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Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Health and Illness Chapter 4 Health and Illness This multimedia product and its contents.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Health and Illness Chapter 4 Health and Illness This multimedia product and its contents."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Health and Illness Chapter 4 Health and Illness This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease or lending of the program.

2 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Myth or Fact? Women are healthier than men. People in hunting and gathering societies probably had healthier diets than most people in the U.S. today. Myth Fact

3 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Medicalization Defining or labeling behaviors and conditions as medical problems. Includes: A new phenomena defined as a medical problem in need of medical intervention such as post-traumatic stress disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. A new phenomena defined as a medical problem in need of medical intervention such as post-traumatic stress disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Normal conditions that are defined as medical problems such as childbirth, menopause, and death. Normal conditions that are defined as medical problems such as childbirth, menopause, and death.

4 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Biomedicalization The view that medicine can not only control particular conditions but also transform bodies and lives.

5 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The Functionalist Perspective Disease and illness threaten the survival of society because sick people cannot accomplish essential tasks. The function of the health-care system is to return people to normal social functioning. The health care system becomes a problem when it fails to return sick people to normal social functioning.

6 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The Conflict Perspective Health and health care are scarce resources that interest groups compete over. The inequitable distribution of health resources will reflect the overall inequitable distribution of these resources in society. A problem results when some groups feel that they are not receiving their fair share.

7 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The Interactionist Perspective Illness involves a network of social meanings and social expectations. Health care can be considered a social problem when it produces stigmatized or devalued self-concepts among consumers of health care.

8 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Stigma Any personal characteristic associated with social disgrace, rejection, or discrediting. Symbolic interactionists focus on stigmatizing effects of being labeled “ill.” Individuals with mental illnesses, drug addictions, physical deformities and impairments, and HIV and AIDS are prone to being stigmatized.

9 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Politics, Stigma and the AIDS Epidemic In the case of AIDS many factors came together to produce a significant delay in the attack on the disease. Stigmatization of people with AIDS Stigmatization of people with AIDS Reagan administration’s policy of smaller government and greater austerity in social and health programs Reagan administration’s policy of smaller government and greater austerity in social and health programs Urban politics Urban politics Politics in the gay community Politics in the gay community

10 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Health & Societal Development Most diseases can be classified as acute or chronic diseases The most effective and least expensive means of dealing with chronic disease is preventive medicine. However, modern medicine is organized around curative medicine.

11 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Classifying Countries Three categories according to economic status: Developed countries have relatively high gross national income and have economies made up of many different industries. Developed countries have relatively high gross national income and have economies made up of many different industries. Developing countries have relatively low gross national income and their economies are much simpler. Developing countries have relatively low gross national income and their economies are much simpler. Least developed countries are the poorest countries of the world. Least developed countries are the poorest countries of the world.

12 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Life Expectancy Average number of years individuals born in a given year can expect to live. Infant mortality - Number of deaths of live- born infants under 1 year of age.

13 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

14 Top Three Causes of Death by Age Group: United States, 2008 Age (years) FirstSecondThird 1-4 Unintentional injuries Congenital/ chromosomal abnormalities Cancer 5-14 Unintentional injuries Cancer Congenital/ chromosomal abnormalities Unintentional injuries HomicideSuicide

15 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Top Three Causes of Death by Age Group: United States, 2008 Age (years) FirstSecondThird Unintentional injuries Cancer Heart disease 45-64Cancer Stroke 65 and older Heart disease CancerStroke

16 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Maternal Mortality Rates A measure of deaths that result from complications associated with pregnancy, childbirth, and unsafe abortion. Maternal mortality is the leading cause of death and disability for women ages 15–49 in developing countries. The most common causes of maternal death are hemorrhage, infection, and complications related to unsafe abortion.

17 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Childbirth Assistance and Lifetime Chance of Maternal Mortality % of Births Attended by Skilled Personnel Lifetime Chance of Dying from Maternal Mortality Developed countries 99 1 in 4,000 Developing countries 57 1 in 61 Sub-Saharan Africa 41 1 in 16

18 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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20 Social Factors in Health and Illness Socioeconomic status Those who are lower in income, educational attainment, and occupational attainment have substantially higher disease rates and death rates than their affluent counterparts. Those who are lower in income, educational attainment, and occupational attainment have substantially higher disease rates and death rates than their affluent counterparts.Gender Women appear to be healthier than men, especially if life expectancy is considered. But women have more acute, non-life-threatening illnesses. So reality is complicated on this issue. Women appear to be healthier than men, especially if life expectancy is considered. But women have more acute, non-life-threatening illnesses. So reality is complicated on this issue.

21 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Social Factors in Health and Illness Race Some of the impact of race on health has to do with discrimination. Some of the impact of race on health has to do with discrimination. Lifestyle factors Industrialization has improved people’s lives as well as created health hazards. Industrialization has improved people’s lives as well as created health hazards.

22 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

23 The Nature of Mental Illness The medical model views mental disorders the same as physical disorders. views mental disorders the same as physical disorders. The mental illness as deviance model focuses on the symptoms of mental illness that appear in a person’s behavior based on shared social expectation. focuses on the symptoms of mental illness that appear in a person’s behavior based on shared social expectation. The mental illness as problems of living model sees mental illness as an expression of the fact that human life is a continual struggle to decide how to live and relate to others. sees mental illness as an expression of the fact that human life is a continual struggle to decide how to live and relate to others.

24 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Mental Health The successful performance of mental function, resulting in productive activities, fulfilling relationships with other people, and the ability to adapt to change and to cope with adversity.

25 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Mental Illness All mental disorders, which are health conditions that are characterized by alterations in thinking, mood, and/or behavior associated with distress and/or impaired functioning and that meet specific criteria specified in The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

26 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Impact of Mental Illness Untreated mental disorders can lead to: poor educational achievement poor educational achievement lost productivity lost productivity unsuccessful relationships unsuccessful relationships significant distress significant distress violence and abuse violence and abuse incarceration incarceration poverty poverty

27 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Extent of Mental Illness On any given day 150,000 people with severe mental illness are homeless, living on the streets or in public shelters. As many as 1 in 5 adults in U.S. prisons and as many as 70% of youth incarcerated in juvenile justice facilities are mentally ill.

28 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Problems in Health Care in the United States Health care costs are rising due to a growing demand for health care services a growing demand for health care services availability of diagnostic and treatment procedures availability of diagnostic and treatment procedures health care is a labor intensive industry health care is a labor intensive industry checks on cost are weaker than other fields checks on cost are weaker than other fields tendency to over-utilize services and even to perform unnecessary procedures tendency to over-utilize services and even to perform unnecessary procedures increasing litigations and malpractice insurance cost increasing litigations and malpractice insurance cost

29 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Problems in Health Care in the U.S. Some people do not have access to medical services that they need. The quality of some medical services is low. There is substantial gender inequality in health care. Health services have been privatized and corporatized.

30 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

31 Bioethics: Technology and Health Bioethics refers to the study of ethical questions that relate to the life and biological well-being of people. Major bioethical issues the prolongation of life the prolongation of life the distribution of medical resources the distribution of medical resources

32 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Whom shall we treat? A number of principles serve as the basis of medical allocation. Ability to pay Ability to pay Merit Merit Utilitarian Utilitarian Compensatory justice Compensatory justice Egalitarian Egalitarian

33 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Future Prospects Social policy debates include discussions of publicly funded health insurance (Medicare, Medicaid, national health insurance) publicly funded health insurance (Medicare, Medicaid, national health insurance) government mandated health insurance government mandated health insurance the emergence of health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and managed care systems the emergence of health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and managed care systems new health care practitioner roles new health care practitioner roles changes in people’s lifestyles changes in people’s lifestyles


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