Presentation on theme: "1820- Missouri Compromise A series of agreements passed by Congress in 1820-1821 to maintain the balance of power between slave states and free states."— Presentation transcript:
11820- Missouri CompromiseA series of agreements passed by Congress in to maintain the balance of power between slave states and free states. Missouri was admitted as a slave state and Maine was admitted as a free state to keep the balance of power in congress.
21846- Wilmot ProvisoA bill that proposed to ban slavery in many territories. Led to the division among political parties, the creation of the Free-Soil Party and making slavery a key issue in national politics.
31850- Compromise of 1850Effort by Congress to settle the issue of slavery in the territories that arose when California was admitted as a free state.To please the North, California would be admitted as a free state, and the slave trade would be abolished in Washington D.C.To please the South, Congress would not pass laws regarding slavery for the rest of the territories won from Mexico, and congress would pass a stronger law to help slave-holders recapture runaway slaves.
41852- Uncle Tom’s CabinAntislavery novel written by Harriet Beecher Stowe that showed the horrors of slavery to Northerners.
51854- Kansas- Nebraska ActLaw that split the Nebraska Territory into Kansas and Nebraska and allowed people to vote on slavery in these territories.Violence erupted when people from Missouri crossed into Kansas to vote for slavery then went back to Missouri.
61855- Pottawatomie Massacre Murder of five men from a proslavery settlement on Pottawatomie Creek, by an antislavery party led by the abolitionist John Brown.
71856- Dred Scott v. SandfordCourt case that extended the rights of slaveholders and limited legal efforts to challenge slavery.U.S. Supreme Court decision which determined that slaves (Dred Scott) could not sue in federal court because they did not have the rights of citizenship.
8November 6, 1860- Lincoln Elected President Lincoln’s election made it clear that the nation was tired of compromise.Lincoln stated that he would do nothing about slavery in the South. South seceded anyways.Southerners did not trust him, viewed his victory as a threat to slavery and their way of life.
9March 4, 1861- Abraham Lincoln Inaugurated In his inaugural address, President Lincoln assured the South that he would not abolish slavery there.He spoke strongly against secession, but did not want to pressure the South into staying in the Union.
10April 12, Fort SumterFederal fort in harbor of Charleston, South CarolinaFirst Battle of the Civil War.Fought in Charleston Harbor, few casualties on either side raised false hopes for a quick war.Victor = ConfederacyCasualties= Union- 11, Confederacy -4
11April 15, 1861- Lincoln calls for Militiamen After the surrender of Fort Sumter in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina, President Abraham Lincoln called up 75,000 militiamen to put down what he described as a rebellion against the authority of the federal government. On April 15, Lincoln's secretary of war sent a request to Virginia's governor for the state to furnish three regiments totaling 2,340 militiamen and officers. The following day Governor John Letcher refused to send troops "to subjugate the Southern States."The surrender of Fort Sumter and Lincoln's call for volunteers radically changed the political situation in Virginia. The question that Virginians, including members of the convention, then faced was no longer whether secession was legal or wise or in the state's interest. The new question once the war began was which side to take, whether to fight with the United States against the Confederate states or with the Confederacy against the United States.
12May 1861- Confederate Congress sets up Capital May 21st: The Confederacy moved its capital to Richmond.Jefferson Davis felt the Confederate capital should be more in the deep South, but Richmond, VA was chosen as
13July 21, 1861- First Battle of Bull Run WhatA Union army, consisting of 28,000 men fought 33,000 Confederates.1stbattle of the Civil War.WhenJuly 21, 1861WhereBull Run Creek, Manassas VASignificanceThe battle proved that this was not going to be a one sided war for either side, as was predictedThe battle spurred a sense of victory in the South, pushing them on, and in the North a feeling for revenge.
14February 1862: Fort Henry & Fort Donelson WhoWho Won?Union: Ulysses S. GrantUnionConfederate: ~ not important~ (Gen Lloyd Tilghman/John B. Floyd)So What? (Results)When/WhereGrant establishes reputation as a solid General – Known as “ Unconditional Surrender Grant”When: Feb : HenryBegins to divide ConfederacyFeb 11-16, 1862: DonelsonWhere: TennesseeWhatTotal Dead: 17,517Part of Anaconda PlanDivide Mississippi11 Days: Captured 2 Confederate Forts
15March 9, 1862: Warships Monitor & Merrimack WhatFirst Battle of Iron-armored battleshipsWhenMarchWhereHampton Roads, VA –The James RiverSignificanceIt was history’s first duel between ironclad warships and the beginning of a new era of naval warfare.The Virginia’s (Merrimack) spectacular success on March 8, the day before, marked an end to the day of wooden navies and raised hope in the South that the Union blockade might be broken.
16April 6, 1862: Battle of Shiloh WhoWho Won?Union: Ulysses S. Grant/Don Carlos BuellUnionConfederate: Albert S. Johnston/Pgt. BeauregardSo What? (Results)Strategic Lesson: importance of scouts & fortificationsWhen/WhereWhen: April 6-7, Where: TennesseeEmphasized the bloodiness of war¼ of the 100,000 who fought died, wounded or were capturedWhatTotal Dead: 23,746Grant’s troops church near Shiloh, TNNot prepared for battleNot enough patrolConfederate troops surprise attackGrant reorganizes troops & defeats Confederacy
17April 25, 1862: New Orleans falls to Union Forces WhoWho Won?Union: David Farragut (60 years old)UnionConfederate: ~ not important~ (Mansfield Lovell)So What? (Results)Blockading Ports: esp. this crucial portWhen/WhereCan split Confederacy from North/South MississippiWhen: April 25 – May 1, Where: New Orleans, LAWhatTotal Dead: 0Union Fleet: 40 Ships approach New Orleans – CRUCIAL PORTTook over the 2 Confederate Ships
18June 25-July 1 1862: Seven Days’ Battles WhoWho Won?Union: George McClellanConfederate (although they lost more men)Confederate: Robert E. LeeSo What? (Results)When/WhereMcClellan’s “Army of the Potomac” pushed backWhen: June 25 – July 1 , Where: VirginiaWhatTotal Dead: 37,9576 battles in 7 daysLee’s attempt to save Richmond (Confederate Capital)Used unorthodox method to move McClellan from Richmond
19September 17, 1862: Battle of Antietam WhoWho Won?Union: George McClellan Confederate: Robert E. LeeInconclusive (Strategically Union victory)So What? (Results)When/WhereBLOODIEST SINGLE DAY BATTLE in American HistoryWhen: Sept. 17, Where: Sharpsburg, Maryland¼ of Lee’s Army lostWhatMcClellan is fired by Lincoln in November for having “the Slows”Total Dead:23,100-26,0001st battle on Northern soilMcClellan’s troops take on Lee’s ArmyMcClellan was aggressiveBUT didn’t chase Lee’s troops when they retreated!
20November 1862: Lincoln relieves McCellan of command On this day in 1862, a tortured relationship ends when President Abraham Lincoln removes General George B. McClellan from command of the Army of the Potomac. McClellan ably built the army in the early stages of the war but was a sluggish and paranoid field commander who seemed unable to muster the courage to aggressively engage Confederate General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia.
21January 1863: Emancipation Proclamation is Issued Lincoln issues Emancipation ProclamationFree slaves in rebel territories onlyMilitary order by Commander-in- ChiefEffective Jan. 1, 1863Lincoln’s Logic1. Rebels use slave labor2. Northern morale was low3. End possibility of England/France joining SouthReactions to ProclamationSymbolic value - gives war high moral purposeFree blacks fight – 160,000 – turns tide of warNorthern Dems claim: will prolong war – WHY?Confederacy: more determined to preserve way of lifeAlienation!Compromise no longer possible - one side must defeat the other
22March 1863: Union Passes the Draft Law A.K.A. -The Enrollment Act- (also known as the Civil War Military Draft Act)was legislation passed by congress during the Civil War to provide fresh manpower for the Union Army.A form of conscription, the controversial act required the enrollment of every male citizen and those immigrants who had filed for citizenship between ages twenty and forty-five. Federal agents established a quota of new troops due from each congressional district. In some cities, particularly New York City, enforcement of the act sparked civil unrest as the war dragged on, leading to the New York Draft Riots on July 13–16. It replaced the previous Militia Act
23July 1863: Battle of Gettysburg & Vicksburg Vicksburg Location: Mississippi Dates: May 18-July 4, Estimated Casualties: 35,825 total (US 4,550; CS 31,275) Results: Union victoryGettysburg State: Pennsylvania Dates: July 1-3, 1863 Principal Forces Engaged: 158,300 total (83,289 [US];75,054 [CS]) Estimated Casualties: 51,000 total (US 23,000; CS 28,000) Results: Union victory
24March 1864: Grant put in charge of all Union Armies President Abraham Lincoln signs a brief document officially promoting then-Major General Ulysses S. Grant to the rank of lieutenant general of the U.S. Army, tasking the future president with the job of leading all Union troops against the Confederate Army.In the spring of 1864, Grant summarized his plans for the armies to President Lincoln. He intended to "employ all the force of all the armies continuously and concurrently, so that there should be no recuperation on the part of the rebels, no rest from attack." He had grasped a truth that had eluded many other Union generals: even if the armies won no battles, they would win the war by continuing to advance, wearing down their outnumbered enemies. His object would not be to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, but to destroy the Rebel armies.
25June 1864: Battle of Cold Harbor Date: May 31 – June 12, 1864Casualties and lossesLocation: Hanover County, VirginiaUnion-12,737 totalResult: Confederate victory1,844 killedCommanders and leaders9,077 wounded1,816 captured/missingUnion- Ulysses S. GrantConfederate-Confederates- George G. Meade Robert E. Lee5,287 total788 killedStrength3,376 woundedUnion- 108,0001,123 captured/missingConfederates- 59,000
26September 1864: Sherman Takes Atlanta, GA Atlanta State: Georgia Dates: July 22 (started campaign for Atlanta in May, not successfully captured until September.) Estimated Casualties: 12,140 total (US 3,641; CS 8,499) Results: Union victorySherman's Atlanta campaign began on May 4, 1864, and in the first few months his troops engaged in several fierce battles with Confederate soldiers on the outskirts of the city, including the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain, which the Union forces lost. However, on September 1, Sherman's men successfully captured Atlanta and continued to defend it through mid-November against Confederate forces led by John Hood. Before he set off on his famous March to the Sea on November 15, Sherman ordered that Atlanta's military resources, including munitions factories, clothing mills and railway yards, be burned. The fire got out of control and left Atlanta in ruins.
27November 1864: Lincoln is reelected Northern voters overwhelmingly endorse the leadership and policies of President Abraham Lincoln when they elect him to a second term. With his re-election, any hope for a negotiated settlement with the Confederacy vanished.Abraham Lincoln ran as the Republican (National Union Party) nominee against Democratic candidate George B. McClellan, who ran as the "peace candidate" without personally believing in his party's platform.Lincoln was re-elected president. Electoral College votes were counted from 25 states. Since the election of 1860, the Electoral College had expanded with the admission of Kansas, West Virginia, and Nevada as free-soil states. As the American Civil War was still raging, no electoral votes were counted from any of the eleven Southern states. Lincoln won by more than 400,000 popular votes on the strength of the soldier vote and military successes such as the Battle of Atlanta. Lincoln was the first president to be re-elected since Andrew Jackson in 1832
28December 1864: Sherman march to the Sea After leaving the decimated city of Atlanta on November 16, Sherman led his troops on a destructive campaign which concluded with the capture of the port city of Savannah on December 21.It is known for its boldness as well as the sheer destruction inflicted on the south, both to its industry as well as military targets, effectively destroying the Confederate’s capacity to wage war.
29January 1865: 13th Amendment is passed by Congress abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime
30April 1865: Lee Surrenders at Appomattox Court House The signing of the surrender documents occurred in the parlor of the house owned by Wilmer McLean on the afternoon of April 9.On April 12, a formal ceremony marked the disbandment of the Army of Northern Virginia and the parole of its officers and men, effectively ending the war in Virginia. This event triggered a series of surrenders across the south, signaling the end of the war.Although Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia, the war was not over. There were still Confederate armies in the field and the final battle of the war would not happen until in May 12–13 in south Texas, at the battle of Palmito (Palmetto) Ranch near Brownsville. However, Confederate commanders did begin to surrender as news of the Army of Northern Virginia’s surrender spread.Letters of the Surrender-history/surrender.html
31April 1865: Lincoln is Assassinated On April 14, 1865, John Wilkes Booth, a famous actor and Confederate sympathizer, fatally shot President Abraham Lincoln at a play at Ford’s Theatre in Washington, D.C.The attack came only five days after Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered his massive army at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, effectively ending the American Civil War.