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Unit 5.1 Notes: The Civil War Currier & Ives Print of the Bombardment of Ft. Sumter, Charleston Harbor U.S. History & The Constitution Mr. Weathers.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 5.1 Notes: The Civil War Currier & Ives Print of the Bombardment of Ft. Sumter, Charleston Harbor U.S. History & The Constitution Mr. Weathers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 5.1 Notes: The Civil War Currier & Ives Print of the Bombardment of Ft. Sumter, Charleston Harbor U.S. History & The Constitution Mr. Weathers

2 Daily “Bell Ringer” Warm Up 2 nd Nine Weeks Bell Ringer #3 (12 & 13 Nov) 3.) What effect did events such as the Denmark Vesey plot (think 8 th grade history) & Nat Turner’s unsuccessful slave rebellion have on the nation? a.) More slaves were set free to prevent future rebellions. b.) Northerners felt bad for southerners & helped pass laws to maintain slavery. c.) The nation as a whole agreed it would be too dangerous to expand slavery to the territories in the West. d.) Southerners became more distrustful of the North’s role in abolition. CORRECT ANSWER: D

3 Today’s Lesson Standard / Indicator Standard USHC-3: The student will demonstrate an understanding of how regional and ideological differences led to the Civil War and an understanding of the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on democracy in America. USHC-3.1: Evaluate the relative importance of political events and issues that divided the nation and led to civil war, including the compromises reached to maintain the balance of free and slave states, the abolitionist movement, the Dred Scott case, conflicting views on states’ rights and federal authority, the emergence of the Republican Party, and the formation of the Confederate States of America.

4 Unit 5: Civil War & Reconstruction Tensions Leading to War “Who, What, When, Where, & How” Chart Indicator 3.1

5 WHO was involved (people, states, territories,etc.)? WHAT was the issue/event at hand (explain it)? WHEN did this issues/event take place (general period, specific)? WHERE in the U.S. did this issue/event concern? HOW was it resolved (or was it)? Unit 5: Civil War & Reconstruction Pre-Civil War Political & Social Tensions (Indicator USHC-3.1) Missouri Compromise of The expansion of slavery west into Missouri upset the balance of free/slave states in Congress (11/11). - Northern v. Southern states/congressmen, Missouri, Maine. - Missouri Territory; West - Missouri = slave state, Maine = free state; kept balance of power (12/12). No slavery north of 36º30’ line. Temporarily eased north/south tensions

6 The Missouri Compromise of 1820

7 WHO was involved (people, states, territories,etc.)? WHAT was the issue/event at hand (explain it)? WHEN did this issues/event take place (general period, specific)? WHERE in the U.S. did this issue/event concern? HOW was it resolved (or was it)? Unit 5: Civil War & Reconstruction Pre-Civil War Political & Social Tensions (Indicator USHC-3.1) Wilmot Proviso - Congress, David Wilmot (D. – Pennsylvania) - Wilmot proposed amendment that slavery would never exist in any territory acquired through war with Mexico. - August Congress; dealt with territory taken from Mexico. - Increased North/South tensions in Congress; House of Reps approved it, Senate rejected it.

8 Wilmot Proviso (1846) Pennsylvania Congressman David Wilmot

9 WHO was involved (people, states, territories,etc.)? WHAT was the issue/event at hand (explain it)? WHEN did this issues/event take place (general period, specific)? WHERE in the U.S. did this issue/event concern? HOW was it resolved (or was it)? Unit 5: Civil War & Reconstruction Pre-Civil War Political & Social Tensions (Indicator USHC-3.1) Abolitionist Movement - abolitionists (see notes), African Americans, northerners.. - The abolition (ending) of slavery in the United States. - Antebellum Era (1820s s). - Dealt with slavery in south & the expansion of slavery in west. The North saw political rallies/conventions. - Increased tensions between pro & anti slave citizens (& politicians). Ultimately resolved with the Emancipation Proclamation (1862) & 13 th Amendment (1865).

10 Abolitionist Movement Nat Turner Frederick DouglassHarriet Tubman William Lloyd Garrison Harriet Beecher Stowe Sarah & Angelina Grimke John Brown

11 WHO was involved (people, states, territories,etc.)? WHAT was the issue/event at hand (explain it)? WHEN did this issues/event take place (general period, specific)? WHERE in the U.S. did this issue/event concern? HOW was it resolved (or was it)? Unit 5: Civil War & Reconstruction Pre-Civil War Political & Social Tensions (Indicator USHC-3.1) Compromise of Henry Clay, US Senate (North v. South politicians). - Admitting California into the Union, border dispute between Texas & New Mexico, slavery in Washington D.C., & South’s claim that North did not enforce the fugitive slave law. - January The US Senate (Congress; dealing with nationwide issues). - Compromises to appease northern & southern politicians; 1.) California = free, 2.) Utah & New Mexico = popular sovereignty 3.) TX v. NM border dispute resolved, 4.) sale of slaves in Wash D.C. banned, 5.) tougher Fugitive Slave Act.

12 Compromise of 1850

13 A reaction to the Fugitive Slave Act. (Compromise of 1850)

14 WHO was involved (people, states, territories,etc.)? WHAT was the issue/event at hand (explain it)? WHEN did this issues/event take place (general period, specific)? WHERE in the U.S. did this issue/event concern? HOW was it resolved (or was it)? Unit 5: Civil War & Reconstruction Pre-Civil War Political & Social Tensions (Indicator USHC-3.1) Uncle Tom’s Cabin - Harriet Beecher Stowe (author), northern abolitionists, & southern planters. - Fictional novel that told of the hardships of slavery; bestseller that served as propaganda for the abolitionist cause; slavery not just political, but also moral cause. - Novel published in Throughout the US; primarily sold in the North. - Increased tensions. Abolitionists increased protests against Fugitive Slave Act & southerners argued book was an attack on the South.

15 Uncle Tom’s Cabin Harriet Beecher Stowe

16 WHO was involved (people, states, territories,etc.)? WHAT was the issue/event at hand (explain it)? WHEN did this issues/event take place (general period, specific)? WHERE in the U.S. did this issue/event concern? HOW was it resolved (or was it)? Unit 5: Civil War & Reconstruction Pre-Civil War Political & Social Tensions (Indicator USHC-3.1) Kansas-Nebraska Act - Kansas-Nebraska Act passed in Senator Stephen Douglas, Congress, territories of Kansas & Nebraska. - Douglas introduced bill to create territories of Kansas & Nebraska. If passed, would repeal the Missouri Compromise = popular sovereignty. - Congress, Kansas & Nebraska Territories. - Created bitterness between the North & the South in Congress & among the citizens.

17 Kansas-Nebraska Act

18 WHO was involved (people, states, territories,etc.)? WHAT was the issue/event at hand (explain it)? WHEN did this issues/event take place (general period, specific)? WHERE in the U.S. did this issue/event concern? HOW was it resolved (or was it)? Unit 5: Civil War & Reconstruction Pre-Civil War Political & Social Tensions (Indicator USHC-3.1) Bleeding Kansas - Settlers from the North (antislavery) & South (proslavery) who moved to Kansas, pro-slavery border “ruffians” from Missouri Popular sovereignty vote to elect a territorial legislature. Pro-slavery forces Missouri illegal voted in the election = voting fraud. Abolitionists establish their own government. - Kansas Territory. - Civil war violence broke out in Kansas = 200+ people are killed. Becomes hotspot for tensions during American Civil War.

19 John Steuart Curry’s “Tragic Prelude” Bleeding Kansas

20 Violence in the Senate (1856) Preston Brookes (SC) attacking Charles Sumner (MA)

21 WHO was involved (people, states, territories,etc.)? WHAT was the issue/event at hand (explain it)? WHEN did this issues/event take place (general period, specific)? WHERE in the U.S. did this issue/event concern? HOW was it resolved (or was it)? Unit 5: Civil War & Reconstruction Pre-Civil War Political & Social Tensions (Indicator USHC-3.1) Dred Scott Decision (Dred Scott v. Sanford) - Dred Scott, Supreme Court Justice Roger B. Taney (from MD) = presented to Supreme Court; 1857 = decision. - Dred Scott, slave from Missouri, was taken north of the 36º30’ line & lived in Illinois & Wisconsin (free territories). Returned with master to Missouri. When master died; he filed lawsuit for his freedom; claiming he was free because he had lived in free territories. - Supreme Court; dealt with state of Missouri, & Illinois & Wisconsin territories. - Justice Taney = slaves did not have citizens’ rights; Dred had no claim to freedom since suit started in Missouri (slave); declared Missouri Compromise unconstitutional. Stated Congress could not ban spread of slavery = interfered with slaveholders property rights.

22 Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) Supreme Court Justice Roger B. Taney Dred Scott

23 WHO was involved (people, states, territories,etc.)? WHAT was the issue/event at hand (explain it)? WHEN did this issues/event take place (general period, specific)? WHERE in the U.S. did this issue/event concern? HOW was it resolved (or was it)? Unit 5: Civil War & Reconstruction Pre-Civil War Political & Social Tensions (Indicator USHC-3.1) John Brown’s Raid on Harpers Ferry, VA - October John Brown, 21 men (black & white), US Marines, Colonel Robert E. Lee. - John Brown & his men planned to raid the arsenal & equip local slaves with weapons to revolt with. - Harpers Ferry, Virginia. - US Marines under the command of Col Robert. E Lee put down the rebellion. John Brown is tried for high treason and hanged = becomes martyr for the abolitionist cause.

24 John Brown’s Raid on the Harpers Ferry Arsenal (1859) John Brown

25 WHO was involved (people, states, territories,etc.)? WHAT was the issue/event at hand (explain it)? WHEN did this issues/event take place (general period, specific)? WHERE in the U.S. did this issue/event concern? HOW was it resolved (or was it)? Unit 5: Civil War & Reconstruction Pre-Civil War Political & Social Tensions (Indicator USHC-3.1) Election of Abraham Lincoln (Republican), Stephen Douglas (northern Democrat), & John C. Breckenridge (southern Democrat). - Election of the next president; the issue of slavery (continuation & spread of). - November Nationwide. - Lincoln took less than half of popular vote (split between 4 candidates), but won election (electoral vote). The South threatened to secede (SC first in Dec 1860). Confederate States (CSA) formed in Feb 1861.

26 Election of 1860

27 Slavery’s Expansion (Animated Graphic)

28 Daily “Bell Ringer” Warm Up 2 nd Nine Weeks Bell Ringer #4 (14 & 15 Nov) 4.) Which of the following was NOT a key part of the Supreme Courts’ decision in Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)? a.) The decision declared the Missouri Compromise (1820) unconstitutional. b.) Slaves did not have equal protection under the law. c.) It declared that any slave taken to a free territory/state would be freed. d.) It stated that Congress could not ban the spread of slavery. CORRECT ANSWER: C

29 The North Versus the South Directions: In many ways, the eventual outcome of the Civil War could have been predicted by the differences between the two sides from the war’s onset. You are to copy this chart into your notes and fill in the blanks with the information found in the reading in Chapters 10 and 11. North FactorSouth Population Number of States Industrial or Agricultural Based Economy Share of the Railroads Percentage of the Nation’s Wealth Attitude Towards Slavery Percentage of Factories Monetary System in Place Military Tradition

30 The North Versus the South NorthVersusSouth Population 22 Million 9 Million (3.5-4 million were slaves )

31 The North Versus the South NorthVersusSouth Number of States 23 11

32 The North Versus the South NorthVersusSouth Industrial or Agricultural Based Economy Industrial Agricultural

33 The North Versus the South NorthVersusSouth Share of the Railroads 2/3 (20,000 Miles of Track) 96% of Railroad Equipment 1/3 (9,000 Miles of Track) 4% of Railroad Equipment

34 Railroads of the Confederacy (1861)

35 The North Versus the South NorthVersusSouth Percentage of the Nations Wealth $56 Million in Gold 75% of the Wealth $0 in Gold 25% of the Wealth

36 The North Versus the South NorthVersusSouth Attitude Towards Slavery AgainstIn Favor Of

37 The North Versus the South NorthVersusSouth Percentage of Factories More than 80%Less than 20%

38 The North Versus the South NorthVersusSouth Monetary System in Place Strong Banking System In-Place (81% of the nation’s deposits) Weak/Small Banking System

39 The North Versus the South NorthVersusSouth Military Tradition Stronger Tradition: Proven Leaders, Military Academies, & soldiers accustomed to horse-back riding and the use of hunting rifles. Weaker Tradition: Lower Skilled Leaders, and soldiers accustomed to working in factories and not with horses or guns.

40 The North Versus the South A Graphical Comparison

41 Attack on Ft. Sumter Fort Sumter (April 12, 1861) - Opening Ft. Sumter in Charleston Harbor. - Confederate forces fired on Union re-supply ships. - Justified Lincoln’s calling up 75,000 troops. Edmund Ruffin Ft. Sumter’s bombardment

42 South Carolina: Ft. Sumter in 1861 Ft. Sumter Prior to the Opening Shots of the War: 1861

43 South Carolina: Ft. Sumter in 1865 Ruins of Ft. Sumter following Union bombardment: 1865

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45 The Union’s Threefold Strategy (North): 1.) Blockade South’s ports to cut off European supplies. 2.) Split Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. 3.) Attack Confederate capital at Richmond, VA. Northern Military Strategies Union General-In-Chief Winfield Scott Scott’s “Anaconda Plan”

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47 Southern Military Strategy The Confederacy’s Strategy (South): 1.) Fight a defensive war; use European supplies gained from the sale of cotton, until the North tired of the war (Cotton Diplomacy). 2.) Fight on southern soil (defense) = North looks like the aggressor. South’s “Cotton Diplomacy”

48 Today’s Lesson Standard / Indicator Standard USHC-3: The student will demonstrate an understanding of how regional and ideological differences led to the Civil War and an understanding of the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on democracy in America. USHC-3.2: Summarize the course of the Civil War & its impact on democracy, including the major turning points; the impact of the Emancipation Proclamation; the unequal treatment afforded to African American military units; the geographic, economic, and political factors in the defeat of the Confederacy; & the ultimate defeat of the idea of secession.

49 Daily “Bell Ringer” Warm Up 2 nd Nine Weeks Bell Ringer #5 (20 & 26 Nov) 5.) The opening shots of the Civil War by Confederate forces on Ft. Sumter gave President Lincoln the justification to: a.) sue the Confederacy for terms of peace. b.) call for the raising of 75,000 troops to put down the rebellion. c.) seek an alliance with Britain before the confederacy could. d.) declare that slavery was now illegal in the United States. CORRECT ANSWER: B

50 The United States at the Onset of the Civil War (1861)

51 Opposing Presidents Abraham Lincoln USA Jefferson Davis CSA

52 Battle Briefs: Key Battles of the Civil War Ft. Sumter State:Dates: Union (North)Confederates (South) Victory Highlights Significance South CarolinaApril 12, 1861 X - Confederates fired on the federal fort prior to resupply ships arriving. - Battle lasted 34 hours prior to Union surrender. - Opening shots / start of the Civil War. - Lincoln used incident to call up 75,000 troops to service.

53 Battle Briefs: Key Battles of the Civil War First Battle of Bull Run / Manassas State:Dates: Union (North)Confederate (South) Victory Highlights Significance VirginiaJuly 21, 1861 X - First confrontation between the opposing armies, - Humiliating defeat for the Union Army. - Realization the war was going to last a long time. - Lincoln adopted Gen Winfield Scott’s “Anaconda Plan”.

54 Battle Briefs: Key Battles of the Civil War Battle of Antietam State:Dates: Union (North)Confederate (South) Victory Highlights Significance MarylandSeptember 17, 1862 X - General Lee’s first of two failed attempts to invade the North. - Bloodiest single day of the war (22,000 + killed / wounded). - Lincoln used the much needed victory to justify issuing the Emancipation Proclamation.

55 Antietam, Maryland – Sept 17, 1862

56 Battle Briefs: Key Battles of the Civil War Battle of Gettysburg State:Dates: Union (North)Confederates (South) Victory Highlights Significance Pennsylvania July 1-3, 1863 X - 2 nd failed attempt by Gen Lee & the CSA to invade the North. - 3-day battle; decimates Lee’s forces. - “Start of the end” for the South. - After Gettysburg, the South fought a defensive war. - South’s hope to invade the North.

57 Battle Briefs: Key Battles of the Civil War Siege of Vicksburg State:Dates: Union (North)Confederates (South) Victory Highlights Significance MississippiMay 15 – July 4, 1863 X - Gen Grant’s siege of the town last for two months. - Last Confederate obstacle for Union control of the Mississippi River. - Victory gave the Union control of the Mississippi & splits the South in half.

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59 Battle Briefs: Key Battles of the Civil War Battle of Atlanta State:Dates: Union (North)Confederates (South) Victory Highlights Significance GeorgiaSeptember 22, 1864 X - Part of Gen William T. Sherman’s “Summer Campaign”. - Union victory allowed the North to capture Atlanta = vital Confederate supply center & railroad junction.

60 Battle Briefs: Key Battles of the Civil War Sherman’s March to the Sea State:Dates: Union (North)Confederates (South) Victory Highlights Significance Georgia & Carolinas (N & S)Nov 15 – Dec 21, 1864 (& 1865) X - Gen Sherman’s army cut a 300 mile wide path of destruction across GA & north into SC & NC. - Burned Atlanta; spared Savannah, but burned Columbia (???) - “Total War” Concept = taking fight to the civilians = demoralize them.

61 Sherman’s March to the Sea

62 Gen William T. Sherman (Union) )

63 Sherman’s “March to the Sea”: Atlanta Ruins of Confederate Engine House at Atlanta, GA Sept 1864

64 Total Warfare Sherman’s March to the Sea

65 South Carolina: Charleston, SC Ruins of Charleston, SC as seen from the Circular Church: 1865

66 Sherman’s Troops Burning Columbia, SC, February 17, 1865 From “Harper’s Weekly”

67 South Carolina: Columbia, SC Ruins of Columbia, SC as seen from the Capital: 1865

68 Battle Briefs: Key Battles of the Civil War Appomattox Courthouse State:Dates: Union (North)Confederates (South) Victory Highlights Significance VirginiaApril 9, 1865 X - Lee’s army is overwhelmed & surrounded by Grant’s Union forces. - Lee’s surrender to Gen Grant effectively ends the war.

69 Today’s Lesson Standard / Indicator Standard USHC-3: The student will demonstrate an understanding of how regional and ideological differences led to the Civil War and an understanding of the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on democracy in America. USHC-3.2: Summarize the course of the Civil War & its impact on democracy, including the major turning points; the impact of the Emancipation Proclamation; the unequal treatment afforded to African American military units; the geographic, economic, and political factors in the defeat of the Confederacy; & the ultimate defeat of the idea of secession.

70 1.) What is the title of this document? 2.) Who is the author of this document? (who wrote it?) 3.) What is the overall message of this document? (what is it trying to say?) 4.) What specific group of people did this document target? 5.) What did this document say would happen to those people? 6.) On what date did the statements made in this document take effect? (day and year). 7.) Did this document affect every state in the Union or just certain ones? 8.) What do you think the author of this document was trying to accomplish? (what was his goal?) Emancipation Proclamation Primary Source Document

71 How might the following groups of people reacted to this document being issued? 9.) A slave in Georgia 10.) A slave in Maryland 11.) A slaveowner in each of these states 12.) A free African American 13.) An abolitionist in Boston 14.) A Union soldier 15.) A Confederate soldier Emancipation Proclamation Pri-Source Document Cont.

72 Emancipation Proclamation’s Coverage

73 Civil War Politics

74 Political Leadership: North = advantage in political leadership. - Abraham Lincoln (USA) = war’s initial purpose - preservation of the Union. - “government of the people, by the people & for the people” - Retain public support to continue the fight despite initial military defeats. - “Gettysburg Address” - Jefferson Davis (CSA) = states’ rights argument, - Unable to get the CSA to work together to pursue the war effort. Civil War Politics

75 Downfall of the Idol of ‘76‘ (1863) Lincoln’s Legal Actions (1861): - Declared martial law. - Ordered suspension of writs of habeas corpus (constitutional right). - Writ (legal action) requires a person under arrest to be brought before a judge or into court to ensure that a prisoner can be released from unlawful detention.

76 Civil War Politics Copperheads: Northern Democrats - against war policy; advocated restoration of the Union through a negotiated settlement with the South. Not all northerners were in favor of war with the South…

77 Civil War Politics Emancipation Proclamation - Lincoln initially hesitated to free slaves = feared upsetting the border states. - Promoted as a ‘military measure’ against the CSA. - Diplomatic & political document. - Made goal of the war the liberation of slaves = British (anti-slavery) couldn't support the South. - Gave South a last chance to make peace & keep their slaves (announced Oct 1862 – took effect Jan 1 st, 1863).

78 Civil War Politics

79 African Americans in the War: - Emancipation Proclamation allowed Af. Americans to join the U.S. Army as a war measure. - Af. American units formed with abolitionists’ help. - 54th Massachusetts regiment = led gallant but futile attack on Fort Wagner. in Charleston Harbor. - Served with distinction, but in segregated units under command of white officers. - Poorly supplied & paid less than white soldiers.

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81 Civil War Politics Election of Lincoln won re-election. - Won because of a series of Union victories in the South. - Boosted American morale & confidence in the President. VS. Abraham Lincoln George McClellan

82 Outcome of the Civil War - Impact on the course of democracy: 1.) Preserved the Union while liberating an enslaved minority. 2.) Federal courts ruled secession to be null & void, 3.) Idea of states’ rights upon which secession was based was never defeated (later emerged in the Civil Rights Era) th Amendment (1865): abolished slavery - freedom was formally legalized. Civil War Politics


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