2The Sanitation Crisis2.5 billion people lack the dignity and health offered by access to a safe, decent toilet and protection from untreated waste2.1 billion urban residents use facilities that do not safely dispose of human wasteEliminating OD reduces stunting. This effect is 4-5 times larger in urban areas than in rural areasNotes:Bottom picture is extracted pit sludge being disposed of into a riverTop picture is an example of a currently used latrine where the user defecates directly into the stream running through the slum.Add’l speaking notes: Diarrheal disease is the second largest killer of children,> 1.5 million die every year.In the Water Summit held in Budapest on October 8 this year, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon observed that “2.5 billion people lack the dignity and health offered by access to a safe, decent toilet and protection from untreated waste… It is plain that investment in sanitation is a down-payment on a sustainable future. Economists estimate that every dollar spent can bring a five-fold return.”Sanitation is especially important in the urban environment – an analysis of data from 130 countries shows that the reduction in childhood stunting resulting from eliminating open defecation is 4-5 times greater in urban than in rural areas. And progressively more of us are living in urban areas – currently 52% (3.8 billion). Most developing countries are experiencing runaway urban growth, with more than one person in three living in slums, and the urban sanitation challenge is growing daily.Most of us live in urban areas (52%) and many developing countries experience runaway urban growth. “Investment in sanitation is a down payment on a sustainable future” (Ban Ki Moon, Budapest Water Summit, 9/2013)
3The Sanitation Service Chain Starting with the tree representing open defecation, moving towards the right as we deal with the fecal sludge managementDue to high population density there is not enough space in the dense urban environment to accumulate (bury) fecal sludge.So It must be removed from the household environment and we get an urban sanitation service chain composed of several steps. This concept is taking firm hold now .From household containment, as a shared or private investment at one end, to treatment, which is typically a large lumpy public investment.In conventional sewerage, these are connected by a publicly operated sewer service which is ideally bundled with treatment.A fecal sludge management service to support on-site services may be simple, but may require more steps due to difficult access to latrinesThe MDGs we have focused only on the first step, and the downstream steps were not monitored. However proposed Post MDG development goals, suggest reducing by 50% the fecal waste going into the immediate residential environment.But in practice, for most cities the situation is often much more complicated than this…
4Kenyan Pit emptying video Kenya Manual Pit EmptyingYouTube video of pit emptying in a Nairobi slum (4 minutes). Presenting laptop needs to be connected to Internet for this to work.
5Not effectively treated Residential environment Poor FSM: Institutional Open Defecation Sludge direct to the environment: no service chainTreatmentReuse/ disposalTransportEmptyingContainmentWC tosewer2%LeakageNot effectively treatedEffectively treated2%On-site facilitySafely emptiedIllegally dumpedUnsafely emptiedLeft to overflowor abandonedSlide comes from the WSP modified Service Delivery Assessment framework (Enabling, Developing and Sustaining services) to better understand the institutional side of Fecal Sludge Management --- Alongside the sanitation service chain of Containment, Emptying, Transport, treatment and disposal. This is from an existing city (which shall remain nameless).We call the First type - Poor FSM – Institutionalized Open Defection –Mention that the MDGs focus on open defecation, yet it is only about 1% of the real issues when you look at the entire sanitation value chain.Open defecation1%69%9%9%1%9%98%Residential environmentDrainage systemReceiving waters
6Partial FSM: Framework in place, services exist Some sludge safely transported and treated TreatmentReuse/ disposalTransportEmptyingContainmentWC tosewerLeakage31%Not effectively treated21%Effectively treatedLegally dumpedSafely emptiedOn-site facilityNot effectively treatedIllegally dumpedBy contrast – here is a typical Type 3 city - Dakar, Senegal. The core parts of the enabling framework are in place and there is considerable improvement in the developing and sustaining pillars. Much higher SDA scores and more yellow and greenServices have been developed and maintained – but more at the start of the service chain than at the end.So looking at the a type city 3 shit-flow diagram, we can see the service chain is strengthening, although performance is lagging behind the development of the enabling environment and investments which are taking place.Now only 30% of waste ends up in the immediate residental environment…The challenge now is toconsolidate and expand servicesfor more safe emptying andincentives to reduce illegal dumping of wasteUnsafely emptied10%Safely abandoned when fullOpen defecation2%29%10%6%17%5%69%Residential environmentDrainage systemReceiving waters
7Need Sustainable Business Models Traditional technology is water, infrastructure-, and energy- intensiveNot scalable to all who need itDonations of toilets and equipment do not scaleNeed to increase political prioritization, understanding of sludge flows and impacts, improved outcomesDevelop sustainable business models through supply chain:Support new and existing business in developing countriesOffer decentralized products independent of infrastructureNeed co-ordination, regulation and monitoringSector is ready for innovation; partners wanted…I am sure we are convinced that better FSM is neededTo improve sanitation of poor urban dwellers who use on site systemsAnd in most cities in developing countriesSector knowledge is low – and that must changeOutcomes are very poor – and we have no excuse of complacency – we need to look AT the challenge not away from itFinallyWe need analytical tools to prioritize the right interventionsWe need to work with what exists and what we know,Develop new solutions and business modelsWSP is doing strong work on developing a deeper understanding, analysis and tools, to enable prioritization of investments in the right places and to develop the political will and enabling environment so that business and technology solutions can be applied at scale.BMGF is making considerable investment in technology development, business model development, etc. (and there are more: SPLASH group research). Growing understanding and cooperation is encouraging to see. But we hope others will be joining us! (and not only from the aid community; private sector will play a growing role if we can show the opportunities that exist in waste collection, treatment and reuse).Public Private partnerships with local government and urban utilities will be required to make this work.Take home message:After 3-4 decades of a NGO approaches with pit latrines and septic tanks, something new must be done and we believe that new approach is grounded in innovations - a mix of technology, business models, regulatory and government responsibility for co-ordination and oversight.Some of the technologies we are working on:
8Our Approach The Foundation is Funding: Applied Research Product DevelopmentPrototyping & TestingSupport of CommercializationEfforts to Encourage AdoptionTo Develop Solutions that:Are compelling products, sold on the open market andProfitable for Commercialization PartnersAccessible to the Target Customers=> Are SustainableAllow people to live healthier more productive livesWe believe there is a significant need, and market, for these solutions
9Areas of Technical Innovation Reinvented ToiletOmni-IngestorOmni-Processor$0.05/person/dayNo pathogensUser demandAccess 90% of pitsEffective EmptyingEfficient TransportDecentralizedNutrient RecoveryEnergy ProductionRTTC:Affordable: less than $0.05/person/daySafe: remove all pathogens from the environment.Appealing: sustained use > 5 years.User-centered: users create demand.Sustainable: service providers (public or private) can recoup complete lifecycle costs (make a business work).OI:Completely remove pit contents (sludge & trash)Separate trash and sand from sludge and treat water for local reuseOP:Remove 100% pathogens from fecal sludgeCommunity power/resource plant? - Recover energy (fuel, electricity, biochar, biogas, biodiesel), nutrient/fertilizer and clean water…Profitable business for investors and operatorsBiologically & Environmentally Safe • Profitable • Sustainable