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American Government Missouri History & Government.

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Presentation on theme: "American Government Missouri History & Government."— Presentation transcript:

1 American Government Missouri History & Government

2 Missouri History First Inhabitants to Today

3 First Inhabitants Began with early hunters around 12,000 B.C. Mainly hunted big game Then progressed through to smaller game and fish Some lived in caves Graham Cave State Park By 900 A.D. Mississippian tribes controlled much of present day Missouri Began farming around the rivers, and became sedentary Missouri, Osage, Delaware, and the Shawnee were present in Missouri Osage the most dominant of the Mississippian tribes

4 First Inhabitants (Con’t) By the beginning of the early 1700’s Europeans began moving into Missouri Europeans also devastated their populations through diseases and war Began pushing the Indians west

5 Early Explorers The French were the first Europeans to explore present-day Missouri De La Salle took possession of Missouri for the French Originally known as Illinois County by the French In 1673 French Explorer Louis Joliet and Father Jacques-Marquette explored from present-day Green Bay, WI to the Arkansas River Marquette was a Jesuit priest and Joliet was an map-making explorer First descriptions of Missouri and Illinois

6 Early Explorers (Con’t) First permanent resident was a French Jesuit Priest, Father Gabriel Marest Established a trading post in the fall of 1700 called Fort Orleans However, his first settlement was abandoned shortly afterwards The first permanent settlement in Missouri was St. Genevieve Established by French Canadian Farmers in 1750 In 1785 a great flood washed away St. Genevieve However they did rebuild St. Genevieve

7 Early Explorers (Con’t) The Establishment of St. Louis In 1764, French fur traders, Pierre Laclede and René Auguste Chouteau, established St. Louis Flourished due to it relative location to the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers French trade with Indians flourished towards the 1800’s

8 Trading of Hands Although Missouri was not involved in the French and Indian War, in 1762 France ceded territory west of the Mississippi to Spain French trading and culture still the dominant influence Then by 1800 the land west of the Mississippi was receded back to France The French then sold the land west of the Mississippi to the United States for $15 million Called the Louisiana Purchase

9 Trading of Hands (Con’t) Lewis and Clark Expedition Organized by President Thomas Jefferson in order to get a detailed description of the newly purchased land The expedition set out from St. Louis in 1804 and followed the Missouri River with their Indian guide Shoshone, Female Indian named Sacagawea Made it all the way to the Pacific Ocean and back Having made discoveries for the U.S. citizens of the different types of plants, animals, Indians, and land features

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12 Establishment of Missouri New Madrid earthquakes of Series of earthquakes that devastated the area Estimated to be 7.0 on the Richter scale Created tsunami like waves in the Mississippi, giving the impression that the Mississippi River was flowing backwards By 1811, the steamboat and lead mining became the two major industries of the territory of Missouri

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14 Establishment of Missouri (Con’t) In 1812, the territory of Missouri was established However the question of whether it was to become a slave state or not became a national debate Missouri Compromise In 1821 Missouri became the 24th state that was officially admitted as a slave state The compromise also stated that no states could be admitted as slave states over the 36º30’ N latitude line

15 Establishment of Missouri (Con’t) Current boundaries were established after Native Americans gave up Platte County in 1837 Northwest corner of Missouri Fur trade a major source of income

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17 Mormons Founded by Joseph Smith, Jr. in New York in 1823 Claimed to have been met by Father God, Jesus Christ and other angels through visions Given the job to restore Christian Doctrine Was given Golden Plates to translate into The Book of Mormon Used stones to translate the golden plates Took place during the “Second Great Awakening” Period

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19 Mormons (Con’t) Formed a religious group and moved to Ohio Established first temple in Kirtland, Ohio Smith toured Independence, Missouri and encouraged followed to settle there Planned to established the “City of Zion” or the “New Jerusalem” in 1831 Mormons lived in close-knit communities

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21 Mormons (Con’t) Non-Mormon Missourians were suspicious of Mormon beliefs Mass meeting of Missourians drafted a statement telling Mormons not to settle in Jackson County Mormon newspaper burned, leaders tarred and feathered

22 Mormons (Con’t) Some Mormons left, and the Church asked governor for protections More violence followed, many Mormons left Many lost their possessions State legislature established Caldwell County as new settlement site Far West was the main town Grew in population, and Mormons determined to stay in Missouri

23 “Mormon Wars” in 1838 Mormons had been started to establish colonies in counties around Caldwell County, angering Non Mormons Governor Boggs raised a militia, and state that Mormons were enemies and must be killed or driven from state Mormon leaders surrendered and Far West was looted Smith and others were court-martialed and sentenced to be shot Alexander Doniphan, brigadier general in Missouri militia, refused

24 “Mormon Wars” in 1838 (Con’t) New trials and leaders either found not guilty or escaped Established Nauvoo in Illinois Joseph Smith was murdered in 1844 Murderers acquitted Brigham Young led Mormons on trail north of Platte River to Salt Lake Valley in Utah in 1847

25 Major Events Pre-Civil War Santa Fe and Oregon trails Both had starting points in Independence, Westport and St. Joseph Missouri Individuals would caravan along the routes to trade Pony Express established in 1860 Carried mail from St. Joseph, Missouri to San Francisco, California

26 Stephen Austin Considered the “Father of Texas” Raised during his teen years in current Washington County Missouri His father received a grant from Mexico to establish the colony of Texas Then his father died but passed on the grant to Stephen Stephen then moved nearly 1200 Anglo- Americans to present day Texas Eventually won independence from Mexico Shortly after Stephen Austin died

27 Slavery in Missouri With the passage of the Kansas- Nebraska Act in 1854, the question of slavery was left up to those states Pro-slavery Missourians became very active trying to win Kansas for the slave cause up to the Civil War

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29 Slavery in Missouri (Con’t) Bleeding Kansas Border war and struggle between pro and anti-slavery individuals in Kansas and Missouri Pro-Slavery individuals, mainly from Missouri, were called “Border Ruffians” Anti-Slavery individuals, mainly from Kansas, were called Red-legs or Jayhawkers

30 Slavery in Missouri (Con’t) Dred Scott Decision of 1857, Supreme Court African-Americans were not equal citizens Congress had no authority to prohibit slavery in federal territories African-Americans could not use federal courts to sue Slaves could not be taken away from owners without due process

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32 Election of 1860 In 1958 Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas, ran for the Illinois senate The most debated question was over the Kansas-Nebraska Act and it’s constitutionality Douglas won the senate seat Both individuals ran for President in the 1860 election Douglas the Democrat Missouri the only state he won Abraham Lincoln the Republican Won the election while only receiving 40% of the popular vote

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34 Civil War and Missouri Though admitted in the 1820’s as a slave state, Missouri aligned itself with the Union in the Civil War Missouri’s governor Claiborne Jackson tried to align Missouri with the confederacy But Union Captain Nathaniel Lyons forced the Jackson government to southern Missouri

35 Jackson Lyons

36 Civil War and Missouri (Con’t) Jackson then organized a militia in southern Missouri, which was controlled by Sterling Price Confederate Price and Union Lyons battled against one another at Wilsons’ Creek on August 10, 1861 Confederates won, however Union soldiers maintained controlled of most of Missouri Guerilla Warfare continued throughout Missouri during the Civil War After the Battle at Wilsons’ Creek, mainly guerilla warfare Especially between Kansas and Missouri border

37 Civil War and Missouri (Con’t) General Order #11 In response to the Lawrence Massacre, Union General Thomas Ewing accused western Missourians of supporting the massacre Ewing declared order #11, which forced the evacuation of four counties near Kansas City Ewing burned the cities to the ground George Caleb Bingham painted a famous painting called “General Order no. 11” Propaganda against Ewing

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39 Constitution of 1865 and 1875 Missouri Constitution of 1865 abolished slavery and limited the rights of individuals who helped the confederacy during the Civil War Missouri Constitution of 1875 allowed local, city governments to have some autonomy, though still subordinate to the state legislature A first in U.S. state history

40 Missouri Constitution of 1945 Bill of Rights Popular sovereignty Missouri subject only to U.S. constitution Religious freedom No public support for religious institutions Freedom of Speech Due Process of Law No Unreasonable Search and Seizure Trial by Jury

41 Missouri Constitution of 1945 (Con’t) Bill of Rights (Con’t) Right to bear arms No concealed weapons Compensation for eminent Domain Right of Labor to organize and bargain collectively Crime victim’s rights

42 Executive Branch Governor 30 years old 15 years a citizen of the United States 10 years a resident of Missouri Powers Executive Manage the budget Carry out legislation Appointments Department heads, with Senate approval Members of state boards and commissions Vacancies in county offices Fill Vacancies in state-wide elective offices and Congress

43 Governor Jay Nixon

44 Executive Branch (Con’t) Powers (Con’t) Military Commander-in-Chief of state militia except when called into federal service Civil defense and disaster relief Legislative State of state address, recommends legislation Direct appeal to voters Veto, Line item of appropriations bills Political Influence Pardons and reprieves Excuse or free someone from punishment reprieve – Delay Punishment Commute – Lessen Punishment Extradition

45 Lieutenant Governor Same qualifications as Governor Acts as governor if: Death, conviction, impeachment, resignation, absence, disability of Governor May vote to break ties in Senate Member of boards and commissions

46 Lieutenant Governor Peter Kinder

47 Succession Lieutenant Governor President Pro Tempore Speaker of the House Secretary of State Auditor Treasurer Attorney General

48 Other state positions Auditor 30 years old Resident of state 10 years Determines if tax money is being spent efficiently, economically and legally

49 Other state positions (Con’t) Secretary of State 25 years old Resident of state for at least one year Keeps non-financial records prepares ballots and certifies elections keeper of Great Seal to authenticates official acts of governor

50 Other state positions (Con’t) Treasurer Same qualifications as Secretary of State Chief financial officer Nearly $17 Billion in tax revenues Attorney General Must be an attorney Represents the legal interests of the state Render official opinions to executive, legislative and county prosecutors May start proceedings to oust corporations from state

51 Departments Administration Agriculture Conservation Corrections Economic Development DESE Health Higher Education

52 Departments (Con’t) Insurance Labor and Industrial Relations Mental Health Natural Resources Public Safety Revenue Social Services Transportation

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54 Legislative Branch General Assembly Bicameral Sessions begin on first Monday in January, may end in Mid-May Special Sessions

55 Legislative Branch (Con’t) House Lower House Speaker of the House 163 Members Districts set by a commission after each census Resident of district for one year required Term is 2 years

56 Legislative Branch (Con’t) Senate Upper House Lieutenant Governor 34 Members 30 years old requirement resident of district for one year required Term is 2 years

57 Legislative Branch (Con’t) Laws Bills may only deal with one subject Must pass both houses Governor may sign or veto Override requires 2/3 vote of both houses

58 Other Subjects Reapportionment Changing election lines to equalize population Required with every 10 year census Special Interest Groups Often involved in developing legislation Initiative Change old law, make new law, change Constitution To Propose an initiative must have 5% of voters in 2/3 of districts for law 8% for Constitutional and statutory initiative

59 Other Subjects (Con’t) Referendum Voters may reject any act of General Assembly 5% of voters in 2/3 of districts Number of legal voters determined by last election for governor

60 Judicial Branch Supreme Court 7 Judges Term 12 years Must have been citizen for 15 years Qualified voter for 9 years 30 Years old Must be attorney

61 Judicial Branch (Con’t) Supreme Court (Con’t) Chief Justice Original Jurisdiction US statutes and Treaties Missouri Constitutional Statutes State Revenue Laws Death Penalty Appellate Jurisdiction

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63 Judicial Branch (Con’t) Court of Appeals 32 Judges 12 year terms Same qualifications as Supreme Court Cases appeal from lower courts Circuit Court 45 Judicial Circuits 6 year terms for judges 4 years for associate circuit judges Levels Circuit Division Felonies, civil cases over $25,000, probate Two types Grand and Petit

64 Judicial Branch (Con’t) Circuit Court (Con’t) Associate Circuit Division One Associate judge in each county Small claims court, misdemeanors, traffic cases with jury trial Municipal Division Traffic Violations, code violations Judges are popularly elected Except Appellate and Supreme Court Non-partisan court plan

65 Elections General Elections Tuesday after first Monday in November of even numbered years Primary elections First Tuesday of August of even- numbered years Special Elections – As needed Local Elections Generally first Tuesday of April

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67 State Seal Bears represent strength and bravery Salus Populi Supreme Lex Esto Let the Welfare of the People be the Supreme Law


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