archaea, and –Eukarya. Bacteria and Archaea have prokaryotic cells. Eukarya have eukaryotic cells. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

30 Eukarya include –Kingdom Plantae, –Kingdom Fungi, –Kingdom Animalia, and –Protists (multiple kingdoms). Most plants, fungi, and animals are multicellular. Protists are generally single-celled. The Three Domains of Life © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

31 These three multicellular kingdoms are distinguished by how they obtain food. –Plants produce their own sugars and other foods by photosynthesis. –Fungi are mostly decomposers, digesting dead organisms. –Animals obtain food by ingesting (eating) and digesting other organisms. The Three Domains of Life © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

32 Figure 1.8 Protists (multiple kingdoms) Kingdom Animalia Kingdom Fungi Kingdom Plantae DOMAIN EUKARYA DOMAIN ARCHAEA DOMAIN BACTERIA

33 Unity in the Diversity of Life Underlying the diversity of life is a striking unity, especially at the lower levels of biological organization. –For example, all life uses the genetic language of DNA. Biological evolution accounts for this combination of unity and diversity. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

34 EVOLUTION: BIOLOGY’S UNIFYING THEME The history of life is a saga of a constantly changing Earth billions of years old. –Fossils document this history. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

35 Figure 1.9

36 Life evolves. –Each species is one twig of a branching tree of life extending back in time through ancestral species more and more remote. –Species that are very similar, such as the brown bear and polar bear, share a more recent common ancestor. EVOLUTION: BIOLOGY’S UNIFYING THEME © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

37 Figure 1.10 Millions of years ago Giant panda Common ancestor of polar bear and brown bear Common ancestor of all modern bears Ancestral bear Spectacled bear Sloth bear Sun bear American black bear Asiatic black bear Polar bear Brown bear

38 The Darwinian View of Life The evolutionary view of life came into focus in 1859 when Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

39 Darwin’s book developed two main points: 1.Species living today descended from a succession of ancestral species in what Darwin called “descent with modification,” capturing the duality of life’s –unity (descent) and –diversity (modification). 2.Natural selection is the mechanism for descent with modification. The Darwinian View of Life © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

40 Natural Selection Darwin was struck by the diversity of animals on the Galápagos Islands. He thought that adaptation to the environment and the origin of new species were closely related processes. –As populations separated by a geographic barrier adapted to local environments, they became separate species. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

41 Figure 1.11

42 Figure 1.11a

43 Figure 1.11b

44 Darwin’s Inescapable Conclusion Darwin synthesized the theory of natural selection from two observations that were neither profound nor original. –Others had the pieces of the puzzle, but Darwin could see how they fit together. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

45 Observation 1: Overproduction and competition Observation 2: Individual variation Conclusion: Unequal reproductive success –It is this unequal reproductive success that Darwin called natural selection. –The product of natural selection is adaptation. Natural selection is the mechanism of evolution. Darwin’s Inescapable Conclusion © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

46 Figure 1.12 Increasing frequency of traits that enhance survival and reproductive success Reproduction of survivors Elimination of individuals with certain traits Population with varied inherited traits

47 Figure 1.12a Elimination of individuals with certain traits Population with varied inherited traits 1 2

48 Figure 1.12b Increasing frequency of traits that enhance survival and reproductive success Reproduction of survivors 3 4

49 Observing Artificial Selection Artificial selection is the selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals by humans. In artificial selection, humans do the selecting instead of the environment. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

50 Figure 1.13a (a) Vegetables descended from wild mustard Wild mustard Cabbage from end buds Cauliflower from flower clusters Broccoli from flowers and stems Kale from leaves Kohlrabi from stems Brussels sprouts from side buds

51 Figure 1.13b (b) Domesticated dogs descended from wolves Domesticated dogsGray wolves

52 Figure 1.13ba Gray wolves

53 Figure 1.13bb Domesticated dogs

54 Observing Natural Selection There are many examples of natural selection in action. –In Galápagos finches, beak size becomes better suited to the size and shape of available seeds. –Antibiotic-resistance in bacteria evolves in response to the overuse of antibiotics. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

55 Darwin’s publication of The Origin of Species fueled an explosion in biological research. –Evolution is one of biology’s best demonstrated, most comprehensive, and longest-lasting theories. –Evolution is the unifying theme of biology. Observing Natural Selection © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

56 THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE The word science is derived from a Latin verb meaning “to know.” –Science is a way of knowing, based on inquiry. –Science developed from our curiosity about ourselves and the world around us. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

57 THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE There are two main scientific approaches: –Discovery science is mostly about describing nature. –Hypothesis-driven science is mostly about explaining nature. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

58 Discovery Science Science seeks natural causes for natural phenomena. –This limits the scope of science to the study of structures and processes that we can observe and measure directly or indirectly. The dependence on observations that people can confirm demystifies nature and distinguishes science from belief in the supernatural. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

59 Verifiable observations and measurements are the data of discovery science. –In biology, discovery science enables us to describe life at its many levels, from ecosystems down to cells and molecules. Discovery Science © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

60 Figure 1.14a

61 Figure 1.14b

62 Discovery Science Discovery science –can stimulate us to ask questions and seek explanations and –uses a process of inquiry called the scientific method, consisting of a series of steps that provide a loose guideline for scientific investigations. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

63 Hypothesis-Driven Science Most modern scientific investigations can be described as hypothesis-driven science. –A hypothesis is a tentative answer to a question— an explanation on trial. –Although we don’t think of it in those terms, we use hypotheses in solving everyday problems, like figuring out why a TV remote fails. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

64 Once a hypothesis is formed, an investigator can use logic to test it. –A hypothesis is tested by performing an experiment to see whether results are as predicted. –This deductive reasoning takes the form of “If…then” logic. Hypothesis-Driven Science © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

65 Figure Observation The remote doesn’t work. Hypothesis The batteries are dead. Question What’s wrong? Prediction With new batteries, it will work.

66 Figure Experiment supports hypothesis; make more predictions and test. Observation The remote doesn’t work. Hypothesis The batteries are dead. Question What’s wrong? Experiment Replace batteries. Prediction With new batteries, it will work.

67 Figure Experiment does not support hypothesis. Experiment supports hypothesis; make more predictions and test. Observation The remote doesn’t work. Hypothesis The batteries are dead. Question What’s wrong? Experiment Replace batteries. Prediction With new batteries, it will work. Revise.

68 The Process of Science: Are Trans Fats Bad for You? One way to better understand how the process of science can be applied to real-world problems is to examine a case study, an in-depth examination of an actual investigation. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

69 Dietary fat comes in different forms. Trans fats are a non-natural form produced through manufacturing processes called hydrogenation. Trans fats –add texture, –increase shelf life, and –are inexpensive to prepare. The Process of Science: Are Trans Fats Bad for You? © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

70 A study of 120,000 female nurses found that a diet with high levels of trans fats nearly doubled the risk of heart disease. The Process of Science: Are Trans Fats Bad for You? © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

71 A hypothesis-driven study published in 2004 –started with the observation that human body fat retains traces of consumed dietary fat, –asked the question, Would the adipose tissue of heart attack patients be different from a similar group of healthy patients?, and –formed the hypothesis that healthy patients’ body fat would contain less trans fats than the body fat in heart attack victims. The Process of Science: Are Trans Fats Bad for You? © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

72 The researchers set up an experiment to determine the amounts of fat in the adipose tissue of 79 patients who had experienced a heart attack. They compared these patients to the data for 167 patients who had not experienced a heart attack. This is an example of a controlled experiment, in which the control and experimental groups differ only in one variable—the occurrence of a heart attack. The Process of Science: Are Trans Fats Bad for You? © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

73 The results showed significantly higher levels of trans fats in the bodies of the heart attack patients. You would do well to read nutrition labels and avoid trans fats as much as possible in your own diet. The Process of Science: Are Trans Fats Bad for You? © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

74 Figure 1.16 Heart attack patients 1.77 Control group Trans fats in adipose tissue (g trans fat per 100 g total fat)

75 Theories in Science What is a scientific theory, and how is it different from a hypothesis? –A scientific theory is much broader in scope than a hypothesis. –Theories only become widely accepted in science if they are supported by an accumulation of extensive and varied evidence. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

76 Theories in Science Scientific theories are not the only way of “knowing nature.” Science, religion, and art are very different ways of trying to make sense of nature. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

77 The Culture of Science Scientists build on what has been learned from earlier research. –They pay close attention to contemporary scientists working on the same problem. Cooperation and competition characterize the scientific culture. –Scientists check the conclusions of others by attempting to repeat experiments. –Scientists are generally skeptics. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

78 Figure 1.17

79 Science has two key features that distinguish it from other forms of inquiry. Science –depends on observations and measurements that others can verify and –requires that ideas (hypotheses) are testable by experiments that others can repeat. The Culture of Science © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

80 Science, Technology, and Society Science and technology are interdependent. –New technologies advance science. –Scientific discoveries lead to new technologies. –For example, the discovery of the structure of DNA about 60 years ago led to a variety of DNA technologies. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

81 Figure 1.18

82 –Technology has improved our standard of living in many ways, but it is a double-edged sword. –Technology that keeps people healthier has enabled the human population to double to 7 billion in just the past 40 years. –The environmental consequences of this population growth may be devastating. Science, Technology, and Society © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

83 Evolution Connection: Evolution in Our Everyday Lives Antibiotics are drugs that help cure bacterial infections. When an antibiotic is taken, most bacteria are typically killed. Those bacteria most naturally resistant to the drug can still survive. Those few resistant bacteria can soon multiply and become the norm and not the exception. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

84 The evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a huge problem in public health. Antibiotics are being used more selectively. Many farmers are reducing the use of antibiotics in animal feed. Evolution Connection: Evolution in Our Everyday Lives © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

85 It is important to note that the adaptation of bacteria to an environment containing an antibiotic does not mean that the drug created the antibiotic resistance. Instead, the environment screened the heritable variations that already existed among the existing bacteria. Evolution Connection: Evolution in Our Everyday Lives © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

86 Figure 1.19 Colorized SEM

87 Figure 1.19a

88 Figure 1.19b Colorized SEM

89 Figure 1.UN01 Order Regulation Energy processing Growth and development Reproduction Evolution Response to the environment

90 Figure 1.UN02 Domain Eukarya Eukaryotes Three kingdoms Plantae Fungi Animalia Prokaryotes Domain Bacteria Domain Archaea Protists (all other eukaryotes) Life

91 Figure 1.UN03 Observations Individual variation Overproduction and competition Conclusion Unequal reproductive success (natural selection)

92 Figure 1.UN04 Observation Question Hypothesis Prediction Experiment Revise and repeat

93 Figure 1.UN05 Day Food reward No reward Key Average time to complete maze (min)


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