Presentation on theme: "The Rise of Nationalism & Sectionalism Please pick up a copy of Focus #14: Sectionalism from the cart Turn in Homework 7 to the box and take out Class."— Presentation transcript:
The Rise of Nationalism & Sectionalism Please pick up a copy of Focus #14: Sectionalism from the cart Turn in Homework 7 to the box and take out Class Notes #14: The Rise of Nationalism Take the first five minutes of class to complete the warm-up questions on Focus #14 (Quiz #3 is on Thursday) We will: *analyze how the War of 1812 and the “Era of Good Feelings” contributed to rising nationalism *compare and contrast regional characteristics that contributed to rising sectionalism
Warm-up Review for Quiz #3 1. Which amendment guarantees freedom of speech and press, among other rights?First Amendment 2. Which amendment guarantees the “right to privacy?”Fourth Amendment 3. What document served as the basis of our first (unsuccessful) national government?Articles of Confederation 4. What is the nickname of the clause of the Constitution that gives the Congress the power to do what is “necessary and proper” for the welfare of the country? Elastic Clause 5. Which party – Federalist or Republican – would have liked and used that clause to its fullest? Federalist Party 6. What legislation of 1798 threatened constitutional freedoms and helped win the White House and Congress for the Republicans in 1800? Alien & Sedition Acts 7. What was one major issue that contributed to the War of 1812? *Seizure of American ships and impressment of sailors *British blockade by 1811 *British support for Native Americans in the West
Nationalism on the Rise: “The Virginia Dynasty” Following Jefferson’s victory over John Adams in the “Revolution” of 1800, three Virginians served as president and helped to shape the new nation for a quarter century ( ) All three were Democratic- Republicans, slave owners, and lawyers. They were also good friends who lived within a day’s journey of each other in central Virginia. Thomas Jefferson Greatest Event: Louisiana Purchase (1803) James Madison Greatest Event: War of 1812 ( ) James Monroe Greatest Event: Monroe Doctrine (1823)
American Neutrality Under Threat With the start of the Napoleonic Wars in 1805, British and French naval vessels resumed impressment of American sailors and seizure of cargoes bound for enemy ports Jefferson’s response was the ill-advised Embargo Act (1807) that halted all trade with foreign nations in the expectation that Britain and France would be compelled to desist and agree to negotiate with the U.S. (they didn’t and New England suffered an economic depression, angering the Federalist opposition) James Madison (Jefferson’s hand-picked successor) signed Macon’s Bill #2 (1810) stating that, if either Britain or France agreed to respect American rights, the U.S. would cut off trade with the other country France agreed and the U.S. cut off trade with Britain in 1811, resulting in a British blockade of U.S. ports
The War Hawks Meanwhile, back on the trans-Appalachian frontier, Native Americans (led by such tribes as the Shawnee and Creek), resisted westward settlement by American pioneers Britain supplied the Shawnee leader, Tecumseh, with money and weapons Newly-elected “War Hawks” in Congress, such as Henry Clay of Kentucky and John C. Calhoun of South Carolina, called for an invasion of Canada to break the back of the British-Native American alliance Congress declared war on Britain on June 18, 1812; Madison called up the army
The War of 1812 (1813, 1814, & 1815) “Mr. Madison’s War” (as the Federalists called it) was a comedy of errors that almost resulted in defeat: 1. Attempted invasions of Canada failed miserably 2. Tecumseh wreaked havoc on the Northwest frontier, until defeated by General Harrison in late British expeditionary force occupied Washington and burned the White House and the Capitol (1814) Bright Spots (we won! - a nearly-fatal military draw): 1.“The Star-Spangled Banner” (F. Scott Key) 2.Andrew Jackson’s defeat of the Creek and his victory over the British at New Orleans after the war formally ended (January 1815) 3.Treaty of Ghent (1814) secured British recognition of American interests and ended the war “status quo ante” – no winner, no loser
Political Nationalism: “The Era of Good Feelings” Nationalism increased as a result of “victory” in the War of 1812 and the downfall of the Federalists after the Hartford Convention (1814), where some radical Federalists proposed peace with Britain and secession from the Union James Monroe won overwhelming electoral college and popular majorities in the elections of 1816 and 1820 Effective one-party rule resulted and lasted through Monroe’s presidency ( ) Even former New England Federalists supported Monroe – his visit to New England in 1817 inspired the phrase “Era of Good Feelings”
Monroe’s Elections: 1816, 1820 Monroe won by some of the biggest electoral college totals in U.S. political history; Federalist Party did not even exist by 1820 Note the addition of five new states between 1816 and 1820; reflects the growth of the U.S.
Economic Nationalism After the War of 1812, Americans quickly spread west, helped by a “Transportation Revolution” that encouraged the building of roads and canals to connect east and west (e.g. Erie Canal and National Road) In 1816, Henry Clay of Kentucky pushed for passage in Congress of the Hamiltonian “American system,” sought to encourage economic growth through: 1.federal support for infrastructure 2.protective tariffs 3.a new central bank (Second Bank of the United States) Henry Clay of Kentucky
Judicial Nationalism: The Marshall Court *Chief Justice John Marshall led the Supreme Court for 35 years after his 1801 appointment by President John Adams; checked the power of the Republicans *Marshall’s Federalist views helped to establish the power of the Court as an independent branch of government and asserted the power of the federal government over the states Marbury v. Madison (1803): established the Court’s power of judicial review – the ability of the Court to declare a law or action of the Congress and/or President as unconstitutional
Significant Marshall Court Cases Other decisions of the Marshall Court supported Hamiltonian views on the economy, such as the Court’s defense of the Second Bank of the United States in McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), Marshall upheld the right of the Bank to exist (under the elastic clause) and confirmed that national law is supreme to state law (Maryland couldn’t tax the Bank’s transactions) In Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819), Marshall ruled that the state of New Hampshire could not take over private Dartmouth College, thus supporting the rights of private corporations In Gibbons v. Ogden (1824), Marshall ruled that only Congress had the right to regulate interstate trade under the power of the commerce clause
Diplomatic Nationalism America’s “victory” in the War of 1812 was followed by several diplomatic agreements that secured the country’s borders: *Rush-Bagot Treaty (1816): U.S./Britain demilitarize the Great Lakes *British-American Convention (1818) established the northern border at the 49 th parallel *Adams-Onis Treaty (1819): with Spain, gave Florida to the U.S. and established a clear southwestern border
The Monroe Doctrine By 1823, many colonies in Latin America had won their independence from Spain and Portugal The U.S. wanted to be sure that European powers did not interfere in the affairs of these new countries, which would make great trading partners for the U.S. President Monroe issued the Monroe Doctrine to declare the Western Hemisphere “off-limits” to European powers and pledged that the U.S. would stay out of European conflicts; this policy became the cornerstone of U.S. foreign policy
The Missouri Compromise In 1820, Missouri territory petitioned to enter the Union as a slave state; Northern political resistance to this threatened to create a North-South sectional divide Henry Clay hammered out an agreement in Congress whereby Missouri would be permitted to enter as a slave state and Maine would enter as a free state (to keep the balance between North and South in the U.S. Senate) The Compromise deal also identified the southern border of Missouri as the dividing line between slave and free territory west of the Mississippi River (with the exception of Missouri) What is the geographic identification of the line that divides slave and free territory as a result of the compromise? How many slave and free states made up the Union after the compromise in 1821? Why was this balance so important?
The Expanding American Republic by 1821 secure borders and sectional balance
American Regions By the 1820s, three distinct regions were emerging – North, South, and West Working with your table team, cut out and match the characteristics and primary sources provided with the correct regions The youngest person at your table can pick up glue sticks and 2 pairs of scissors for your table When you finish Part II, work together to complete the chart for Part III based on the region assigned to you
The North *growing industry (especially textile mills in New England) *first factories and mass production *urbanization (ex: New York City) *increasing immigration (especially from Germany and Ireland) *reform movements to better society, including abolition movements *support for strong national government, including the “American system” **benefits from the Transportation Revolution, especially the Erie Canal and sale of manufactures *Daniel Webster of Massachusetts emerged as a leading spokesman of this region Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts, one of America’s greatest orators
Left: Lowell Textile Mills, c One of the first factory towns created by Francis Lowell in Massachusetts – employed large numbers of young women recruited from throughout New England Right: The Five Points District, c. 1850, on New York’s Lower East Side – heavily populated by immigrants, especially the Irish, who came to America in great numbers as a result of the Irish Potato Famine
The South *support for states’ rights and a weak national government *commitment to the continuation and expansion of slavery *the growth of “King Cotton” as the major money maker, especially after Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin in 1793 *a hierarchical society, in which wealthy planters dominated society and politics *blessed with navigable rivers that helped to ease trade, especially export of cotton *John C. Calhoun of South Carolina emerged as the major spokesman John C. Calhoun of South Carolina
Right: English depiction of a Richmond, Virginia slave auction in 1856; Virginia became one of the largest domestic slave markets in America by the 1850s Left: Depiction of a Mississippi cotton plantation, c. 1850; cotton became the leading cash crop of the South in the early 1800s thanks to Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin in 1793
The West This region at first included the entire Trans-Appalachian region but by the 1850s became associated with the Midwestern and Far Western states and territories The West’s interests were based on: *westward settlement by pioneers *a strong sense of independence and self-reliance *agricultural boom due to the growing demand for grain to feed Americans *benefits from the Transportation Revolution and rise of national markets connecting east and west *Henry Clay of Kentucky emerged as the spokesman for this region – a strong nationalist and also a slave owner Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky (c. 1850)
Right: An Indiana pioneer homestead as it would have appeared in the 1820s/1830s; the Midwest opened up to settlement after U.S. victory over Native Americans in the War of 1812 Left: Depiction of a keel boat on the Ohio River in the 1830s, river-going trade on the major rivers of the West was essential to farmers who needed to get their crops to market; canals eventually connected Eastern and Western markets
Before we leave… Remember to study for Quiz #3 on material from Chapters 5 and 6 ( ); the quiz will be in our next class session. Complete Homework 7 if you have not done so already and work ahead on Homework 8 (due next Monday, November 25).