Presentation on theme: "Unit 9: Westward Expansion"— Presentation transcript:
1Unit 9: Westward Expansion Lesson 2: The Missouri Compromise & Indian Removal
2Different regions of the country had maintained different interests & priorities since colonial timesIn the early 1800s, 3 distinct sections developed in the U.S.:The North, the South, & the West
3Geography, economics, & history all contributed to the distinct ways of life in these sections As divisions grew deeper, many people started to wonder if sectionalism would divide the countrySectionalism: rivalry based on the special interests of different areas
4How does this all connect to Westward Expansion? Movement westward led to a serious clash between sectional interests in 1819That was when the Missouri Territory asked Congress to make them a state
5So this is a problem because??? Most Missouri settlers had come from Kentucky & Tennessee, where slavery was allowedThey therefore believed that slaveryshould be legal in the new state of Missouri
6The North had 105 representatives in the House, while the South had 81 At the time, the population of the North was slightly larger than the population of the SouthThe North had 105 representatives in the House, while the South had 81Thus, the majority in the House of Reps disagreed with Missouri’s proposal that it be admitted as a slave state
7Despite greater Northern representation in the House, representation in the Senate was balanced There were 12 free states & 12 slave states, each with 2 senatorsWhichever way Missouri was admitted, this balance would swing in favor of one side or the other
8Henry Clay proposed the Missouri Compromise, the purpose of which was Bitter debates in Congress perpetuated many people’s fear that these sectional differences might split the country in 2Henry Clay proposed the Missouri Compromise, the purpose of which wasto prevent the US from splitting into 2 countriesThe Compromise passed by a very narrow margin, and only because Maine also requested to become a state
9What was the Missouri Compromise? Clay proposed that Maine enter the Union as a free stateMissouri could then enter as a slave state,and power would still be balanced in the Senate Now that’s balance!
10The Compromise also settled the question of slavery in the rest of the Louisiana Territory Slavery would not be allowed north of the 36 30’ parallel, which was a line of latitude that ran west from the southern border of Missouri
11It all sounds good! But the Missouri Compromise was only a temporary fix Why is that?Americans would continue to move west,bringing their different ways of life with themCould we really remain one united country when half of the people believed in slavery, and the other half in free or hired labor?
12Another issue that arose as a result of Westward Expansion involved the Native Americans When Andrew Jackson became President in 1828, the gov’t already had a long-standing policy ofsupporting white settlers who moved onto Native American lands
13“Why?” you askThe gov’t wanted the fertile farmlands of the Southeast
14Jackson agreed with this policy, believing very strongly that Natives should give up their lands to settlers and move west of the Mississippi River, into Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma)
15When Jackson became President, only about 120,000 Native Americans remained east of the Mississippi RiverStill, Southern cotton planters wanted those landsand pressured Native American leaders to move west
16In 1830, Jackson convinced his supporters in Congress to pass the Indian Removal Act: provided federal gov’t funds to remove Native Americans from the eastern U.S.
17More specifically, the act… authorized the President to negotiate treaties to buy tribal lands in the east in exchange for lands in the west, outside the existing U.S. bordersPresident Jackson said:Most of the Native American tribes, though they did so reluctantly,moved west in response to this 1830 Act
18One exception:The Cherokee Nation was the one group of Native Americans that was able to hold off signing the treaties until 1838In that year, they too agreed to move west
19That fall, Cherokee leader John Ross led his people on a forced march to Indian Territory Thousands died as a result of severe weather on the Great Plains
20One observer wrote:“Even aged females…were traveling with heavy burdens attached to their backs, sometimes on frozen ground with no covering on their feet.”
22By the time John Ross arrived in Indian Territory, about 1/8 of his people had died, including his wifeThe Cherokee called this journey, “The Trail Where They Cried,” which history now knows as“The Trail of Tears”
23The Trail of Tears was a controversial part of Andrew Jackson’s otherwise respected presidency Jackson is actually seen as one of our “greatest presidents”
24Why? He was the first “citizen-president” He represented the common man, & won the 1828 election by a landslideA lot of his support came from farmers in the South & people from the new Western states
25What did Jackson believe in? One strong belief of his was that the wealthy should not have too much power in gov’t(makes sense if he represented & supported the common man)He was also a major supporter of preserving the unionHuh?
26Preserving the UnionHis belief in this was made very clear through the “Nullification Crisis” ofLong story short, South Carolina didn’t like a Federal law that puthigh tariffs/taxes on goods imported from Europe
27any Federal law that went against the state’s interests South Carolina believed that a state had the right to nullify (declare void)any Federal law that went against the state’s interestsWhy would Jackson disagree with this?He said:Ultimately, he denied South Carolina their request
28What else did Jackson do? He significantly reduced the national debtHe tried to abolish the Electoral CollegeThe first attempt to do bodily harm to a president was against himWhat is believed to be the first attempt to kill a sitting president was against him