Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 Standard Costing, Operational Performance Measures, and the Balanced Scorecard."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 10 Standard Costing, Operational Performance Measures, and the Balanced Scorecard
Definition of Terms
10-3 Standard Costs -are usually associated with a manufacturing company's costs of direct material, direct labor, and manufacturing overhead.
10-4 Standard Costing is a control method involving the preparation of detailed cost and sales budgets It is then compared with the actual results for a specific account period and any significant variances between the actual and the budgeted results are investigated
10-5 Standard Costing Unexpected trends are corrected if they are not acceptable or they cannot be accommodated.
10-6 Cost variance (CV) is the amount of money that was actually spent on a project or a part of a project compared to the amount of work that was actually accomplished. Cost variance is the budgeted cost of work performed minus the actual cost of work performed.
Learning Objective 1
10-8 Managing Costs Standard cost Actual cost Comparison between standard and actual performance level Cost variance
10-9 Management by Exception Direct Material Type of Product Cost Amount Direct Labor Standard Managers focus on quantities and costs that exceed standards, a practice known as management by exception.
Learning Objective 2
10-11 Setting Standards Analysis of Historical Data Task Analysis Cost Standards
10-12 Accountants, engineers, personnel administrators, and production managers combine efforts to set standards based on experience and expectations. Participation in Setting Standards
10-13 Perfection versus Practical Standards: A Behavioral Issue Should we use practical standards or perfection standards? Practical standards should be set at levels that are currently attainable with reasonable and efficient effort.
10-14 I agree. Perfection standards are unattainable and therefore discouraging to most employees. Perfection versus Practical Standards: A Behavioral Issue
10-15 Use of Standards by Service Organizations Standard cost analysis may be used in any organization with repetitive tasks. A relationship between tasks and output measures must be established.
Learning Objective 3
10-17 Standard Cost Variances Cost Variance Analysis Quantity Variance Price Variance The difference between the actual price and the standard price The difference between the actual quantity and the standard quantity
10-18 A General Model for Variance Analysis Actual Quantity Actual Quantity Standard Quantity × × × Actual Price Standard Price Standard Price Price VarianceQuantity Variance Materials price variance Materials quantity variance Labor rate variance Labor efficiency variance Variable overhead Variable overhead spending variance efficiency variance AQ(AP - SP) SP(AQ - SQ) AQ = Actual Quantity SP = Standard Price AP = Actual Price SQ = Standard Quantity
10-19 A General Model for Variance Analysis Actual Quantity Actual Quantity Standard Quantity × × × Actual Price Standard Price Standard Price Price VarianceQuantity Variance Standard price is the amount that should have been paid for the resources acquired.
10-20 A General Model for Variance Analysis Actual Quantity Actual Quantity Standard Quantity × × × Actual Price Standard Price Standard Price Price VarianceQuantity Variance Standard quantity is the quantity that should have been used.
10-21 Standard Costs Let’s use the concepts of the general model to calculate standard cost variances, starting with direct material.
10-22 Hanson Inc. has the following direct material standard to manufacture one Zippy: 1.5 pounds per Zippy at $4.00 per pound Last week 1,700 pounds of material were purchased and used to make 1,000 Zippies. The material cost a total of $6,630. Material Variances Zippy
10-23 What is the actual price per pound paid for the material? a.$4.00 per pound. b.$4.10 per pound. c.$3.90 per pound. d.$6.63 per pound. Material Variances Zippy
10-24 What is the actual price per pound paid for the material? a.$4.00 per pound. b.$4.10 per pound. c.$3.90 per pound. d.$6.63 per pound. AP = $6,630 ÷ 1,700 lbs. AP = $3.90 per lb. Material Variances Zippy
10-25 Hanson’s direct-material price variance (MPV) for the week was: a.$170 unfavorable. b.$170 favorable. c.$800 unfavorable. d.$800 favorable. Material Variances Zippy
10-27 The standard quantity of material that should have been used to produce 1,000 Zippies is: a.1,700 pounds. b.1,500 pounds. c.2,550 pounds. d.2,000 pounds. Material Variances Zippy
10-28 The standard quantity of material that should have been used to produce 1,000 Zippies is: a.1,700 pounds. b.1,500 pounds. c.2,550 pounds. d.2,000 pounds. SQ = 1,000 units × 1.5 lbs per unit SQ = 1,500 lbs Material Variances Zippy
10-29 Hanson’s direct-material quantity variance (MQV) for the week was: a.$170 unfavorable. b.$170 favorable. c.$800 unfavorable. d.$800 favorable. Material Variances Zippy
10-31 Actual Quantity Actual Quantity Standard Quantity × × × Actual Price Standard Price Standard Price 1,700 lbs. 1,700 lbs. 1,500 lbs. × × × $3.90 per lb. $4.00 per lb. $4.00 per lb. $6,630 $ 6,800 $6,000 Price variance $170 favorable Quantity variance $800 unfavorable Material Variances Summary
10-32 The price variance is computed on the entire quantity purchased. The quantity variance is computed only on the quantity used. Hanson purchased and used 1,700 pounds. How are the variances computed if the amount purchased differs from the amount used? Zippy Material Variances
10-33 Hanson Inc. has the following material standard to manufacture one Zippy: 1.5 pounds per Zippy at $4.00 per pound Last week 2,800 pounds of material were purchased at a total cost of $10,920, and 1,700 pounds were used to make 1,000 Zippies. Material Variances Zippy
10-34 Material Variances Actual Quantity Actual Quantity Purchased Purchased × × Actual Price Standard Price 2,800 lbs. 2,800 lbs. × × $3.90 per lb. $4.00 per lb. $10,920 $11,200 Price variance $280 favorable Price variance increases because quantity purchased increases. Zippy MPV = AQ(AP - SP) MPV = 2,800 lbs. × ($ ) MPV = $280 Favorable
10-35 Actual Quantity Used Standard Quantity × × Standard Price Standard Price 1,700 lbs. 1,500 lbs. × × $4.00 per lb. $4.00 per lb. $6,800 $6,000 Quantity variance $800 unfavorable Quantity variance is unchanged because actual and standard quantities are unchanged. Material Variances Zippy MQV = SP(AQ - SQ) MQV = $4.00(1,700 lbs - 1,500 lbs) MQV = $800unfavor.
10-36 Isolation of Material Variances I need the variances as soon as possible so that I can better identify problems and control costs. You accountants just don’t understand the problems we production managers have. Okay. I’ll start computing the price variance when material is purchased and the quantity variance as soon as material is used.
10-37 Standard Costs Now let’s calculate standard cost variances for direct labor.
10-38 Hanson Inc. has the following direct labor standard to manufacture one Zippy: 1.5 standard hours per Zippy at $10.00 per direct labor hour Last week 1,550 direct labor hours were worked at a total labor cost of $15,810 to make 1,000 Zippies. Labor Variances Zippy
10-39 What was Hanson’s actual rate (AR) for labor for the week? a.$10.20 per hour. b.$10.10 per hour. c.$9.90 per hour. d.$9.80 per hour. Labor Variances Zippy
10-40 What was Hanson’s actual rate (AR) for labor for the week? a.$10.20 per hour. b.$10.10 per hour. c.$9.90 per hour. d.$9.80 per hour. Labor Variances Zippy AR = $15,810 ÷ 1,550 hours AR = $10.20 per hour
10-43 The standard hours (SH) of labor that should have been worked to produce 1,000 Zippies is: a.1,550 hours. b.1,500 hours. c.1,700 hours. d.1,800 hours. Labor Variances Zippy
10-44 The standard hours (SH) of labor that should have been worked to produce 1,000 Zippies is: a.1,550 hours. b.1,500 hours. c.1,700 hours. d.1,800 hours. Labor Variances SH = 1,000 units × 1.5 hours per unit SH = 1,500 hours Zippy
10-46 Hanson’s labor efficiency variance (LEV) for the week was: a.$510 unfavorable. b.$510 favorable. c.$500 unfavorable. d.$500 favorable. Labor Variances LEV = SR(AH - SH) LEV = $10.00(1,550 hrs - 1,500 hrs) LEV = $500 unfavorable Zippy
10-47 Actual Hours Actual Hours Standard Hours × × × Actual Rate Standard Rate Standard Rate Labor Variances Summary Rate variance $310 unfavorable Efficiency variance $500 unfavorable 1,550 hours 1,550 hours 1,500 hours × × × $10.20 per hour $10.00 per hour $10.00 per hour $15,810 $15,500 $15,000
Learning Objective 4
10-49 Costs and benefits of investigation Favorable variances Controllability Trends Significance of Cost Variances What clues help me to determine the variances that I should investigate? Recurring variances Size of variance Dollar/Monetary amount and Percentage of standard
10-50 Statistical Control Chart Variance Measurements Favorable Limit Unfavorable Limit Desired Value Warning signals for investigation
10-51 Unfavorable Variance If actual costs are greater than standard costs tells management that if everything else stays constant the company's actual profit will be less than planned.
10-52 Favorable variance If actual costs are less than standard costs the variance is favorable tells management that if everything else stays constant the actual profit will likely exceed the planned profit.
Learning Objective 5
10-54 Behavioral Impact of Standard Costing Variances evaluate personnel: –Variances may be used to evaluate personnel, often with regard to salary increases, bonuses, and promotions
10-55 Behavioral Impact of Standard Costing Negative and positive incentives created –Such incentives can have positive and negative effects, as a bonus plan may prompt a manager to pursue actions that are not in the best interests of the organization.
10-56 If I buy cheaper materials, my direct- materials expenses will be lower than what is budgeted. Then I’ll get my bonus. But we may lose customers because of lower quality. Behavioral Impact of Standard Costing
10-57 Controllability of Variances Importance of identifying who controls: It is rare that one person controls any event; however, it is often possible to identify the manager who is most able to influence a particular variance.
10-58 Controllability of Variances Direct-Material Price Variance Direct-Labor Rate Variance Direct-Material Quantity Variance Direct-Labor Efficiency Variance Purchasing manager Production supervisor and/or production engineers Production supervisor
10-59 Controllability of Variances Variance often affect more than one input: Variances often interact, making investigation and controllability difficult. –For example, a labor efficiency variance may be caused by problems not only with labor but by problems with machinery and material as well. –In addition, managers sometimes trade-off variances, purposely incurring an unfavorable variance that is more than offset by favorable variances.
10-60 Interaction among Variances I am not responsible for the unfavorable labor efficiency variance! You purchased cheap material, so it took more time to process it. You used too much time because of poorly trained workers and poor supervision.
Learning Objective 6
10-62 Standard Costs Variances Cost flows In a standard-cost system, costs flow thought the same accounts in the general ledger however, they flow through at standard cost. In other words, Work-in-Process Inventory, Finished-Goods Inventory, and Cost of Goods Sold are carried at standard cost.
10-63 Standard Costs and Variances Differences recorded in variance accounts The differences between standard costs and the actual costs incurred are recorded in variance accounts instead of actual costs. Unfavorable variances are recorded as debits favorable variances are recorded as credits.
10-64 Standard Costs and Variances Variances are normally closed at the end of the accounting period to Cost of Goods Sold.
Learning Objective 7
10-66 Advantages of Standard Costing Management by Exception Stable Product Costs Sensible method Advantages Performance Evaluation Employee Motivation
10-67 Sensible method It provides a sensible method to compare budgeted costs to actual costs at the actual level of output.
10-68 Management by exception Managers can practice management by exception. (MBE) "policy by which management devotes its time to investigating only those situations in which actual results differ significantly from planned results. The idea is that management should spend its valuable time concentrating on the more important items (such as shaping the company's future strategic course). Attention is given only to material deviations requiring investigation."
10-69 Benchmark for performance It provides a benchmark for performance evaluation and employee rewards.
10-70 Stable product cost Standard costs provide a stable product cost. Actual costs may fluctuate erratically, whereas standard costs are changed only periodically.
10-71 Less expensive Standard systems are usually less expensive to operate than actual or normalized systems
Learning Objective 8
10-73 Criticisms of Standard Costing Not specific Focus on cost minimization Too aggregate, and untimely Disadvantages Too much focus on direct-labor Narrow definition Stable production required Shorter life cycles
10-74 Too aggregated and untimely Variances are too aggregated and arrive too late to be useful. Variances should focus on activities, specific product lines, production batches, and/or FMS cells.
10-75 Focuses on less important production factors Variances focus too much on the cost and efficiency of labor, which is becoming relatively unimportant factor of production.
10-76 Less stability of manufacturing environment Standard costs rely on a stable production environment, and flexible manufacturing systems have reduced the stability, with frequent switching among a variety of products on the same manufacturing line.
10-77 Too focused on costs rather than quality Standards focus too much on cost minimization and not enough on product quality, customer service, and other contemporary issues.
Learning Objective 9
10-79 Operational Control Measures in Today’s Manufacturing Environment
10-80 Operational Performance Measures in Today’s Manufacturing Environment Raw Material & Scrap Control l Quality l Lead time l Cost of scrap l Total cost Inventory Control l Average value l Average holding time l Ratio of inventory value to sales revenue
10-81 Machine Performance l Availability l Downtime l Maintenance records l Setup time Product Quality l Warranty claims l Customer complaints l Defective products l Cost of rework Operational Performance Measures in Today’s Manufacturing Environment
10-82 Operational Performance Measures in Today’s Manufacturing Environment Production Manufacturing cycle time Velocity Manufacturing cycle efficiency Delivery % of on-time deliveries % of orders filled Delivery cycle time
10-83 Productivity l Aggregate productivity l Partial productivity Innovation and Learning l Percentage of sales from new products l Cost savings from process improvements Operational Performance Measures in Today’s Manufacturing Environment
Learning Objective 10
10-85 The Balanced Scorecard Financial Learning and Growth Internal Operations Customer Vision and Strategy
10-86 Balanced scorecard a strategic planning and management system to align business activities to the: –vision and strategy of the organization –improve internal and external communications –monitor organization performance against strategic goals.
10-87 Balanced Score card It is used extensively in: –business and industry –Government –and nonprofit organizations worldwide
10-88 The four perspectives Financial Customer Internal Business Processes Learning and Growth
10-89 Financial Perspective encourages the identification of a few relevant high-level financial measures. In particular, designers were encouraged to choose measures that helped inform the answer to the question "How do we look to shareholders?"
10-90 Customer encourages the identification of measures that answer the question "How do customers see us?"
10-91 Internal Business Processes encourages the identification of measures that answer the question "What must we excel at?"
10-92 Learning and Growth encourages the identification of measures that answer the question "Can we continue to improve and create value?".
Learning Objective 11
10-94 Use of Standard Costs for Product Costing Raw Material Inventory Actual quantity at standard cost Account Payable Actual quantity at actual cost Direct Material Price Variance Favorable VarianceUnfavorable Variance
10-95 Use of Standard Costs for Product Costing
10-96 Use of Standard Costs for Product Costing
10-97 Use of Standard Costs for Product Costing
10-98 End of Chapter 10 Thank you very much To download the updated presentation please go to: barryf1.wordpress.com Jessie MontealegreBarry Pualengco