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“Gender Equitable development Projects” APMASS & WAP, AIT: Vietnam Phùng Thị Vân Anh Gender Trainer/ Consultant Centre for Community Empowerment (CECEM)

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Presentation on theme: "“Gender Equitable development Projects” APMASS & WAP, AIT: Vietnam Phùng Thị Vân Anh Gender Trainer/ Consultant Centre for Community Empowerment (CECEM)"— Presentation transcript:

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2 “Gender Equitable development Projects” APMASS & WAP, AIT: Vietnam Phùng Thị Vân Anh Gender Trainer/ Consultant Centre for Community Empowerment (CECEM)

3 GENDER & DEVELOPMENT BASIC CONCEPTS

4 Sex indicates biological characteristics of man and woman. People are born male or female. With very few exceptions they remain male or female throughout their lives in terms of their biological make-up. The biological differences between men and women are identified at birth. For example: only women can give birth; only men can have sperms … Sex

5 Gender indicates the characteristics, positions and roles of man and woman in all social relationships. Gender

6 Sex & Gender SexGender Biological At birth Universal (everywhere) Can’t change naturally - Only women can give birth and breastfeed the children Social Result of trained or educated Various (different form societies to societies, cultures to Can be changed over time - Women can become a president - men can take a good care of children

7 Which picture refers to gender? Sex differen ces?

8 What we see daily… Quản lý nhà nước Lao động sản xuất Chăm sóc con cái

9 Các hình ảnh hàng ngày

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11 Those pictures refer to sex or gender?  Gender What do they talk about men and women?  Their job/ what they do Quick quizz

12 Refer to the activities that men and women actually do ; can be changed at a time, conditions and situations. Productive roles: refers to the work of generating income that men and women do, to make products or services as well as process raw materials to get income. Reproductive roles : refers to the childbirth and other related activities, that most of the time is spent for taking care of the family members and community, searching fuel and water, preparing food, taking care of the child, education and taking care of the seniors, which are almost unpaid. Gender roles

13 Productive role (Farming, producing): referring to the production activities that women do for the market and for their family to generate income (paid by money or products) Productive role (Farming, producing): referring to the production activities that women do for the market and for their family to generate income (paid by money or products) Reproductive role (house chores/ caring for family) : Referring activities to caring and maintaining the basic needs of family and its member such as : food, shelter, education, healthcares  reproduce production + taking care of potential workforce Reproductive role (house chores/ caring for family) : Referring activities to caring and maintaining the basic needs of family and its member such as : food, shelter, education, healthcares  reproduce production + taking care of potential workforce Community management role R eferring to the activities that women do to ensure the supply of resources at community level as an extended role of reproductive role (rituals, ceremony celebration, community services activities…) Community management role R eferring to the activities that women do to ensure the supply of resources at community level as an extended role of reproductive role (rituals, ceremony celebration, community services activities…) Women’s 3 main roles (paid & unpaid)

14 Basic/ Pratical gender needs: often related to shortage in working and living conditions such as: foods, water, living place, income, health care and work. If these needs are met, life of men/women would be improved without being influenced to labor distribution as well as the dependant position of the women in the society  The strategic gender needs: are needs relayed to labour distribution, power, gender control. These needs change according to specific social, economic, and political situation in which these needs form. Female: legal rights, domestic violence... Male: rights to take part in raising kids, privacy... On meeting these needs, the imbalanced relationship of labor distribution between two genders would be changed

15 What we often hear… Only men could be excellent surgeons Women should be teachers, nursery teachers

16 Those thoughts, perceptions refer to Gender or Sex? How will they affect women and men’s life?

17 is negative and partial attitude acknowledgement and assessment of the characteristics, position, role and capacity of man or woman. Are viewpoints from others assuming that men or women are able to do or should do, unable to do or should not do something Gender stereotype

18 In some families: Girls cant pursue higher education/ should not be invested in girl’s education such as for boys Boys shouldn’t do housework- they are very tiny and worthless jobs Girls can not inherit; In some workplaces: Male workers should take the heavy and hazadours jobs ( according to the list of prohibited female workers) Can’t recruit female workers who have little chidlren/ or give those women lower wage What do those saying mean?

19 Those sayings are just prejudice or already become a specific actions? Question

20 LIST OF JOBS ARE NOT ALLOWED TO USE FEMALE LABOR (TTLB - 03, LĐTBXH-YT, 1/1994) 1.Directly melting metal at ovens 2.Burn metullurgy ovens; 3.Work related to open radio-active resources; 4.Chop down big trees, saw, trim branches high above; 5.Train driver; 6.Diver; ; Gender Discrimination

21 Is the restaint, elimination, unacknowledgement or unfavor roles, positions of men and women, causes inequality between men and women in every social and family aspect (K5, Đ5, Luật BĐG);  Direct discrimination: from implementing laws, regulations or routines  Indirect discrimination: from executing laws, regulations or routines Gender Discrimination

22 Vacancy Announcement by a Ministry in Vietnam (2009) Department Inspector Seeking employment of 10 graduated from Universities major in: -Accounting: 02 -Economics: 01 (male) -Law: 01 (male) -Social work: 01 (male) -Human Resource: 01 (male) -Mine Exploitation: 01 (male) -Electrics, Engineering or Labor Protetion: 01 (male) Direct Discrimination

23 Announcement: Training Workshop invitation    Notice: Participants with children under 36 month old are not allowed to bring the kids along during training Indirect Discrimination

24 Gender Equality

25 Gender equality indicates that man and woman have equal position and role; are given equal conditions and opportunities to develop their capacities for the development of the community, family and equally enjoy the achievement of that development. It does not mean that women and men are the same or have to become the same, but that their rights, responsibilities, social status and access to resources do not depend on whether they are born male or female. Gender Equality is the goal Gender Equality

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27 Conditions to be able to enroll in local vocational trainings: Engineer: height: >= 160; weight: >= 50 kg… Sewer: being skillful, careful and patient is a plus; Gender Equity

28 is about equality of outcomes and results. It is a means to ensure that women and men, girls and boys have an equal chance not only at the starting point but also when reaching the finishing line. It is about the fair and just treatment of both sexes that takes into account the different needs of the men and women, cultural barriers and (past) discrimination of the specific group. Equity is the method to achieve gender equality goal Gender Equity

29 Gender and development project Gender-Blind Women and Development WID Issues of Women Gender and Development GAD Gender Analysis – The relation between two genders – take part in the development ơ Gender = Women ????? 1970s 1980

30 Vietnam Before 2006: Women Liberation, CEDAW (1981) Domestic Violence Law – 2006 Law on gender equality – Decree No.70/2008/NĐ-CP 04 Jun 2008 of Government regulates in details the execution some terms of the Gender Equity Law 2.Decree No.48/2009/NĐ-CP 19 May 2009 of Government regulates on measures to Gender Equity

31 Name and tell the meanings of studied concepts Why development projects need gender attribute? Discussion Questions


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