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A HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE

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1 A HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE
OUT OF MANY A HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE Chapter 9 An Empire for Liberty © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

2 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Part One Introduction © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

3 Chapter Focus Questions
Where did the new nation find economic opportunities in the world market? How did Jefferson’s presidency calm the political differences of the 1790s? What values were embodied in republican agrarianism? What unresolved issues between the United States and Britain led to the War of 1812? What were the causes of Indian resistance and how did the War of 1812 resolve them? How did the Missouri Compromise reveal the dangers of expansion? © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

4 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Part Two American Communities: Expansion Touches Mandan Villages on the Upper Missouri © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

5 American Communities: Expansion Touches Mandan Villages on the Upper Missouri
Lewis and Clark visited the Mandan villages in what is now North Dakota. The Mandan lived by agriculture and hunting and lived in matrilineal clans. The male chiefs met with Lewis and Clark who offered them a military and economic alliance. Americans established Fort Clark as a trading base. Americans brought diseases like smallpox that wiped out the vast majority of Mandans. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

6 North American Communities from Coast to Coast
Part Three North American Communities from Coast to Coast © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

7 The Former American Colonies
Only 3 percent of Americans lived in cities. Philadelphia, Baltimore, Charleston, Boston, and New York dominated trade. In 1800, the United States was surrounded by European colonies. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

8 Northern Neighbors: British North America and Russian North America
The heart of British North America was the former French colony of Quebec. Loyalists comprised most of the other settlers. The American Revolution caused Great Britain to create a national legislature under strict executive control. Russian settlements in Alaska were an extension of its conquest of Siberia. The Russians established Sitka in 1804. Russia established new settlements in California, including Fort Ross. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

9 This view shows Sitka, the center of Russian activities in Alaska, in Russian architectural styles and building techniques are apparent in the Church of St. Michael the Archangel in the right background, contrasting with the Asian and Indian origins of most of Sitka’s inhabitants. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

10 Spanish Colonies To protect their interests against Russian and British expansion, the Spanish had established a chain of missions throughout California. The Spanish also controlled New Orleans, though in 1800 it was an international port. Americans were concerned that whomever controlled New Orleans could choke off commerce along the Mississippi River. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

11 Haiti and the Caribbean
The Caribbean posed strong challenges because of the sugar industry. The Caribbean slave societies were jolted by the successful slave revolt in Haiti. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

12 Trans-Appalachia The trans-Appalachia West was the most rapidly growing region of the United States. By 1800, 500,000 Americans lived in Trans-Appalachia. Cincinnati served as major trading center for the Ohio River Valley. River traffic to and from New Orleans increased annually, though Westerners were concerned over who controlled the city. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

13 America in 1800 Map: North America in 1800
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

14 MAP 9.1 North America in In 1800, the new United States of America shared the North American continent with territories held by the European powers: British Canada, French Louisiana (secretly ceded that year to France by Spain), Spanish Florida, Spanish Mexico, and Russian Alaska, expanding southward along the Pacific coast. Few people could have imagined that by 1850, the United States would span the continent. But the American settlers who had crossed the Appalachians to the Ohio River Valley were already convinced that opportunity lay in the West. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

15 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Part Four A National Economy © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

16 Cotton and the Economy of the Young Republic
Chart: American Export Trade, Most Americans lived in rural, agricultural communities. The plantation regions of the South were heavily involved in marketing crops overseas. Trade with Britain was considerably less than before the Revolution. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

17 FIGURE 9.1 American Export Trade, 1790–1815 This graph shows how completely the American shipping boom was tied to European events. Exports, half of which were reexports, surged when Britain and France were at war and America could take advantage of its neutral status. Exports slumped in the brief period of European peace from1803 to 1805 and plunged following the Embargo Act of 1807 and the outbreak of the War of 1812. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

18 The cotton gin, invented in 1793, was a simple device with huge consequences. It transformed the South, condemned millions of African Americans to slavery, and was the single largest source of American economic growth before 1860. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

19 Shipping and The Economic Boom
In 1790, American shipping had been hurt by the end of ties with Great Britain. The outbreak of war in Europe and American neutrality vastly expanded trade, fueling the growth of American coastal cities. The economic boom included: American entry into the Northwest fur and China markets; an active shipbuilding industry. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

20 The Jefferson Presidency
Part Five The Jefferson Presidency © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

21 Republican Agrarianism
Thomas Jefferson emerged as a strong president with strong party backing. Jefferson’s ideal was an agrarian republic of roughly equal yeoman farmers. America’s abundant land allowed Jefferson to envision a nation of small family farms. Refer to photo of Thomas Jefferson. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

22 Tall, ungainly, and diffident in manner, Thomas Jefferson was nonetheless a man of genius: an architect, naturalist, philosopher and politician. His political philosophy, republican agrarianism, is illustrated by this symbol of the Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture, in which the farmer exemplifies Jefferson’s hopes for America. As he said, “those who labor in the earth are the chosen people of God.” . © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

23 Jefferson’s Government
Jefferson’s promise to reduce the size of the federal government. The unfinished state of the nation’s capital reflected the emphasis on local communities. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

24 An Independent Judiciary
While removing Federalist officeholders, Jefferson provoked a landmark Supreme Court decision. Marbury v. Madison did not restore William Marbury to his post, but it established the principle of judicial review and an independent judiciary. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

25 Opportunity: The Louisiana Purchase
Map: Louisiana Purchase The conflict between France and Britain threatened American security. Napoleon’s acquisition of the Louisiana Territory threatened American access to the Mississippi River. Jefferson attempted to buy New Orleans, but accepted the French offer to buy the entire territory. The Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the United States, fulfilling Jefferson’s desire for continued expansion. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

26 MAP 9.2 Louisiana Purchase The Louisiana Purchase of 1803, the largest peaceful acquisition of territory in U.S. history, more than doubled the size of the nation. The Lewis and Clark expedition (1804–06) was the first to survey and document the natural and human richness of the area. The American sense of expansiveness and continental destiny owes more to the extraordinary opportunity provided by the Louisiana Purchase than to other factors. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

27 Incorporating Louisiana
The immediate issue was how to incorporate the French and Spanish inhabitants of the Louisiana territory. The solution was to maintain aspects of French institutions in Louisiana. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

28 Texas and the Struggle for Mexican Independence
Acquisition of Louisiana put the United States in conflict with Spain. America now shared a vague boundary with Mexico’s Texas. Several populist revolts fueled a strong independence movement in Mexico. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

29 Renewed Imperial Rivalry in North America
Part Six Renewed Imperial Rivalry in North America © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

30 Problems with Neutral Rights
In his second term, Jefferson faced problems protecting American neutrality. British ships seized American vessels trading in the French West Indies and impressed sailors into the Royal Navy. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

31 The Embargo Act Congress first imposed a boycott and then passed the Embargo Act on foreign commerce that: did not change British policy; caused a deep depression; and led to widespread smuggling. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

32 Madison and the Failure of “Peaceable Coercion”
During the presidency of James Madison, the Embargo Act was repealed. Other similar acts passed later also proved ineffective. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

33 A Contradictory Indian Policy
Indian affairs remained among the most difficult foreign problems. Western tribes resisted American incursion into their territory. Jefferson hoped that Indians would either be converted to white civilization or moved across the Mississippi River. Neither policy won much Indian support. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

34 Indian Resistance The Shawnee emerged as the leading force of Indian resistance in the Ohio Valley. Tecumseh sought refuge further west. His brother, Tenskwatawa, The Prophet, called for a rejection of white ways. Tecumseh formed a pan-Indian confederacy and was initially defensive but soon advocated military resistance. While Tecumseh was in the South, a American army defeated Tenskwatawa’s followers at Tippecanoe. In response, Tecumseh formally allied with the British. Map: Indian Resistance, Refer to photo of Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

35 MAP 9.3 Indian Resistance, 1790–1816 American westward expansion put relentless pressure on the Indian nations in the trans-Appalachian South and West. The trans-Appalachian region was marked by constant warfare from the time of the earliest settlements in Kentucky in the 1780s to the War of 1812.Tecumseh’s Alliance in the Old Northwest (1809–11) and the Creek Rebellion in the Old Southwest (1813–14) were the culminating struggles in Indian resistance to the American invasion of the trans-Appalachian region. Indian resistance was a major reason for the War of 1812. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

36 (left) Tecumseh, a Shawnee military leader, and (right) his brother Tenskwatawa, a religious leader called The Prophet, led a pan-Indian revitalization and resistance movement that posed a serious threat to American westward expansion. Tecumseh traveled widely, attempting to build a military alliance on his brother’s spiritual message. He achieved considerable success in the Old Northwest, but less in the Old Southwest, where many Indian peoples put their faith in accommodation. Tecumseh’s death at the Battle of the Thames (1813) and British abandonment of their Shawnee allies at the end of the War of 1812 brought an end to organized Indian resistance in the Old Northwest. SOURCE (Right): Oil on canvas. 29 x 24 in. (73.7 x 60.9 cm) Location: Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC, U.S.A. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

37 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Part Seven The War of 1812 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

38 The War Hawks Map: War of 1812
Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun were leaders of a new generation of War Hawks from the South and West that supported war as a means of expansion. Madison’s declaration of war received no Federalist support. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

39 MAP 9.4 The War of 1812 On land, the War of 1812 was fought to define the nation’s boundaries. In the North, where military action was most intense, American armies attacked British forts in the Great Lakes region with little success, and several invasions of Canada failed. In the South, the Battle of New Orleans made a national hero of Andrew Jackson, but it occurred after the peace treaty had been signed. On the sea, with the exception of Oliver Perry’s victory in the Great Lakes, Britain’s dominance was so complete and its blockade so effective that British troops were able to invade the Chesapeake and burn the capital of the United States. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

40 In January, 1815, Andrew Jackson won an improbable victory over a British army twice the size of the assorted American forces, which included regular army units, local New Orleans militia, Tennessee and Kentucky frontiersmen, a group of pirates commanded by the legendary Jean Lafitte, and a group of former Haitian slaves fighting as free men of color. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

41 The Campaigns Against Northern and Southern Indians
American efforts to capture Canada failed due to: New England opposition; the strength of the British-Indian forces; and the resistance of Canadians. The Americans won the Battle of the Thames, at which Tecumseh was killed. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

42 Seeing History “A Scene on the Frontiers as Practiced by the ‘Humane’ British and their ‘Worthy’ Allies.” © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

43 The Hartford Convention
Continued opposition from New England led to the Hartford Convention. Federalists demanded redress of grievances though they dropped talk of secession. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

44 The Treaty of Ghent The Treaty of Ghent ended the war without addressing the major grievances, but the British did agree to evacuate the western forts. Andrew Jackson’s victory at New Orleans saved American pride. The war also ended lingering feelings of American colonial dependency. The Indians were the only clear losers. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

45 Defining the Boundaries
Part Eight Defining the Boundaries © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

46 Another Westward Surge
Map: Spread of Settlement: Westward Surge, Peace brought widespread Indian removal that opened lands and enabled Americans to resume their westward migration. Northern migrants traveled the Genesee Turnpike. Middle States settlers went west on the Philadelphia-Pittsburgh Turnpike and the National Road. The Wilderness and Federal Roads were southern migration routes. Chart: Western Land Sales The Old Northwest shared New England values. The Old Southwest was based on plantation slavery. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

47 MAP 9.5 Spread of Settlement: Westward Surge, 1800–1820 Within a period of twenty years, a quarter of the nation’s population had moved west of the Appalachian Mountains. The westward surge was a dynamic source of American optimism. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

48 FIGURE 9.2 Western Land Sales Surges in western land sales reflect surges in westward expansion. Western land sales following the War of 1812 reached an unprecedented 3.5 million acres, but that was small in comparison with what was to come in the 1830s and 1850s. Not all land sales reflected actual settlement, however, and speculation in western lands was rampant. Collapse of the postwar speculative boom contributed to the Panic of 1819, and the abrupt end to the boom of the 1830s led to the Panic of 1837. SOURCE: Robert Riegel and Robert Athearn, American Moves West (New York: Holt Rinehart 1964) © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

49 The hopes of every westward migrant are exemplified in this series of four illustrations imagining inevitable progress from pioneer cabin to prosperous farm. The illustrations, “The Pioneer Settler and His Progress,” appeared in a booster history advertising land in western New York. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

50 The Election of 1816 and the Era of Good Feelings
James Monroe presided over the post-war “era of good feelings.” Monroe had no opponent in 1820. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

51 The American System Monroe brought former Federalists into his cabinet. Madison and Monroe broke with Jefferson’s agrarianism and embraced the Federalist program for economic development The American System included: The establishment of a national bank A tax on imported goods to protect American manufacturers A national system of roads and canals © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

52 The Diplomacy of John Quincy Adams
Map: John Quincy Adams’s Border Treaties Secretary of State John Quincy Adams laid the foundation for continued expansion. Two treaties with Britain established a demilitarized Canadian border and provided for the joint occupation of Oregon. The Adams-Onis Treaty turned over Florida to the United States and relinquished claims to Louisiana. Adams defined the response of the United States to emerging nations in the Western Hemisphere by designing the Monroe Doctrine. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

53 MAP 9.6 John Quincy Adams’s Border Treaties John Quincy Adams, secretary of state in the Monroe administration (1817–25), solidified the nation’s boundaries in several treaties with Britain and Spain. The Rush-Bagot Treaty of 1817 and the Conventions of 1818 and 1824 settled the northern boundary with Canada and the terms of a joint occupancy of Oregon. The Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819 added Florida to the United States and settled the disputed border between the American Louisiana Territory and Spanish possessions in the West. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

54 The Panic of 1819 A land boom was financed by speculative buying and easy credit. The Panic of 1819 was triggered by the Second Bank of the United States foreclosing on loans that led to six years of depression. The Panic of 1819 hurt urban workers suffering from the decline in trade and manufacturing failures. Manufacturers pressed for higher protective tariffs, angering Southerners. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

55 The Missouri Compromise
Map: The Missouri Compromise Effort to admit Missouri into the Union as a slave state created a crisis. Northerners opposed the creation of new slave states because it would tip the balance between slave and free states. Southerners sought to expand slavery and were concerned that Congress would even consider the matter. Henry Clay forged a compromise that maintained the balance between free and slave states. Maine was admitted as a free slave state and slavery was barred north of Missouri’s southern boundary. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

56 MAP 9.7 The Missouri Compromise Before the Missouri Compromise of 1820, the Ohio River was the dividing line between the free states of the Old Northwest and the slaveholding states of the Old Southwest. The compromise stipulated that Missouri would enter the Union as a slave state (balanced by Maine, a free state), but slavery would be prohibited in the Louisiana Territory north of 36° 30’ (Missouri’s southern boundary). This awkward compromise lasted until 1846, when the Mexican-American War reopened the issue of the expansion of slavery. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

57 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Part Nine Conclusion © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

58 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.


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