"Wealthier is healthier" Pritchett & Summers 1993 58 countries with GDP/capita <$6000, 1960-85 5% increase in income 1% reduction in infant mortality Africa: +1.5% growth in 1980s saves 0.5m lives in 1990
One third economic growth from "demographic gift" 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75 19501960197019801990200020102020203020402050 Share population of working age East Asia Sub-Saharan Africa "Demographic dividends" and "economic miracles" From health to wealth? education economics governance public health family planning
Cycles: virtuous vicious wealth health sickness poverty
One million “excess” deaths in developing world since 1980 due to contractions in economies Infant mortality
One million “excess” deaths in developing world since 1980 due to contractions in economies Children die when GDP falls Relative risks higher for vulnerable children born: To low-education mothers +68% Young/old mothers +23% In rural areas+72% If boys+11%
Wealth is mostly good for health, but… Microeconomics Money buys health, and 1 o health is cheap Money buys health directly (medicines) and indirectly (education for prevention and cure) Health underpins prosperity -- individual, family, business Macroeconomics Health is linked to wealth across countries and generations… The cause? Social? Cultural? Educational? Technological? All? A minimum set? Buying health Microeconomic argument often enough?