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Daily “Bell Ringer” Warm Up

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0 Unit 5.1 Notes: The Civil War U.S. History & The Constitution
Currier & Ives Print of the Bombardment of Ft. Sumter, Charleston Harbor U.S. History & The Constitution Mr. Weathers

1 Daily “Bell Ringer” Warm Up
2nd Nine Weeks Bell Ringer #3 (12 & 13 Nov) 3.) What effect did events such as the Denmark Vesey plot (think 8th grade history) & Nat Turner’s unsuccessful slave rebellion have on the nation? a.) More slaves were set free to prevent future rebellions. b.) Northerners felt bad for southerners & helped pass laws to maintain slavery. c.) The nation as a whole agreed it would be too dangerous to expand slavery to the territories in the West. d.) Southerners became more distrustful of the North’s role in abolition. CORRECT ANSWER: D

2 Today’s Lesson Standard / Indicator
Standard USHC-3: The student will demonstrate an understanding of how regional and ideological differences led to the Civil War and an understanding of the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on democracy in America. USHC-3.1: Evaluate the relative importance of political events and issues that divided the nation and led to civil war, including the compromises reached to maintain the balance of free and slave states, the abolitionist movement, the Dred Scott case, conflicting views on states’ rights and federal authority, the emergence of the Republican Party, and the formation of the Confederate States of America.

3 Unit 5: Civil War & Reconstruction Tensions Leading to War
“Who, What, When, Where, & How” Chart Indicator 3.1

4 Unit 5: Civil War & Reconstruction
Pre-Civil War Political & Social Tensions (Indicator USHC-3.1) Missouri Compromise of 1820 WHO was involved (people, states, territories ,etc.)? WHAT was the issue/event at hand (explain it)? WHEN did this issues/event take place (general period, specific)? WHERE in the U.S. did this issue/event concern? HOW was it resolved (or was it)? - Northern v. Southern states/congressmen, Missouri, Maine. - The expansion of slavery west into Missouri upset the balance of free/slave states in Congress (11/11). - 1820 - Missouri Territory; West - Missouri = slave state, Maine = free state; kept balance of power (12/12). No slavery north of 36º30’ line. Temporarily eased north/south tensions. *

5 The Missouri Compromise of 1820

6 Unit 5: Civil War & Reconstruction
Pre-Civil War Political & Social Tensions (Indicator USHC-3.1) Wilmot Proviso WHO was involved (people, states, territories ,etc.)? WHAT was the issue/event at hand (explain it)? WHEN did this issues/event take place (general period, specific)? WHERE in the U.S. did this issue/event concern? HOW was it resolved (or was it)? - Congress, David Wilmot (D. – Pennsylvania) - Wilmot proposed amendment that slavery would never exist in any territory acquired through war with Mexico. - August 1846 - Congress; dealt with territory taken from Mexico. - Increased North/South tensions in Congress; House of Reps approved it, Senate rejected it.

7 Pennsylvania Congressman
Wilmot Proviso (1846) Pennsylvania Congressman David Wilmot

8 Unit 5: Civil War & Reconstruction
Pre-Civil War Political & Social Tensions (Indicator USHC-3.1) Abolitionist Movement WHO was involved (people, states, territories ,etc.)? WHAT was the issue/event at hand (explain it)? WHEN did this issues/event take place (general period, specific)? WHERE in the U.S. did this issue/event concern? HOW was it resolved (or was it)? - abolitionists (see notes), African Americans, northerners.. - The abolition (ending) of slavery in the United States. - Antebellum Era (1820s s). - Dealt with slavery in south & the expansion of slavery in west. The North saw political rallies/conventions. - Increased tensions between pro & anti slave citizens (& politicians). Ultimately resolved with the Emancipation Proclamation (1862) & 13th Amendment (1865).

9 Abolitionist Movement
Sarah & Angelina Grimke Nat Turner Frederick Douglass Harriet Tubman Harriet Beecher Stowe William Lloyd Garrison John Brown

10 Unit 5: Civil War & Reconstruction
Pre-Civil War Political & Social Tensions (Indicator USHC-3.1) Compromise of 1850 WHO was involved (people, states, territories ,etc.)? WHAT was the issue/event at hand (explain it)? WHEN did this issues/event take place (general period, specific)? WHERE in the U.S. did this issue/event concern? HOW was it resolved (or was it)? - Henry Clay, US Senate (North v. South politicians). - Admitting California into the Union, border dispute between Texas & New Mexico, slavery in Washington D.C., & South’s claim that North did not enforce the fugitive slave law. - January 1850. - The US Senate (Congress; dealing with nationwide issues). - Compromises to appease northern & southern politicians; 1.) California = free, 2.) Utah & New Mexico = popular sovereignty 3.) TX v. NM border dispute resolved, 4.) sale of slaves in Wash D.C. banned, 5.) tougher Fugitive Slave Act.

11 Compromise of 1850

12 A reaction to the Fugitive Slave Act. (Compromise of 1850)

13 Unit 5: Civil War & Reconstruction
Pre-Civil War Political & Social Tensions (Indicator USHC-3.1) Uncle Tom’s Cabin WHO was involved (people, states, territories ,etc.)? WHAT was the issue/event at hand (explain it)? WHEN did this issues/event take place (general period, specific)? WHERE in the U.S. did this issue/event concern? HOW was it resolved (or was it)? - Harriet Beecher Stowe (author), northern abolitionists, & southern planters. - Fictional novel that told of the hardships of slavery; bestseller that served as propaganda for the abolitionist cause; slavery not just political, but also moral cause. - Novel published in 1852. - Throughout the US; primarily sold in the North. - Increased tensions. Abolitionists increased protests against Fugitive Slave Act & southerners argued book was an attack on the South.

14 Uncle Tom’s Cabin Harriet Beecher Stowe

15 Unit 5: Civil War & Reconstruction
Pre-Civil War Political & Social Tensions (Indicator USHC-3.1) Kansas-Nebraska Act WHO was involved (people, states, territories ,etc.)? WHAT was the issue/event at hand (explain it)? WHEN did this issues/event take place (general period, specific)? WHERE in the U.S. did this issue/event concern? HOW was it resolved (or was it)? - Senator Stephen Douglas, Congress, territories of Kansas & Nebraska. - Douglas introduced bill to create territories of Kansas & Nebraska. If passed, would repeal the Missouri Compromise = popular sovereignty. - Kansas-Nebraska Act passed in 1854. - Congress, Kansas & Nebraska Territories. - Created bitterness between the North & the South in Congress & among the citizens.

16 Kansas-Nebraska Act

17 Unit 5: Civil War & Reconstruction
Pre-Civil War Political & Social Tensions (Indicator USHC-3.1) Bleeding Kansas WHO was involved (people, states, territories ,etc.)? WHAT was the issue/event at hand (explain it)? WHEN did this issues/event take place (general period, specific)? WHERE in the U.S. did this issue/event concern? HOW was it resolved (or was it)? - Settlers from the North (antislavery) & South (proslavery) who moved to Kansas, pro-slavery border “ruffians” from Missouri. - Popular sovereignty vote to elect a territorial legislature. Pro-slavery forces Missouri illegal voted in the election = voting fraud. Abolitionists establish their own government. - Kansas Territory. - Civil war violence broke out in Kansas = 200+ people are killed. Becomes hotspot for tensions during American Civil War.

18 Bleeding Kansas John Steuart Curry’s “Tragic Prelude”

19 Violence in the Senate (1856)
Preston Brookes (SC) attacking Charles Sumner (MA)

20 Unit 5: Civil War & Reconstruction
Pre-Civil War Political & Social Tensions (Indicator USHC-3.1) Dred Scott Decision (Dred Scott v. Sanford) WHO was involved (people, states, territories ,etc.)? WHAT was the issue/event at hand (explain it)? WHEN did this issues/event take place (general period, specific)? WHERE in the U.S. did this issue/event concern? HOW was it resolved (or was it)? - Dred Scott, Supreme Court Justice Roger B. Taney (from MD). - Dred Scott, slave from Missouri, was taken north of the 36º30’ line & lived in Illinois & Wisconsin (free territories). Returned with master to Missouri. When master died; he filed lawsuit for his freedom; claiming he was free because he had lived in free territories. = presented to Supreme Court; 1857 = decision. - Supreme Court; dealt with state of Missouri, & Illinois & Wisconsin territories. - Justice Taney = slaves did not have citizens’ rights; Dred had no claim to freedom since suit started in Missouri (slave); declared Missouri Compromise unconstitutional. Stated Congress could not ban spread of slavery = interfered with slaveholders property rights.

21 Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) Dred Scott Supreme Court Justice
Roger B. Taney

22 Unit 5: Civil War & Reconstruction
Pre-Civil War Political & Social Tensions (Indicator USHC-3.1) John Brown’s Raid on Harpers Ferry, VA WHO was involved (people, states, territories ,etc.)? WHAT was the issue/event at hand (explain it)? WHEN did this issues/event take place (general period, specific)? WHERE in the U.S. did this issue/event concern? HOW was it resolved (or was it)? - John Brown, 21 men (black & white), US Marines, Colonel Robert E. Lee. - John Brown & his men planned to raid the arsenal & equip local slaves with weapons to revolt with. - October 1859. - Harpers Ferry, Virginia. - US Marines under the command of Col Robert. E Lee put down the rebellion. John Brown is tried for high treason and hanged = becomes martyr for the abolitionist cause.

23 John Brown’s Raid on the Harpers Ferry Arsenal (1859)

24 Unit 5: Civil War & Reconstruction
Pre-Civil War Political & Social Tensions (Indicator USHC-3.1) Election of 1860 WHO was involved (people, states, territories ,etc.)? WHAT was the issue/event at hand (explain it)? WHEN did this issues/event take place (general period, specific)? WHERE in the U.S. did this issue/event concern? HOW was it resolved (or was it)? - Abraham Lincoln (Republican), Stephen Douglas (northern Democrat), & John C. Breckenridge (southern Democrat). - Election of the next president; the issue of slavery (continuation & spread of). - November 1860. - Nationwide. - Lincoln took less than half of popular vote (split between 4 candidates), but won election (electoral vote). The South threatened to secede (SC first in Dec 1860). Confederate States (CSA) formed in Feb 1861.

25 Election of 1860

26 Slavery’s Expansion (Animated Graphic)

27 Daily “Bell Ringer” Warm Up
2nd Nine Weeks Bell Ringer #4 (14 & 15 Nov) 4.) Which of the following was NOT a key part of the Supreme Courts’ decision in Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)? a.) The decision declared the Missouri Compromise (1820) unconstitutional. b.) Slaves did not have equal protection under the law. c.) It declared that any slave taken to a free territory/state would be freed. d.) It stated that Congress could not ban the spread of slavery. CORRECT ANSWER: C

28 The North Versus the South
Directions: In many ways, the eventual outcome of the Civil War could have been predicted by the differences between the two sides from the war’s onset. You are to copy this chart into your notes and fill in the blanks with the information found in the reading in Chapters 10 and 11. North Factor South Population Number of States Industrial or Agricultural Based Economy Share of the Railroads Percentage of the Nation’s Wealth Attitude Towards Slavery Percentage of Factories Monetary System in Place Military Tradition

29 (3.5-4 million were slaves)
The North Versus the South North Versus South Population 9 Million (3.5-4 million were slaves) 22 Million

30 The North Versus the South
Number of States 23 11

31 Industrial or Agricultural Based Economy
The North Versus the South North Versus South Industrial or Agricultural Based Economy Industrial Agricultural

32 96% of Railroad Equipment 4% of Railroad Equipment
The North Versus the South North Versus South Share of the Railroads 2/3 (20,000 Miles of Track) 96% of Railroad Equipment 1/3 (9,000 Miles of Track) 4% of Railroad Equipment

33 Railroads of the Confederacy (1861)

34 Percentage of the Nations Wealth
The North Versus the South North Versus South Percentage of the Nations Wealth $56 Million in Gold 75% of the Wealth $0 in Gold 25% of the Wealth

35 Attitude Towards Slavery
The North Versus the South North Versus South Attitude Towards Slavery Against In Favor Of

36 Percentage of Factories
The North Versus the South North Versus South Percentage of Factories More than 80% Less than 20%

37 Monetary System in Place (81% of the nation’s deposits)
The North Versus the South North Versus South Monetary System in Place Strong Banking System In-Place (81% of the nation’s deposits) Weak/Small Banking System

38 The North Versus the South
Military Tradition Weaker Tradition: Lower Skilled Leaders, and soldiers accustomed to working in factories and not with horses or guns. Stronger Tradition: Proven Leaders, Military Academies, & soldiers accustomed to horse-back riding and the use of hunting rifles.

39 The North Versus the South
A Graphical Comparison

40 Attack on Ft. Sumter Fort Sumter (April 12, 1861) - Opening Ft. Sumter in Charleston Harbor. - Confederate forces fired on Union re-supply ships. - Justified Lincoln’s calling up 75,000 troops. Edmund Ruffin Ft. Sumter’s bombardment

41 Ft. Sumter Prior to the Opening Shots of the War: 1861
South Carolina: Ft. Sumter in 1861 Ft. Sumter Prior to the Opening Shots of the War: 1861

42 Ruins of Ft. Sumter following Union bombardment: 1865
South Carolina: Ft. Sumter in 1865 Ruins of Ft. Sumter following Union bombardment: 1865

43

44 Union General-In-Chief
Northern Military Strategies The Union’s Threefold Strategy (North): 1.) Blockade South’s ports to cut off European supplies. 2.) Split Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. 3.) Attack Confederate capital at Richmond, VA. Union General-In-Chief Winfield Scott Scott’s “Anaconda Plan”

45

46 Southern Military Strategy
The Confederacy’s Strategy (South): 1.) Fight a defensive war; use European supplies gained from the sale of cotton, until the North tired of the war (Cotton Diplomacy). 2.) Fight on southern soil (defense) = North looks like the aggressor. South’s “Cotton Diplomacy”

47 Today’s Lesson Standard / Indicator
Standard USHC-3: The student will demonstrate an understanding of how regional and ideological differences led to the Civil War and an understanding of the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on democracy in America. USHC-3.2: Summarize the course of the Civil War & its impact on democracy, including the major turning points; the impact of the Emancipation Proclamation; the unequal treatment afforded to African American military units; the geographic, economic, and political factors in the defeat of the Confederacy; & the ultimate defeat of the idea of secession.

48 Daily “Bell Ringer” Warm Up
2nd Nine Weeks Bell Ringer #5 (20 & 26 Nov) 5.) The opening shots of the Civil War by Confederate forces on Ft. Sumter gave President Lincoln the justification to: a.) sue the Confederacy for terms of peace. b.) call for the raising of 75,000 troops to put down the rebellion. c.) seek an alliance with Britain before the confederacy could. d.) declare that slavery was now illegal in the United States. CORRECT ANSWER: B

49 The United States at the Onset of the Civil War (1861)

50 Opposing Presidents Abraham Lincoln USA Jefferson Davis CSA *

51 Battle Briefs: Key Battles of the Civil War
Ft. Sumter State: Dates: Union (North) Confederates (South) Victory Highlights Significance South Carolina April 12, 1861 X - Confederates fired on the federal fort prior to resupply ships arriving. - Battle lasted 34 hours prior to Union surrender. - Opening shots / start of the Civil War. - Lincoln used incident to call up 75,000 troops to service.

52 Battle Briefs: Key Battles of the Civil War
First Battle of Bull Run / Manassas State: Dates: Union (North) Confederate (South) Victory Highlights Significance Virginia July 21, 1861 X - First confrontation between the opposing armies, - Humiliating defeat for the Union Army. - Realization the war was going to last a long time. - Lincoln adopted Gen Winfield Scott’s “Anaconda Plan”.

53 Battle Briefs: Key Battles of the Civil War
Battle of Antietam State: Dates: Union (North) Confederate (South) Victory Highlights Significance Maryland September 17, 1862 X - General Lee’s first of two failed attempts to invade the North. - Bloodiest single day of the war (22,000 + killed / wounded). - Lincoln used the much needed victory to justify issuing the Emancipation Proclamation.

54 Antietam, Maryland – Sept 17, 1862

55 Battle Briefs: Key Battles of the Civil War
Battle of Gettysburg State: Dates: Union (North) Confederates (South) Victory Highlights Significance Pennsylvania July 1-3, 1863 X - 2nd failed attempt by Gen Lee & the CSA to invade the North. - 3-day battle; decimates Lee’s forces. - “Start of the end” for the South. - After Gettysburg, the South fought a defensive war. - South’s hope to invade the North.

56 Battle Briefs: Key Battles of the Civil War
Siege of Vicksburg State: Dates: Union (North) Confederates (South) Victory Highlights Significance Mississippi May 15 – July 4, 1863 X - Gen Grant’s siege of the town last for two months. - Last Confederate obstacle for Union control of the Mississippi River. - Victory gave the Union control of the Mississippi & splits the South in half.

57

58 Battle Briefs: Key Battles of the Civil War
Battle of Atlanta State: Dates: Union (North) Confederates (South) Victory Highlights Significance Georgia September 22, 1864 X - Part of Gen William T. Sherman’s “Summer Campaign”. - Union victory allowed the North to capture Atlanta = vital Confederate supply center & railroad junction.

59 Battle Briefs: Key Battles of the Civil War Sherman’s March to the Sea
State: Dates: Union (North) Confederates (South) Victory Highlights Significance Georgia & Carolinas (N & S) Nov 15 – Dec 21, 1864 (& 1865) X - Gen Sherman’s army cut a 300 mile wide path of destruction across GA & north into SC & NC. - Burned Atlanta; spared Savannah, but burned Columbia (???) - “Total War” Concept = taking fight to the civilians = demoralize them.

60 Sherman’s March to the Sea

61 Gen William T. Sherman (Union))

62 Ruins of Confederate Engine House at Atlanta, GA Sept 1864
Sherman’s “March to the Sea”: Atlanta Ruins of Confederate Engine House at Atlanta, GA Sept 1864

63 Total Warfare Sherman’s March to the Sea

64 Ruins of Charleston, SC as seen from the Circular Church: 1865
South Carolina: Charleston, SC Ruins of Charleston, SC as seen from the Circular Church: 1865

65 Sherman’s Troops Burning Columbia, SC, February 17, 1865
From “Harper’s Weekly”

66 Ruins of Columbia, SC as seen from the Capital: 1865
South Carolina: Columbia, SC Ruins of Columbia, SC as seen from the Capital: 1865

67 Battle Briefs: Key Battles of the Civil War Appomattox Courthouse
State: Dates: Union (North) Confederates (South) Victory Highlights Significance Virginia April 9, 1865 X - Lee’s army is overwhelmed & surrounded by Grant’s Union forces. - Lee’s surrender to Gen Grant effectively ends the war.

68 Today’s Lesson Standard / Indicator
Standard USHC-3: The student will demonstrate an understanding of how regional and ideological differences led to the Civil War and an understanding of the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on democracy in America. USHC-3.2: Summarize the course of the Civil War & its impact on democracy, including the major turning points; the impact of the Emancipation Proclamation; the unequal treatment afforded to African American military units; the geographic, economic, and political factors in the defeat of the Confederacy; & the ultimate defeat of the idea of secession.

69 Emancipation Proclamation Primary Source Document
1.) What is the title of this document? 2.) Who is the author of this document? (who wrote it?) 3.) What is the overall message of this document? (what is it trying to say?) 4.) What specific group of people did this document target? 5.) What did this document say would happen to those people? 6.) On what date did the statements made in this document take effect? (day and year). 7.) Did this document affect every state in the Union or just certain ones? 8.) What do you think the author of this document was trying to accomplish? (what was his goal?)

70 Emancipation Proclamation Pri-Source Document Cont.
How might the following groups of people reacted to this document being issued? 9.) A slave in Georgia 10.) A slave in Maryland 11.) A slaveowner in each of these states 12.) A free African American 13.) An abolitionist in Boston 14.) A Union soldier 15.) A Confederate soldier

71 Emancipation Proclamation’s Coverage

72 Civil War Politics

73 Civil War Politics Political Leadership:
North = advantage in political leadership. - Abraham Lincoln (USA) = war’s initial purpose - preservation of the Union. - “government of the people, by the people & for the people” - Retain public support to continue the fight despite initial military defeats. - “Gettysburg Address” - Jefferson Davis (CSA) = states’ rights argument, - Unable to get the CSA to work together to pursue the war effort.

74 Civil War Politics Lincoln’s Legal Actions (1861):
- Declared martial law. - Ordered suspension of writs of habeas corpus (constitutional right). - Writ (legal action) requires a person under arrest to be brought before a judge or into court to ensure that a prisoner can be released from unlawful detention. Downfall of the Idol of ‘76‘ (1863)

75 Civil War Politics Not all northerners were in favor of war with the South… Copperheads: Northern Democrats - against war policy; advocated restoration of the Union through a negotiated settlement with the South.

76 Civil War Politics Emancipation Proclamation
- Lincoln initially hesitated to free slaves = feared upsetting the border states. - Promoted as a ‘military measure’ against the CSA. - Diplomatic & political document. - Made goal of the war the liberation of slaves = British (anti-slavery) couldn't support the South. - Gave South a last chance to make peace & keep their slaves (announced Oct 1862 – took effect Jan 1st, 1863).

77 Civil War Politics

78 Civil War Politics African Americans in the War:
- Emancipation Proclamation allowed Af. Americans to join the U.S. Army as a war measure. - Af. American units formed with abolitionists’ help. - 54th Massachusetts regiment = led gallant but futile attack on Fort Wagner. in Charleston Harbor. - Served with distinction, but in segregated units under command of white officers. - Poorly supplied & paid less than white soldiers.

79

80 Civil War Politics Election of 1864 - Lincoln won re-election.
- Won because of a series of Union victories in the South. - Boosted American morale & confidence in the President. VS. Abraham Lincoln George McClellan

81 Civil War Politics Outcome of the Civil War
- Impact on the course of democracy: 1.) Preserved the Union while liberating an enslaved minority. 2.) Federal courts ruled secession to be null & void, 3.) Idea of states’ rights upon which secession was based was never defeated (later emerged in the Civil Rights Era). - 13th Amendment (1865): abolished slavery - freedom was formally legalized.


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