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FSM in the Foundation’s Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy

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Presentation on theme: "FSM in the Foundation’s Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy"— Presentation transcript:

1 FSM in the Foundation’s Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy
Stand in for USAID on short notice Relying on evidence of work done by WSP (used with permission) Highlighting BMGF technology development in support of FSM (improving existing business models); especially OI and OP Jan Willem Rosenboom Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation © Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

2 The Sanitation Crisis 2.5 billion people lack the dignity and health offered by access to a safe, decent toilet and protection from untreated waste 2.1 billion urban residents use facilities that do not safely dispose of human waste Eliminating OD reduces stunting. This effect is 4-5 times larger in urban areas than in rural areas Notes: Bottom picture is extracted pit sludge being disposed of into a river Top picture is an example of a currently used latrine where the user defecates directly into the stream running through the slum. Add’l speaking notes: Diarrheal disease is the second largest killer of children, > 1.5 million die every year. In the Water Summit held in Budapest on October 8 this year, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon observed that “2.5 billion people lack the dignity and health offered by access to a safe, decent toilet and protection from untreated waste… It is plain that investment in sanitation is a down-payment on a sustainable future. Economists estimate that every dollar spent can bring a five-fold return.” Sanitation is especially important in the urban environment  – an analysis of data from 130 countries shows that the reduction in childhood stunting resulting from eliminating open defecation is 4-5 times greater in urban than in rural areas. And progressively more of us  are living in urban areas – currently 52% (3.8 billion). Most developing countries are experiencing runaway urban growth, with more than one person in three living in slums, and the urban sanitation challenge is growing daily. Most of us live in urban areas (52%) and many developing countries experience runaway urban growth. “Investment in sanitation is a down payment on a sustainable future” (Ban Ki Moon, Budapest Water Summit, 9/2013)

3 The Sanitation Service Chain
Starting with the tree representing open defecation, moving towards the right as we deal with the fecal sludge management Due to high population density there is not enough space in the dense urban environment to accumulate (bury) fecal sludge. So It must be removed from the household environment and we get an urban sanitation service chain composed of several steps. This concept is taking firm hold now . From household containment, as a shared or private investment at one end, to treatment, which is typically a large lumpy public investment. In conventional sewerage, these are connected by a publicly operated sewer service which is ideally bundled with treatment. A fecal sludge management service to support on-site services may be simple, but may require more steps due to difficult access to latrines The MDGs we have focused only on the first step, and the downstream steps were not monitored. However proposed Post MDG development goals, suggest reducing by 50% the fecal waste going into the immediate residential environment. But in practice, for most cities the situation is often much more complicated than this…

4 Kenyan Pit emptying video
Kenya Manual Pit Emptying YouTube video of pit emptying in a Nairobi slum (4 minutes). Presenting laptop needs to be connected to Internet for this to work.

5 Not effectively treated Residential environment
Poor FSM: Institutional Open Defecation Sludge direct to the environment: no service chain Treatment Reuse/ disposal Transport Emptying Containment WC to sewer 2% Leakage Not effectively treated Effectively treated 2% On-site facility Safely emptied Illegally dumped Unsafely emptied Left to overflow or abandoned Slide comes from the WSP modified Service Delivery Assessment framework (Enabling, Developing and Sustaining services) to better understand the institutional side of Fecal Sludge Management --- Alongside the sanitation service chain of Containment, Emptying, Transport, treatment and disposal. This is from an existing city (which shall remain nameless). We call the First type - Poor FSM – Institutionalized Open Defection – Mention that the MDGs focus on open defecation, yet it is only about 1% of the real issues when you look at the entire sanitation value chain. Open defecation 1% 69% 9% 9% 1% 9% 98% Residential environment Drainage system Receiving waters

6 Partial FSM: Framework in place, services exist Some sludge safely transported and treated
Treatment Reuse/ disposal Transport Emptying Containment WC to sewer Leakage 31% Not effectively treated 21% Effectively treated Legally dumped Safely emptied On-site facility Not effectively treated Illegally dumped By contrast – here is a typical Type 3 city - Dakar, Senegal. The core parts of the enabling framework are in place and there is considerable improvement in the developing and sustaining pillars. Much higher SDA scores and more yellow and green Services have been developed and maintained – but more at the start of the service chain than at the end. So looking at the a type city 3 shit-flow diagram, we can see the service chain is strengthening, although performance is lagging behind the development of the enabling environment and investments which are taking place. Now only 30% of waste ends up in the immediate residental environment… The challenge now is to consolidate and expand services for more safe emptying and incentives to reduce illegal dumping of waste Unsafely emptied 10% Safely abandoned when full Open defecation 2% 29% 10% 6% 17% 5% 69% Residential environment Drainage system Receiving waters

7 Need Sustainable Business Models
Traditional technology is water, infrastructure-, and energy- intensive Not scalable to all who need it Donations of toilets and equipment do not scale Need to increase political prioritization, understanding of sludge flows and impacts, improved outcomes Develop sustainable business models through supply chain: Support new and existing business in developing countries Offer decentralized products independent of infrastructure Need co-ordination, regulation and monitoring Sector is ready for innovation; partners wanted… I am sure we are convinced that better FSM is needed To improve sanitation of poor urban dwellers who use on site systems And in most cities in developing countries Sector knowledge is low – and that must change Outcomes are very poor – and we have no excuse of complacency – we need to look AT the challenge not away from it Finally We need analytical tools to prioritize the right interventions We need to work with what exists and what we know, Develop new solutions and business models WSP is doing strong work on developing a deeper understanding, analysis and tools, to enable prioritization of investments in the right places and to develop the political will and enabling environment so that business and technology solutions can be applied at scale. BMGF is making considerable investment in technology development, business model development, etc. (and there are more: SPLASH group research). Growing understanding and cooperation is encouraging to see. But we hope others will be joining us! (and not only from the aid community; private sector will play a growing role if we can show the opportunities that exist in waste collection, treatment and reuse). Public Private partnerships with local government and urban utilities will be required to make this work. Take home message: After 3-4 decades of a NGO approaches with pit latrines and septic tanks, something new must be done and we believe that new approach is grounded in innovations - a mix of technology, business models, regulatory and government responsibility for co-ordination and oversight. Some of the technologies we are working on:

8 Our Approach The Foundation is Funding: Applied Research
Product Development Prototyping & Testing Support of Commercialization Efforts to Encourage Adoption To Develop Solutions that: Are compelling products, sold on the open market and Profitable for Commercialization Partners Accessible to the Target Customers => Are Sustainable Allow people to live healthier more productive lives We believe there is a significant need, and market, for these solutions

9 Areas of Technical Innovation
Reinvented Toilet Omni-Ingestor Omni-Processor $0.05/person/day No pathogens User demand Access 90% of pits Effective Emptying Efficient Transport Decentralized Nutrient Recovery Energy Production RTTC: Affordable: less than $0.05/person/day Safe: remove all pathogens from the environment. Appealing: sustained use > 5 years. User-centered: users create demand. Sustainable: service providers (public or private) can recoup complete lifecycle costs (make a business work). OI: Completely remove pit contents (sludge & trash) Separate trash and sand from sludge and treat water for local reuse OP: Remove 100% pathogens from fecal sludge Community power/resource plant? - Recover energy (fuel, electricity, biochar, biogas, biodiesel), nutrient/fertilizer and clean water… Profitable business for investors and operators Biologically & Environmentally Safe • Profitable • Sustainable


11 Large Scale Decentralized Processing
Duke University Janicki Industries: Sludge Processed (75% water) – 9 m3/day Electricity Produced – 150 kW continuous Hot grey water (100°C) – 1000 kg/hour Grey sat steam – 1000 kg/hour Dry sterile sludge – 250 kg/hour Janicki Industries

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