Main Ideas Compare the two types of mining. Describe different uses for metallic & nonmetallic minerals.
Mining Mining – the process of removing valuable minerals from the Earth. Ore – a natural mineral deposit that is large enough and pure enough to be mined for profit.
Types of Mining Surface Mining – mining that is used when minerals are at or near the surface of Earth. Surface mines include open pits & quarries(dug into cliffs).
Types of Mining Subsurface Mining – mining that is used when mineral deposits are located deep within the Earth’s surface. Passageways, tunnels, & shafts are dug into the Earth to reach the ore.
Mining Reclamation Reclamation – the process of returning land used for mining back to its original form. Mining destroys the habitat of plants & animals. Reclamation reduces the impact of mining on the environment.
Metallic Minerals Metallic Minerals – minerals that have shiny surfaces, DO NOT let light pass through them, and are good conductors of heat & electricity. Gold, Silver, & Copper are all examples.
Nonmetallic Minerals Nonmetallic Minerals – minerals that may be shiny or dull, will let light pass through, and are good insulators of heat & electricity. Calcite, Quartz, & Silica are examples.
Gemstones Gemstones – nonmetallic minerals that are highly valuable for their beauty & rarity. Color is the most important quality of a gemstone. Examples include: diamond, ruby, sapphire, & emerald.
Exploration Drilling Exploration is an important way of meeting the U.S. demand for tons of minerals each year. A typical exploration site is no bigger than a quarter-acre.
Core Samples Core samples taken hundreds of feet underground are no more that two inches in diameter.
QUESTION #1: What part of the cookie mining activity simulated EXPLORATION?
QUESTION #1: ANSWER: Thinking about which cookie held the most chips (and nuts) and looking at the cookies before you bought them simulated EXPLORATION in this activity.
Once EXPLORATION has located a good site, the mining company must buy or lease the land. Most companies lease the mineral rights on the land, rather than buy the land.
QUESTION #2: What part of the cookie mining activity simulated LAND LEASE OR PURCHASE?
QUESTION #2: ANSWER: Paying “money” for the cookie of your choice simulated LAND LEASE OR PURCHASE.
Next, the mining company must PURCHASE EQUIPMENT for removing mineral ores from the ground.
Front-End Loader Heavy equipment like this front-end loader is disassembled, lowered into the mine and reassembled for use 1,000 feet below the surface.
Diamond Drill Heavy equipment such as a Diamond Drill is used hundreds of feet underground to explore for ore deposits.
QUESTION #3: What part of the cookie mining activity simulated EQUIPMENT PURCHASE?
OPERATING EXPENSES While the Mining Company is mining, before they sell the ores for a profit, they need to have enough money to cover expenses, such as salaries, fuel for equipment, electricity, etc.
QUESTION #4: What part of the cookie mining activity simulated OPERATING EXPENSES?
QUESTION #4: ANSWER: When you paid $1.00 per minute to mine your cookie, you were simulating OPERATING EXPENSES.
Three Types of Mining 1.Strip or Surface Mining - which dig deep, open pits into the ground 2.Underground Mining - which dig shafts underground 3.Quarries - which dig into cliffs Which one is this?
Open Pit (Strip) Mining Currently, in the United States there are more than 25,000 strip (open-pit) mining operations.
Open-Pit (Strip) Mining of lead at Joachim Creek near Herculaneum, Missouri
Strip Mining Bituminous coal is mined almost entirely by strip mining coal seams that lie close to the surface.
Lead Mining Lead mining in Missouri takes place 1,000 feet underground in an area known as the Viburnum Trend.
QUESTION #5: What part of the cookie mining activity simulated Strip Mining?
QUESTION #5: ANSWER: The students who blasted through the cookie, leaving little of the whole cookie left, were simulating Strip Mining (also called Open Pit). Cookie Blasters
QUESTION #6: What part of the cookie mining activity simulated Underground Mining?
QUESTION #6: ANSWER: The students who carefully “drilled” around each chip with their tools and didn’t destroy their cookies, simulated Underground Mining. Cookie Pickers
QUESTION #7: What part of the cookie mining activity simulated Quarry Mining?
QUESTION #7: ANSWER: The students who started on one side of the cookie and slowly “chipped” into the cookie simulated Quarry Mining. Cookie Biters
Once the mineral ores are removed from the Earth, they must be REFINED. This diagram of a COPPER SMELTER shows copper concentrate being melted and separated from other substances in the concentrate. Molten copper is poured into MOLDS. The unwanted material cools to a glass-like substance called SLAG.
Lead Pigs This Refining Plant produces 60- pound lead "pigs.”
Smelting Silver Bars Smelting can produce lead, zinc, copper, gold and silver bars.
Smelting During the smelting process, furnaces with temperatures of up to 3,000 o F are used to create LEAD BULLION.
QUESTION #8: This simulation didn’t show an example REFINING. How could we separate the chocolate from the cookie pieces that stuck to the chips?
QUESTION #8: ANSWER: If you heated up the “chip ore,” the chocolate would slide off the cookie piece and you would have pure chocolate to make into a new candy bar!
RECLAMATION It is regrettable, but unavoidable, that mining operations will bring changes to the land simply by existing. Most states have laws that require RECLAMATION - the returning of the land to the state it was in before the mining process began.
Reclamation Active MineArea after Reclamation After mining is completed, when the land is reclaimed, it's hard to tell the mining site ever existed.
Reclamation Since 1980, the mining industries in the United States have spent over $1.5 trillion toward environmental improvement. Pre-ReclamationPost-Reclamation
Finger Lakes State Park Before it was a state park, this state park was a strip mining site. The lakes are where the old strip mines were. The reclamation process turned the strip mines into lakes.
Restored Exploration Site Restored exploration sites are re-seeded following state guidelines. These sites provide a variety of fresh sprouts, seeds and greens that attract turkey, deer, and other wildlife.
QUESTION #9: What part of the cookie mining activity simulated RECLAMATION?
QUESTION #9: ANSWER: When you had to use your tools to push ALL the cookie pieces back inside the pencil line, or pay a stiff fine, you were simulating RECLAMATION!