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June 21, 2005 RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN 1 (Single) Transverse Spin Physics -- from DIS to hadron collider Feng Yuan, RBRC, Brookhaven National Laboratory W. Vogelsang, F.Y., to be submitted

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June 21, 2005 2RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN Outline Introduction Introduction More: RBRC Workshop on SSA (June 1-3) http://quark.phy.bnl.gov/~fyuan/workshop/s ummer05_program.htm More: RBRC Workshop on SSA (June 1-3) http://quark.phy.bnl.gov/~fyuan/workshop/s ummer05_program.htm SSA in SIDIS, Physics of TMDs SSA in SIDIS, Physics of TMDs SSA at hadron colliders (RHIC) SSA at hadron colliders (RHIC) Summary Summary

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June 21, 2005 3RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN What is Single Spin Asymmetry? Consider scattering of a transversely-polarized spin-1/2 hadron (S, p) with another hadron, observing a particle of momentum k S k p The cross section can have a term depending on the azimuthal angle of k which produce an asymmetry A N when S flips: SSA p’ z x y

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June 21, 2005 4RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN Sample Exp. Data A. Bravar et al., E704, PRL77, 2626 (1996)

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June 21, 2005 5RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN SSA at SSA at RHIC STAR Collaboration, Phys.Rev.Lett.92:171801,2004; hep-ex/0412035

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June 21, 2005 6RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN PHENIX Collaboration, hep-ex/0410003 Central rapidity!!

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June 21, 2005 7RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN ~ -0.035 => AN = -0.08 +- 0.005 ~ -0.035 => AN = -0.08 +- 0.005 +- [0.015] in 0.17 < xF < 0.32 ~ +0.022 => AN = +0.05 +- 0.005 ~ +0.022 => AN = +0.05 +- 0.005 +- [0.015] in 0.17 < xF < 0.32 BRAHMS Collaboration, talk by Videbaek BRAHMS preliminary

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June 21, 2005 8RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN SSA! Big SSA! Systematics A N is significant in the fragmentation region of the polarized beam A N and its sign show a strong dependence on the type of polarized beam and produced particles A N and its sign show a strong dependence on the type of polarized beam and produced particles A related phenomenon: the transverse polarization of spin-1/2 particle in unpolarized hadron scattering. G. Bunce et. al, PRL36, 1113 (1976).

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9 Why Does SSA Exist? Single Spin Asymmetry is proportional to Im (M N * M F ) where M N is the normal helicity amplitude and M F is a spin flip amplitude Helicity flip : one must have a reaction mechanism for the hadron to change its helicity (in a cut diagram) Final State Interactions (FSI): to generate a phase difference between two amplitudes The phase difference is needed because the structure S · (p × k) formally violate time-reversal invariance

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June 21, 2005 10RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN Naïve Parton Model Fails If the underlying scattering mechanism is hard, the naïve parton model generates a very small SSA: ( G. Kane et al, PRL41, 1978 ) The only way to generate the hadron helicity-flip is through quark helicity flip, which is proportional to current quark mass m q To generate a phase difference, one has to have pQCD loop diagrams, proportional to α S

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June 21, 2005 11RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN Parton Orbital Angular Momentum and Gluon Spin The hadron helicity flip can be generated by other mechanism in QCD Quark orbital angular momentum (OAM): 1/2 −1/2 1/21/2−1 Beyond the naïve parton model in which quarks are collinear Transverse Momentum Dependent PDF!! (TMDs)

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June 21, 2005 12RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN Parton OAM and Gluons (cont.) A collinear gluon carries one unit of angular momentum because of its spin. Therefore, one can have a coherent gluon interaction 1/2 −1/2 1/2 Quark-gluon quark correlation function! Qiu-Sterman Mechanism

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June 21, 2005 13RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN Novel Way to Generate Phase Some propagators in the tree diagrams go on-shell No loop is needed to generate the phase! Coulomb gluon Efremov & Teryaev: 1982 & 1984 Qiu & Sterman: 1991 & 1999

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June 21, 2005 14RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN Comparison With Data Qiu & Sterman, PRD59, 014004 (1999)

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June 21, 2005 15RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN SSA In Semi-inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (TMDs)

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June 21, 2005 16RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN Inclusive and Semi-inclusive DIS Inclusive DIS: Partonic Distribution depending on the longitudinal momentum fraction Semi-inclusive DIS: Probe additional information for partons’ transverse distribution in nucleon

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June 21, 2005 17RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN Different P ? Region Integrate out P ? -- similar to inclusive DIS, probe int. PDF Large P ? ( À QCD ) -- hard gluon radiation, can be calculated from perturbative QCD, Polarized ->q-g-q correlations Low P ? ( » QCD ) -- nonperturbative information (TMD): new factorization formula

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June 21, 2005 18RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN TMD Physics A way to measure Transversity Distribution, the last unkown leading twist distribution A way to measure Transversity Distribution, the last unkown leading twist distribution Collins 1993 Collins 1993 The Novel Single Spin Asymmetries The Novel Single Spin Asymmetries Connections with GPDs, and Quantum Phase Space Wigner distributions Connections with GPDs, and Quantum Phase Space Wigner distributions Quark Orbital Angular Momentum and Quark Orbital Angular Momentum and Many others …

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June 21, 2005 19RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN TMD Distribution: the definition Gauge Invariance requires the Gauge Link Brodsky,Hwang,Schmidt 02’ Collins 02’ Belitsky,Ji,Yuan 02’

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June 21, 2005 RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN 20 This definition is also consistent with the QCD factorization

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June 21, 2005 21RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN Factorization Soft Factor Ji,Ma,Yuan, 04’

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June 21, 2005 22RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN The Factorization Applies to Semi-inclusive DIS (polarized and unpolarized) Semi-inclusive DIS (polarized and unpolarized) Drell-Yan at Low transverse momentum Drell-Yan at Low transverse momentum Di-hadron production in e+e- annihilation (extract the Collins function) Di-hadron production in e+e- annihilation (extract the Collins function) Di-jet and/or di-hadron correlation at hadron collider (work in progress) Di-jet and/or di-hadron correlation at hadron collider (work in progress) Many others, … Many others, …

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June 21, 2005 23RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN Phenomenology At current stage, it is difficult to implement the full factorization approach for the phenom. Studies At current stage, it is difficult to implement the full factorization approach for the phenom. Studies As a first step, one may neglect all higher order effects, set S=H=1, forget the and in TMDs As a first step, one may neglect all higher order effects, set S=H=1, forget the and in TMDs Back to Naïve Parton Model picture Back to Naïve Parton Model picture Mulders & Tangelmann 96 Mulders & Tangelmann 96

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June 21, 2005 24RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN SIDIS Cross Sections TransversityCollins Function Sivers Function

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June 21, 2005 25RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN Asymmetries Integrate over the transverse momentum Integrate over the transverse momentum

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June 21, 2005 26RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN Model for the Sivers functions Assume only valence quark Sivers functions Assume only valence quark Sivers functions u T (1/2) /u=S u x(1-x) u T (1/2) /u=S u x(1-x) d T (1/2) /u=S d x(1-x) d T (1/2) /u=S d x(1-x) GRVLO for the unpolarized quark distribution Kretzer’s LO fragmentation function GRVLO for the unpolarized quark distribution Kretzer’s LO fragmentation function Valence feature Power Suppressed at x->1

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June 21, 2005 27RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN Fit to HERMES Data S u =-0.81 § 0.07 S d =1.86 § 0.28 2 /d.o.f ¼ 1.2

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28 Compare with COMPASS Assume the leading hadrons are pions HERMES large positive for +, and almost zero for -, there is strong cancellation between u and d quark Sivers function to explain the HERMES data!!

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June 21, 2005 29RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN A Conjecture for Collins Function By summing up all hadrons, any quark Collins function vanishes, By summing up all hadrons, any quark Collins function vanishes, Due to quark-hadron duality, the fragmentation function to all hadrons equals to the fragment. to quark (quark+gluons) state, where the naïve T-odd effect is suppressed by quark mass Due to quark-hadron duality, the fragmentation function to all hadrons equals to the fragment. to quark (quark+gluons) state, where the naïve T-odd effect is suppressed by quark mass Integrated over z with k ? moment Schafer- Teryaev sumrule Integrated over z with k ? moment Schafer- Teryaev sumrule

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June 21, 2005 30RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN Consequence on unfavor/favor Isospin/charge symmetry Isospin/charge symmetry Under the above conjecture, neglecting Keons Under the above conjecture, neglecting Keons Support from string picture for fragmentation, Artzu Also N. Makins’ talks

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June 21, 2005 31RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN Model for Collins Functions Two sets of parameterizations Two sets of parameterizations Collins function vanishes at z 0 Collins function vanishes at z 0 (1-z) comes from Collins 93’ (1-z) comes from Collins 93’ Transversity functions use the parameterization of Martin, Schafer, Stratmann, and Vogelsang, PRD 57(1998) Transversity functions use the parameterization of Martin, Schafer, Stratmann, and Vogelsang, PRD 57(1998)

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June 21, 2005 32RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN Set I Fit to HERMES C f = 0.29 § 0.04 C d =-0.33 § 0.04 2 /d.o.f ¼ 0.8

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June 21, 2005 33RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN Compare to COMPASS Assume the leading hadrons are pions Discrepancy?

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June 21, 2005 34RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN Set II Fit C f = 0.29 § 0.02 C d =-0.56 § 0.07 2 /d.o.f ¼ 0.7

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June 21, 2005 35RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN Compare to COMPASS Assume the leading hadrons are pions

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June 21, 2005 36RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN Fitted Collins Functions Set ISet II

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June 21, 2005 37RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN Transversity functions in the fit Unpolarized quark distributions If we get Collins functions from other processes, e.g., e^+e^-, we can constrain the transversity functions !!

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June 21, 2005 38RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN TMDs at RHIC Drell-Yan SSA for Drell-Yan: Sivers function has opposite sign, q T DY = - q T DIS, because of the gauge link changing direction. Di-Jet Correlation Di-Jet Correlation There is no factorization proof yet. It is likely factorizable in terms of TMDs. However, the universality of Sivers function for this case is not clear yet. We assume they are the same as DY.

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June 21, 2005 39RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN SSA for Drell-Yan

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June 21, 2005 40RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN Asym. Jet correlation probe Gluon Sivers function at RHIC Boer, Vogelsang, PRD69:094025,2004

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June 21, 2005 41RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN Di-jet Correlation 11 22 Jet1: P 1 ? Jet2: P 2 ? q T (1/2) (x) q T (1) (x)

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June 21, 2005 42RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN cos Asymmetry Gluon Sivers

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June 21, 2005 43RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN Remarks on sin term It is inclusive Di-jet cross section, depending on the azimuthal angle between the di-jet and the polarization vector S ? It is inclusive Di-jet cross section, depending on the azimuthal angle between the di-jet and the polarization vector S ? Remember that Qiu-Sterman twist-three also contributes to the Di-jet sin asymmetry Remember that Qiu-Sterman twist-three also contributes to the Di-jet sin asymmetry The connection between the above two terms needs to be further investigated The connection between the above two terms needs to be further investigated

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June 21, 2005 44RHIC & AGS USER MEETING-SPIN Summary The simple parameterizations of the Sivers and Collins functions fit the HERMES data very well. Future data from both HERMES and COMPASS should solve the possible “discrepancy” The simple parameterizations of the Sivers and Collins functions fit the HERMES data very well. Future data from both HERMES and COMPASS should solve the possible “discrepancy” The SSAs for Drell-Yan and Di-jet correlation were predicted. The SSAs for Drell-Yan and Di-jet correlation were predicted. Further studies for Di-hadron correlation including Collins asymmetry should be carried out, and also the factorization Further studies for Di-hadron correlation including Collins asymmetry should be carried out, and also the factorization

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