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Prof. Rachel J.C. Chen, Ph.D. University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA Senior Visiting Researcher, Centre for Regional and Tourism Research, Bornholm, Denmark.

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Presentation on theme: "Prof. Rachel J.C. Chen, Ph.D. University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA Senior Visiting Researcher, Centre for Regional and Tourism Research, Bornholm, Denmark."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prof. Rachel J.C. Chen, Ph.D. University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA Senior Visiting Researcher, Centre for Regional and Tourism Research, Bornholm, Denmark Prof. Dimitri Ioannides, Ph.D. Southwestern Missouri State University Senior Visiting Researcher, Centre for Regional and Tourism Research Dr. Peter Billing, Director Centre for Regional and Tourism Research, Bornholm, Denmark Integration or Disintegration: The Uses of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Island Policy Integration or Disintegration: The Uses of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Island Policy Rachel J.C. Chen, Dimitri Ioannides & Peter Billing CENTRE FOR REGIONAL AND TOURISM RESEARCH, DENMARK

2 PROJECT PART-FINANCED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION Project GEDERI (Gestión et Development des Regiones des Isles) Manageent and Development of Island Regions ( ) Project Owner CPMR / Island Commission Eurisles (Corse) Purpose To use the regional " know how " structures, in each island region in order to provide a better foundation for strategy and policy to the insular political and administrative actors. The participating islands will be studied and offered good practices analysis through the exchange of experiences, problems and themes linked to island development and management. Rachel J.C. Chen & Peter Billing CENTRE FOR REGIONAL AND TOURISM RESEARCH, DENMARK Background

3 LEAD PARTNER Corse (Fr) PARTNERS Baleares (Sp) Bornholm (Da) Crete (Gr) Gotland (Sv) Gozo (Malta) Ionia Nissia (Gr) Sardegna (It) Sicily (It) Western Isles (GB) Åland (Fi) Rachel J.C. Chen & Peter Billing CENTRE FOR REGIONAL AND TOURISM RESEARCH, DENMARK THEMES AND SUB-THEMES 1. Accessibility 2. Sustainable Tourism 3. Depopulation 4. Labor market training and supply 5. Marketing of local products 6. Natural and environmental risks 7. Towards and integrated strategy

4 Theme 2 TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN THE ISLANDS REGIONS Lead Partner Centre for Tourism & Regional Research, Bornholm International Experts Rachel J.C. Chen, University of Tennessee Dimitri Ioannides, Southwestern Missouri State University Areas of Study & Policy 1.What is the optimal tourism 'carrying capacity' for the islands? 2.What strategies should be adopted to obtain a more even spread of the tourist season throughout the year? 3.What instruments are used to achieve sustainable tourism and limit congestion? Rachel J.C. Chen & Peter Billing CENTRE FOR REGIONAL AND TOURISM RESEARCH, DENMARK Purpose of Study 1. Develop and design an Island Tourism Multi-Dimensional Model (ITMDM) 2. Integrating quantitative models and qualitative techniques, inventory analyses, carrying capacity assessment, trend projections, and scenario analyses. 3. Estimate the economic, social, political as well as environmental impacts of tourism on island development

5 ©Dr. Rachel J.C. Chen Rachel J.C. Chen & Peter Billing CENTRE FOR REGIONAL AND TOURISM RESEARCH, DENMARK

6 GIS and Tourism? Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been adopted as a useful tool by a wide range of disciplines such as environmental planning, property management, infrastructure siting, emergency planning, automobile navigation systems, urban studies, market analysis, and business demographics (Chen, 2002). However, even though tourism development is a distinctly geographical activity with serious implications for destination areas, few researchers have applied GIS to tourism policy, planning and management practices. Rachel J.C. Chen, Dimitri Ioannides & Peter Billing CENTRE FOR REGIONAL AND TOURISM RESEARCH, DENMARK

7 1.Tourism Resource Inventories: This involves developing an inventory of resources in order to identify conflicting but also complementary land uses and activities, available infrastructure, and natural resources. 2.Site Selections: Appropriate site selection is critical for the future of a business or an attraction. Businesses must locate within an area that benefits not only the needs of the business, but also the consumer needs for convenience and ease. GIS is essentially a spatial database that features geographic and attribute data (Chen, 2002). It is a method used to identify suitable locations for tourism development. 3.Spatial Demonstrations of Tourism Impacts: GIS can be used to demonstrate tourism impacts on various industrial sectors in a time-series and spatial format. Rachel J.C. Chen, Dimitri Ioannides & Peter Billing CENTRE FOR REGIONAL AND TOURISM RESEARCH, DENMARK Possibilities for GIS Applications in Tourism Policy and Planning

8 4. Visitor Flow Management: The use of GIS to identify principal spaces of tourist activities within a destination and the flows among destinations. Authorities may implement strategic plans for superior infrastructure (e.g., building public transportation systems linking various spaces of tourist activities). Rachel J.C. Chen, Dimitri Ioannides & Peter Billing CENTRE FOR REGIONAL AND TOURISM RESEARCH, DENMARK 5.Relationships Associated With Resource Use: The use of GIS in connection with the issue of environmental justice (namely the fact that tourism may not benefit all segments of society equally). 6.Assessing Potential Impacts of Tourism Development: Combination of all or several of the categories by the employment of the “what-if” tool of GIS. This tool allows the development of scenarios for predicting what the effect of a change in a certain variable(s) will be in the destination.

9 Indicators DemographicsSocial behavior Tourist flowsHealth and safety EmploymentPsychological issues Rachel J.C. Chen, Dimitri Ioannides & Peter Billing CENTRE FOR REGIONAL AND TOURISM RESEARCH, DENMARK

10 1. Tourism Earnings and Investments 3. Tourism Policies 1.1 Ratio of net foreign exchange earnings relating to the tourist investments or to the functioning of tourist activity 1.2 Inflow earnings from the expenditure prior to departure 1.3 Tourism receipts in absolute terms 1.4 Per capita tourist expenditure during stay 3.1 Existence of specific tourism regional development plan 3.2 Participation of destination in eco- labeling program (e.g., the EU program “Blue Flag” for beaches) 3.3 Reference to tourism in broader national and/or regional development plans 3.4 Existence of specific national and/or regional tourism policy 3.5 Existence of national tourism development plan making reference to specific island 2. Employment4. Public Expenditure and Revenue 2.1 Average annual employment (directly or indirectly) in tourist sector/ Total employment 2.2 Number of seasonal workers 4.1 Tourist tax (eco-tax) revenue/total tax revenue 4.2 Tourist tax (eco-tax) revenue/public expenditure on tourism development Rachel J.C. Chen, Dimitri Ioannides & Peter Billing CENTRE FOR REGIONAL AND TOURISM RESEARCH, DENMARK

11 Peter Billing & Rachel J.C. Chen CENTRE FOR REGIONAL AND TOURISM RESEARCH, DENMARK THE ISLAND OF BORNHOLM, DENMARK Population Size 150 km 2 Sense of Independence and Identity Decline in Traditional Industries: Fishing and Agriculture Tourism development BORNHOLM

12 Source: IT Department of Bornholm Regional Council Rachel J.C. Chen, Dimitri Ioannides & Peter Billing CENTRE FOR REGIONAL AND TOURISM RESEARCH, DENMARK

13 Source: Ørestat Map Öresundskomiteen July 2004 Rachel J.C. Chen, Dimitri Ioannides & Peter Billing CENTRE FOR REGIONAL AND TOURISM RESEARCH, DENMARK POPULATION GROWTH IN THE ÖRESUND REGION Copenhagen Bornholm

14 Rachel J.C. Chen, Dimitri Ioannides & Peter Billing CENTRE FOR REGIONAL AND TOURISM RESEARCH, DENMARK GROWTH IN NUMBER OF PEOPLE WORKING IN EDUCATION IN THE ÖRESUND REGION Source: Ørestat Map Öresundskomiteen July 2004

15 Conclusions Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be used to identify various classes of islands throughout Europe. By using GIS as a tool for identifying types of regions (islands), recommendations could be made for a range of policies (not one size fits all) that would apply to islands according to their level of development. For instance, policy recommendations for mature tourist destinations in highly urbanized areas would not be the same for remote cold-water islands and so on. Rachel J.C. Chen, Dimitri Ioannides & Peter Billing CENTRE FOR REGIONAL AND TOURISM RESEARCH, DENMARK

16 Contact Information: Prof. Rachel J.C. Chen, Ph.D. Prof. Dimitri Ioannides, Ph.D Peter Billing, Ph.D. Thank you for your attention!


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