Presentation on theme: "The History of Ireland A very brief attempt to scrape the surface."— Presentation transcript:
The History of Ireland A very brief attempt to scrape the surface.
Why? Microcosm of western/world history Irish have a heavy influence on American culture and politics Provide a good example of late immigration -life and push and pull factors.
What we will study Who are the Irish? People and groups who make up the Irish. Religions of Ireland Irish land Emigration Nationalism and self- determination
Geography of Ireland AREA: slightly larger than West Virginia Climate: temperate maritime; mild winters, cool summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the time Terrain: mostly level to rolling interior plain surrounded by rugged hills and low mountains; sea cliffs on west coast
Land use: arable land: 13% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 68% forests and woodland: 5% other: 14% (1993 est.)
Topography Hundreds of lakes and rivers Lough (lock) Neagh biggest lake River Shannon longest river Peetbogs- 14% E and S – Rich soil, fertile, lowland N- mountains and bogs W- Rocky, poor soil, Mountains, lots of bogs
People Early settlers Stone age to bronze age Celts (Priteni, Bolgic, Lagin, and the Gaels ) Gaels or Q-Celtic people overtake the others Provide: new language, superior weapons, new construction methods, a road system and the idea of towns
Romans They came, they saw, they didn't bother! The Romans conquer Britain but not Ireland; Ireland never really modernizes as the rest of the Roman world. Thought Irish were animalistic and crazy.
Celtic people and their Kings Pastoral people (lots of cows and sheep) and fishermen Clan system 1 st High King- Tuathal becomes “Taoiseach” 1 st Capital- Meath (Tara) Kingdoms: Ulster (n) Meath (c&e) Leinster (e) Connaught (w) Munster (s)
Finn Mac Cool Real and mythical leader of Ireland Druidic hero and great warrior Finn (as a boy) cooks a rare salmon for a poet who spent ages attempting to catch the salmon of knowledge. When Finn burns his finger and sucks it he gains all knoelge of the world!
Kills fire fairies Fell in love with a deer (a woman under a spell) gets her pregnant has a boy! Fenian cycle
Religion of the Celts Druids Ultimate tree huggers Religion totally based on nature A religion of magic (good and bad) Sacrifices Druid: Poets, priests and political advisors
Christianity comes to Ireland St. Patrick Born in Britain Grandson of 16 captured and sold as slave to Irish Escapes, becomes priest and answers call to return to ireland Imposes Christianity but preaches in ways druids would understand
St. Patrick continued Dies march 17 Very successful at evangelizing!!! Other early Irish Christians: St. Brigid- est. powerful monastery St. Collum Cille founded monastery in Iona St. Brenden- the navigator Peaceful conversion – no early Irish martyrs
Ireland becomes the center of learning! Monasteries in Ireland will save Western document s during the Dark Ages Ireland becomes fiercely Catholic yet maintains some druidic traditions and myths -leprechauns, fairies, dances, music, art, and language Supported by Taoiseach Ui Neill
Foreign Invasion Vikings Invasion begins 795 AD Come after monastery wealth! Establish Viking cities- Dublin (Longphort) 930 AD Vikings intermarry and assimilate into Irish Culture.( bring shipping tech and weapons) Brian Boru- a great warrior 900’s AD -never surrendered to Vikings -becomes emperor of all Ireland(joins kingdoms together)
Normans invade from England By 1250 England and Ireland immersed in war Pope orders Irish to submit (England still Catholic) Most Normans assimilate- a partial conquest Bring English law, buildings, new kinds of Religious( Dominicans and Franciscans), and weaponry)
Statutes of Kilkenny 1366 Intermarriage with Irish Forbidden Apartheid (the Pale) Walls to Divide Irish and English
Tudor Conquest Henry VIII becomes King of Ireland Attacks the Irish Forces Protestantism (Book of Common Prayer on Clergy) Forces kings to give up Gaelic lands for English Titles
Constant Rebellions from Irish Constant conquest Constant battle between Catholic Ireland and Protestant England Catholicism made illegal and rights of Irish diminished 1641 most of Ireland owned by Irish Catholics % own the land
Ascendency Irish protestants supported by English Penal Law anti-catholic laws Similar to Jim Crow Laws or South African Laws Creates feelings of nationalism = rebel groups Orange groups vs Irish
Famine Potato blight 1 million die 2 million emigrate Why so bad? 1.Dependence 2.Disease 3.British Attitudes
People died, left, or were evicted ( no money for rent and could not own their own land) Coffin Ships- ships to carry the ones leaving Living wakes
Revolutionary Nationalism Fenians Clan na Gael Charles Parnell Patrick Pearse Gaelic Revival ICA IRA Sinn Fein