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Issues in Missouri Government David C. Valentine February 5, 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "Issues in Missouri Government David C. Valentine February 5, 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 Issues in Missouri Government David C. Valentine February 5, 2009

2  Basics of legislative organization  Legislative process  Trends  Implementation  State funding issues Overview

3  House of Representatives  2 year terms 163 members  Senate  4 year terms  34 members Basics

4  Republicans control both chambers  Since 2001 in Senate  Since 2003 in House  Meets for 5 & ½ months  M-Th; about 75 legislative days Basics

5  How a bill becomes a law  Handout  Bills introduced/bills finally passed  Numbers Legislative Process

6  Legislative process forces decisions  Hundreds of important decisions each session  Regardless of quality & amount of information  Legislators have low level of knowledge about most issues Legislative Process

7  Legislators often unable to connect specific voting decisions to specific outcomes  At the time of the decision  Or after the fact  Decisions are made without apparent consequences Legislative Process

8  Most lobbying occurs during session  Problem/solution  Advocacy & persuasion  what else?  Value of lobbying for legislators  Informational  Positional (my constituents think…) Citizen Lobbying

9  Engage before lobbying  Concentrate on regional legislators  Work year round  Develop educational strategy  Focus and priorities  Can’t do everything  Target critical points/issues  Engage those with differing values Effective Citizen Lobbying

10  Recognize the demands that legislators face  Prepare for constant legislative turnover  Every problem has many solutions – not just one  Educate, educate, educate Effective Citizen Lobbying

11  Term limits and their effects  Campaigning, campaign costs, and the implications Trends

12  Adopted in 1992  Initiative petition  70+% approval – no opposition  Applied to those elected subsequently  Those holding office remained without limits Term limits

13  Eliminate careerism  Careerists out of touch with constituents  Obsessed with maintaining power  Increase competition  Increase women/minority representation  Reduce costs  Reduce lobbyist influence Term Limits - Rationale

14  Increased competition  Did not change female/minority representation  Increased careerism  Reduced knowledge about government and the political process Term Limits: The Reality

15 Average Tenure in Missouri General Assembly,

16  Leadership  8-14 years experience, ave. before term limits  5-7 years today under “mature” term limits Term Limits - Implications

17  Loss of senior members  Usually not chamber leaders  Knowledge of prior developments  Carriers of institutional memory  Loss of substantive knowledge about issues, programs Term Limits - Implications

18  House v. Senate  Most senators served in House  Senators have more governmental experience  Senators have greater impact than members of house Term limits - Implications

19  Lobbyists’ knowledge is more valuable  Legislative process  Specific programs  Legislators less able to independently judge info provided by lobbyists Term Limits & Professional Lobbyists

20  Weakens the most representative institution of government  Policy knowledge  Knowledge about government  Knowledge about how to get things done  Changes commitment to Institution  Why learn the rules?  What is my next career  Does not necessarily strengthen others involved in policy making Term Limits

21  Legislative campaign costs rising  Increased competition (term limits)  Increased competition between the parties  Contribution pattern have changed  Once used to ensure “access”  Only indirectly related to elections & not necessarily limited to one party  Today contributions are explicitly linked to elections Campaigns and Campaign costs

22  Increasingly, contributors and candidates see contributions as a guarantee of a vote in the future  NRA  Pro and anti-abortion groups Campaign Contributions

23  Governor  Amount/type of activity dependent upon personality, philosophy, and opportunity  Court  Single subject  Constitutional issues And the Rest of State Government

24  Rule making  Governor/departments  Appropriations  Lost art of oversight Implementation

25  Long term revenue issues State Revenue and Budget

26  $ 6.3 B federal  $15.7 B state sources  $8.2 B general revenue  $7.5 B dedicated revenue  $22 B total revenue FY 2009 Budget

27 Missouri State Budget The Big Picture

28 Missouri General Revenue Sources FY 2009

29  Long term revenue issues State Revenue and Budget

30  35% Elementary and secondary education  19%Social services  12%Higher education  10%Health & mental health  10%Judiciary, public safety, corrections  6%All other departments Where Does General Revenue Go?

31 General Revenue About $8.2 M/year Almost static over the decade Tax cuts in 1990s Almost $ 1 B (in 1990s dollars) About 14% of total General revenue Trends in General Revenue

32  Dependence upon individual income  Heightens impact of minor economic downturns  Most “fat” eliminated  Vulnerability of state programs Implications

33  David C. Valentine   


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