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Destination Branding Alastair M. Morrison Donald J. Anderson

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1 Destination Branding Alastair M. Morrison Donald J. Anderson
Purdue University June 10, 2002 Permission to quote is kindly provided if appropriate reference given. For follow-up information, contact the moderators at

2 Topics The PIB Model What is a brand? What is destination branding?
What is a destination brand? What a brand is not …..just! Destination branding successes Five phases of brand development Brand identity development Implications for CVBs

3 Are You Confused about Destination Branding?
Perception Image Product Differentiation A plethora of terms Positioning Branding Sustainable Competitive Advantage

4 The PIB Model Positioning-Image-Branding
Visitor Destination-CVB Perceptions Positioning Image Images Branding Product Development Destination Choice Marketing

5 Destination Image

6 Role of Image in Destination Choice
Travelers’ images of destinations play an important role in destination choice. “Image differentiates tourist destinations from each other and is an integral and influential part of the traveler’s decision process” (Baloglu and Brinberg, 1997). One of the reasons is the intangibility of destinations. They cannot be sampled or tested out before the purchase like most products.

7 Definition of Destination Image
The sum of beliefs, ideas, and impressions that a person has of a destination (Crompton, 1979). A set of cognitions and affections that represent an entity to an individual (Mazursky and Jacoby, 1986). A mental representation of an object or place (Fridgen, 1987). The visual or mental impression of a place, a product, or an experience held by the general public (Milman and Pizam, 1995).

8 Components of Destination Image
Gunn (1972) identified two components of image: Organic: Images formed by individuals themselves through such things as past experiences with destinations, and through unbiased sources of information (e.g., news reports, movies, newspaper articles, etc.). Induced: Images created through information received from external sources, including destination advertising and promotion. Branding

9 Destination Positioning

10 What is Positioning? “Positioning starts with a product. A piece of merchandise, a service, a company, an institution, or even a person. But positioning is not what you do to a product. Positioning is what you do to the mind of the prospect. That is you position the product in the mind of the prospect.” Al Ries and Jack Trout. Positioning: The Battle for Your Mind. “Positioning begins with the customer. But positioning is not so much what you say about your products or company as much as it is what your customers say about you.” Regis McKenna. Relationship Marketing.

11 What is Positioning? “Positioning is the act of designing the company’s offering and image to occupy a distinctive place in the target market’s mind.” Philip Kotler. Marketing Management: The Millennium Edition. “Positioning is the development of a service and a marketing mix to occupy a specific place in the minds of customers within target markets.” Alastair Morrison. Hospitality and Travel Marketing.

12 Positioning Success Stories
The Uncola Where’s the beef?

13 Destination Branding

14 What is a Brand? “A brand is a name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or combination of them, intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors.” Kotler, Philip. (2000). Marketing management: The millennium edition. Prentice-Hall, p. 404

15 The Great Power of Brand Names

16 Definition of Destination Branding
Destination branding is a process used to develop a unique identity and personality that is different from all competitive destinations. Destination branding is “selecting a consistent brand element mix to identify and distinguish a destination through positive image building” (Cai, 2000) “Branding is perhaps the most powerful marketing weapon available to contemporary destination marketers” (Morgan and Pritchard, 2002, p. 11)

17 Definition of Destination Branding
Destination branding is about combining all things associated with the 'place' (i.e., its products and services from various industries -- agriculture; tourism; sports; arts; investment; technology; education, etc.) that collaborate under one brand. Its aim is to capture the essence of the destination, in a unified manner, and can be consumed simultaneously at a symbolic and experiential level. It is then used to market those unique added values to consumer needs and sustaining its success in the face of competition.

18 What is a Destination Brand?
Identity A destination brand is: A way to communicate a destination’s unique identity to visitors A means of differentiating a destination from its competitors A uniform “look” that all destination partners can consistently use A symbol, name, term or design, or combination of these elements Personality Look Essence Image

19 What a Brand is Not …… Just!
A destination brand brand is not just: An advertising slogan (or tag line) A logo to stick on a t-shirt A distinctive color scheme A brochure or Web site And definitely not: A vacuous statement that locals have dreamed up to improve community self-image A “pet” idea of a local politician to drum up all types of economic development Vacuous = Vague or meaningless Explanation for Don!!

20 Challenges of Destination Branding
Destinations are not a single product but composite products consisting of a mix of different components (the destination mix). Destination marketers have little control over the destination mix they are branding. There is a diverse range of organizations and partners involved in crafting and delivering on the brand. Often there is a lack of enough funding for branding efforts. Political influences may be felt.

21 Corporate Tourism Brands

22 Destination Branding Successes: International

23 Destination Branding Successes:
National mid-1970s 1969

24 Destination Branding Successes: Midwest Regional

25 Then ……What is a Good Brand?
Attractive Consistent with positioning Conveys excitement and quality Expresses the destination’s personality Memorable Simple Transportable to the Web as a domain name Unique Well-accepted by all partners

26 Then ……What is a Good Brand?
An emotional attachment to the destination must be built with a brand that is: Credible Deliverable Differentiating Conveying powerful ideas Enthusing for partners and stakeholders Resonating with visitors Morgan and Pritchard, 2002, p. 27

27 Five Phases of Destination Branding
Phase 1: Market investigation, analysis and strategic recommendations Phase 2: Brand identity development Phase 3: Brand launch and introduction – communicating the vision Phase 4: Brand implementation Phase 5: Monitoring, evaluation and review Morgan and Pritchard, 2002, pp

28 Brand Identity Development
The Destination Brand Benefit Pyramid Developing the Brand Architecture Identifying Brand Drivers

29 The Destination Brand Benefit Pyramid
What is the essential nature and character of the brand? Level 5 Level 4 What does value mean for the typical repeat visitor? What psychological rewards or emotional benefits do people get by visiting this destination? Level 3 Level 2 What benefits to the visitor result from the destination’s features? Level 1 What are the tangible, verifiable, objective, measurable characteristics of the destination?

30 Developing the Brand Architecture
What is the “core personality” of our area as a visitor destination? What positive images do visitors have of of our area? What positive images do residents have of our area? What positive images do industry partners have of our area? What makes us different?

31 Developing the Brand Architecture
What are the words or phrases that best describe us? What symbols or key images are associated with our destination? What concepts, ideas, events, and people are associated with our destination? What do we have that no-one else has? What makes us different?

32 What Are Our Brand Drivers?
Brand drivers are the essence of a place – the destination’s unique and own-able qualities that make it different from other places. Walter Landor, Landor Associates, San Francisco as quoted in: “More than a logo: Building a brand identity” by Kathleen Cassedy, HSMAI Marketing Review, Summer 2001

33 Brand Architecture Positioning Rational Benefits
Land of fire and stone Rugged, unspoilt, wilderness. Dramatic scenery. Romantic history, heritage, and folklore. Warm and feisty people. Scotland

34 Brand Architecture Emotional Benefits Personality
I feel in awe of the elements in Scotland. I feel embraced by the warmth of the people. Independent. Warm. Mysterious. Rugged. Feisty. Scotland

35 Implications for CVBs

36 Destination Branding Implications
A CVB must: Determine visitor (leisure and business) images and perceptions. Develop a positioning approach and statement. Design the brand identity to support positioning with input and support of all stakeholders. Implement and invest in the brand over the long term. Monitor and evaluate the brand’s success.

37 Missouri Association of Convention & Visitor Bureaus
Annual Meeting June 10, 2002 Questions & Answers

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