Presentation on theme: "EARTHS MATERIALS ROCKS AND MINERALS. MINERALS VS ROCKS MINERAL is a naturally occurring inorganic solid with a crystal structure and a characteristic."— Presentation transcript:
EARTHS MATERIALS ROCKS AND MINERALS
MINERALS VS ROCKS MINERAL is a naturally occurring inorganic solid with a crystal structure and a characteristic chemical composition. These are the building blocks of rocks. Granite is an example you can see the individual crystals
Properties of Minerals Crystal structure: The arrangement of the atoms. The difference in the crystal structures between these two minerals offers an idea of the diversity of crystalline forms.
Color Color: Some can be deceptive like quartz.
Streak Streak: Scrape the mineral on an unglazed porcelain plate and observe the color.
Luster Metallic/Nonmetallic Luster The luster of a mineral is the way its surface reflects light. Most terms used to describe luster are self- explanatory: metallic, earthy, waxy, greasy, vitreous (glassy), adamantine (or brilliant, as in a faceted diamond). It will be necessary, at least at first, only to distinguish between minerals with a metallic luster and those with one of the non-metallic lusters.
Density Mass / volume Please see chart on page 667
Hardness Hardness is the resistance of a mineral to scratching. Diamond is the hardest mineral with a rating of 10.
Fracture and Cleavage Fracture: how a mineral breaks Cleavage: a type of fracture where the mineral splits along regular well defined planes.
Do Data analysis pg 667 Section assessment pg. 669
Rocks and the Rock cycle Three major groups of rocks Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic This is based on how they are formed
Igneous rock This rock forms from magma This forms when molten material cools and solidifies either inside the earth or on the surface. Intrusive is under the earth, like granite Extrusive is on the surface of the earth., like basalt
Volcanic neck A volcanic neck is a cylindrical-shaped landform standing above the surface created by magma solidifying in the vent of a volcano. Erosion of the sides of the volcano exposes the neck. This is a volcanic intrusion that is exposed as the surrounding soil erodes
Sedimentary A rock that forms over time as sediment is squeezed and cemented together. Three types: Clastic Chemical Organic
Clastic Rocks Made from the broken fragments of other rocks.
Chemical Rock Minerals precipitate out of a solution Iron Ore is a chemical sedimentary rock that forms when iron and oxygen (and sometimes other substances) combine in solution and deposit as a sediment. Hematite (shown above) is the most common sedimentary iron ore mineral. The specimen shown above is about two inches (five centimeters) across.
Organic Rock Coal is an organic sedimentary rock that forms from the accumulation and preservation of plant materials, usually in a swamp environment.
Metamorphic Rock change by temperature, pressure or chemical reaction with hot water. The original rock can be any type. The results is a new type of rock. It can also have a new mineral content. A new texture
Rock lab ey/index.html#granite ey/index.html#granite To help Identify rocks you brought from home.