Presentation on theme: "Destination Branding Alastair M. Morrison Donald J. Anderson"— Presentation transcript:
1 Destination Branding Alastair M. Morrison Donald J. Anderson Purdue UniversityJune 10, 2002Permission to quote is kindly provided if appropriate reference given. For follow-up information, contact the moderators at
2 Topics The PIB Model What is a brand? What is destination branding? What is a destination brand?What a brand is not …..just!Destination branding successesFive phases of brand developmentBrand identity developmentImplications for CVBs
3 Are You Confused about Destination Branding? PerceptionImageProductDifferentiationA plethoraof termsPositioningBrandingSustainableCompetitiveAdvantage
4 The PIB Model Positioning-Image-Branding VisitorDestination-CVBPerceptionsPositioningImageImagesBrandingProductDevelopmentDestinationChoiceMarketing
6 Role of Image in Destination Choice Travelers’ images of destinations play an important role in destination choice.“Image differentiates tourist destinations from each other and is an integral and influential part of the traveler’s decision process” (Baloglu and Brinberg, 1997).One of the reasons is the intangibility of destinations. They cannot be sampled or tested out before the purchase like most products.
7 Definition of Destination Image The sum of beliefs, ideas, and impressions that a person has of a destination (Crompton, 1979).A set of cognitions and affections that represent an entity to an individual (Mazursky and Jacoby, 1986).A mental representation of an object or place (Fridgen, 1987).The visual or mental impression of a place, a product, or an experience held by the general public (Milman and Pizam, 1995).
8 Components of Destination Image Gunn (1972) identified two components of image:Organic: Images formed by individuals themselves through such things as past experiences with destinations, and through unbiased sources of information (e.g., news reports, movies, newspaper articles, etc.).Induced: Images created through information received from external sources, including destination advertising and promotion.Branding
10 What is Positioning?“Positioning starts with a product. A piece of merchandise, a service, a company, an institution, or even a person. But positioning is not what you do to a product. Positioning is what you do to the mind of the prospect. That is you position the product in the mind of the prospect.”Al Ries and Jack Trout. Positioning: The Battle for Your Mind.“Positioning begins with the customer. But positioning is not so much what you say about your products or company as much as it is what your customers say about you.”Regis McKenna. Relationship Marketing.
11 What is Positioning?“Positioning is the act of designing the company’s offering and image to occupy a distinctive place in the target market’s mind.”Philip Kotler. Marketing Management: The Millennium Edition.“Positioning is the development of a service and a marketing mix to occupy a specific place in the minds of customers within target markets.”Alastair Morrison. Hospitality and Travel Marketing.
12 Positioning Success Stories The UncolaWhere’s the beef?
14 What is a Brand?“A brand is a name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or combination of them, intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors.”Kotler, Philip. (2000). Marketing management: The millennium edition. Prentice-Hall, p. 404
16 Definition of Destination Branding Destination branding is a process used to develop a unique identity and personality that is different from all competitive destinations.Destination branding is “selecting a consistent brand element mix to identify and distinguish a destination through positive image building” (Cai, 2000)“Branding is perhaps the most powerful marketing weapon available to contemporary destination marketers” (Morgan and Pritchard, 2002, p. 11)
17 Definition of Destination Branding Destination branding is about combining all things associated with the 'place' (i.e., its products and services from various industries -- agriculture; tourism; sports; arts; investment; technology; education, etc.) that collaborate under one brand. Its aim is to capture the essence of the destination, in a unified manner, and can be consumed simultaneously at a symbolic and experiential level. It is then used to market those unique added values to consumer needs and sustaining its success in the face of competition.
18 What is a Destination Brand? IdentityA destination brand is:A way to communicate a destination’s unique identity to visitorsA means of differentiating a destination from its competitorsA uniform “look” that all destination partners can consistently useA symbol, name, term or design, or combination of these elementsPersonalityLookEssenceImage
19 What a Brand is Not …… Just! A destination brand brand is not just:An advertising slogan (or tag line)A logo to stick on a t-shirtA distinctive color schemeA brochure or Web siteAnd definitely not:A vacuous statement that locals have dreamed up to improve community self-imageA “pet” idea of a local politician to drum up all types of economic developmentVacuous =Vague ormeaninglessExplanationfor Don!!
20 Challenges of Destination Branding Destinations are not a single product but composite products consisting of a mix of different components (the destination mix).Destination marketers have little control over the destination mix they are branding.There is a diverse range of organizations and partners involved in crafting and delivering on the brand.Often there is a lack of enough funding for branding efforts.Political influences may be felt.
25 Then ……What is a Good Brand? AttractiveConsistent with positioningConveys excitement and qualityExpresses the destination’s personalityMemorableSimpleTransportable to the Web as a domain nameUniqueWell-accepted by all partners
26 Then ……What is a Good Brand? An emotional attachment to the destination must be built with a brand that is:CredibleDeliverableDifferentiatingConveying powerful ideasEnthusing for partners and stakeholdersResonating with visitorsMorgan and Pritchard, 2002, p. 27
27 Five Phases of Destination Branding Phase 1: Market investigation, analysis and strategic recommendationsPhase 2: Brand identity developmentPhase 3: Brand launch and introduction – communicating the visionPhase 4: Brand implementationPhase 5: Monitoring, evaluation and reviewMorgan and Pritchard, 2002, pp
28 Brand Identity Development The Destination Brand Benefit PyramidDeveloping the Brand ArchitectureIdentifying Brand Drivers
29 The Destination Brand Benefit Pyramid What is the essential natureand character of the brand?Level 5Level 4What does value meanfor the typical repeat visitor?What psychological rewards or emotional benefits do people get by visiting this destination?Level 3Level 2What benefits to the visitor result fromthe destination’s features?Level 1What are the tangible, verifiable, objective,measurable characteristics of the destination?
30 Developing the Brand Architecture What is the “core personality” of our area as a visitor destination?What positive images do visitors have of of our area?What positive images do residents have of our area?What positive images do industry partners have of our area?What makes us different?
31 Developing the Brand Architecture What are the words or phrases that best describe us?What symbols or key images are associated with our destination?What concepts, ideas, events, and people are associated with our destination?What do we have that no-one else has?What makes us different?
32 What Are Our Brand Drivers? Brand drivers are the essence of a place – the destination’s unique and own-able qualities that make it different from other places.Walter Landor, Landor Associates, San Francisco as quoted in: “More than a logo: Building a brand identity” by Kathleen Cassedy, HSMAI Marketing Review, Summer 2001
33 Brand Architecture Positioning Rational Benefits Land of fire and stoneRugged, unspoilt, wilderness. Dramatic scenery. Romantic history, heritage, and folklore. Warm and feisty people.Scotland
34 Brand Architecture Emotional Benefits Personality I feel in awe of the elements in Scotland. I feel embraced by the warmth of the people.Independent. Warm. Mysterious. Rugged. Feisty.Scotland
36 Destination Branding Implications A CVB must:Determine visitor (leisure and business) images and perceptions.Develop a positioning approach and statement.Design the brand identity to support positioning with input and support of all stakeholders.Implement and invest in the brand over the long term.Monitor and evaluate the brand’s success.
37 Missouri Association of Convention & Visitor Bureaus Annual MeetingJune 10, 2002Questions & Answers