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Presentation on theme: "Cells."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cells

2 Cell Vocabulary Monomer Polymer Macromolecule Organic Compound
Activation Energy Enzymes Catalyst

3 What do all these organisms have in common
What do all these organisms have in common? Carbon based—carbon molecules are like the backbone of living things

4 Carbon Molecules Organic Molecules

5 Carbon Molecules Organic Molecules
Can be very LARGE A POLYMER is a molecule, like a carbon molecule, that consists of repeated, linked units. Large polymers are called MACROMOLECULES Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids

6 Macromolecules Carbs All Carbons, Hydrogens, Oxygen Atoms Sugars
Lipids Long chains of mostly Cs and Hs Not soluble in water Fats/oils Proteins Enzymes, amino acids Cs, Hs, Os, and Nitrogen Nucleic Acids Cs, Hs, Os, N, and Phosphorus Nucleotide DNA

7 Wool Glass rod Cotton Carbon dioxide Paper plant
Organic or Inorganic??? Organic Inorganic Wool Cotton Glass rod Paper Potted plant Carbon dioxide Wool Glass rod Cotton Carbon dioxide Paper plant Sort into 2 groups

8 What are organic foods? Brainpop…
Is the term “Organic Food” related to the biological definition of Organic compounds?

9 Organic Molecules Video Clip
Crash Course Biology: You are what you eat, about 14 min long

10 Identifying Organic Molecules Lab!
District Lab Manual—set up data tables first

11 ENERGY is the ability to do work
Energy and Matter ENERGY is the ability to do work Light, heat, electrical, chemical, mechanical Motion requires ENERGY, faster movement = more required energy = more heat Light Stick Demo p.35

12 Chemical Reactions and Energy
In a chemical reaction one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances. Energy is absorbed or released when chemical bonds are broken and new ones are formed METABOLISM is the term used to describe all the reactions within your body (at a cellular level) that produce or use energy

13 Activation Energy For most chemical reactions, energy must be ADDED to the reactants. The energy needed to start a reaction is called ACTIVATION ENERGY Certain chemical substances, CATALYSTS, reduce the amount of starting or activation energy needed for the reaction to take place In living things ENZYMES act as catalysts.

14 RNA or protein molecules that act as biological catalysts Enzyme Lab!
Enzymes RNA or protein molecules that act as biological catalysts Enzyme Lab! Sunscreen lab or Temps effect on reaction rates or concentration—district lab manual

15 1600 Cell Shape and Size Press your pen to your paper to create dot.
How many cells do you think would fit within that dot???? 1600 Cell video clip—2:30, on flash drive

16 Despite cell diversity, ALL cells have 3 basic parts: Plasma Membrane
Basic Parts of a Cell Despite cell diversity, ALL cells have 3 basic parts: Plasma Membrane Cytoplasm Control Center

17 Plasma Membrane Cell’s outer boundary
Covers a cell’s surface and acts as a barrier between the inside and outside of the cell All materials enter and exit through the plasma membrane Membrane is SEMIPERMEABLE: allows only certain materials in and out. Balloon/Perfume Demo

18 Plasma Membrane Cell Membranes Rap 3:40

19 The region of the cell that is within the plasma membrane
Cytoplasm The region of the cell that is within the plasma membrane Includes the fluid, cytoskeleton, and all organelles (except nucleus).

20 Cytoplasm

21 Control Center Cells carry coded information in the form of DNA.
In some cells DNA floats freely inside the cell In other cells the DNA is found in a membrane- bound organelle: the NUCLEUS Most functions of a cell are controlled by the nucleus.

22 Control Center

23 Basic Parts Video Clip Youtube—Nucleous and Cytoplasm Song, 3:24

24 Draw a cell and label all 3 basic parts
INTERACTIVE Draw a cell and label all 3 basic parts You do NOT need to include all the organelles

25 Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic vs Viruses
These 3 types of cells differ in complexity and general structure

26 Pro vs Euk Cell POGIL

27 Lack internal membrane-bound structures Unicellular organisms
Prokaryotic Cells Lack internal membrane-bound structures Unicellular organisms About 1/10th the size of a Eukaryotic cell. Example: bacteria Yogurt on a slide?

28 Prokaryotic Cell on a Slide!
Smear yogurt on a slide Add a drop of water Place a coverslip Draw and Describe what you see

29 Multicellular organisms Membrane bound organelles Mostly animal cells
Eukaryotic Cell Multicellular organisms Membrane bound organelles Mostly animal cells Present in all living things, except bacteria Cheek Cells on a Slide

30 Eukaryotic Cell on a Slide!
1. Put a drop of methylene blue on a slide. Caution: methylene blue will stain clothes and skin. 2. Gently scrape the inside of your cheek with the flat side of a toothpick. Scrape lightly. 3. Stir the end of the toothpick in the stain and throw the toothpick away. 4. Place a coverslip onto the slide 5. Draw and Describe what you see

31 Virus Disease causing, nonliving particles Has a plasma membrane, cell wall, protein capsule Either DNA or RNA, but only single stranded. Cannot make their own energy or reproduce Tiny compared to eukaryotic cells

32 Prokaryotic, Eukaryotic, Virus Cells

33 Cell Organelles Plasma Membrane Nucleus Mitochondria Ribosomes
Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Apparatus Cytoskeleton

34 Organelles POGIL

35 The Cell Song! Available on Youtube and Itunes
The Cell Song…3:10 science music videos

36 Plasma Membrane Made of phospholipids, hydrophilic “water-loving” head and hydrophobic, “water-fearing” tails. Phospholipids line up so the heads point toward the water and tails away from the water, forming a PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER This PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER makes the membrane selectively permeable


38 Fluid Model of a Semipermeable Membrane
Follow the steps with the teacher When complete answer the following in your notes: How is this demo like a real cell membrane? p.78

39 Plasma Membrane Rap Youtube 3:40

40 Directs cell activities Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear membrane
Nucleus Directs cell activities Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear membrane Contains genetic material - DNA

41 Openings allow material to enter and leave nucleus
Nuclear Membrane Surrounds nucleus Made of two layers Openings allow material to enter and leave nucleus

42 Contain instructions for traits & characteristics
Chromosomes In nucleus Made of DNA Contain instructions for traits & characteristics

43 Contains RNA to build proteins
Nucleolus Inside nucleus Contains RNA to build proteins


45 Mitochondria, aka “Mighty-Chondria”
This organelle processes energy for a cell. It makes ATP by breaking down glucose to Carbon dioxide. (ATP = energy) Involved in cellular respiration Controls level of water and other materials in cell Recycles and decomposes proteins, fats, and carbohydrates Mitochondria even have their own DNA!


47 Ribosomes (not an organelle - but important)
Present in the cytoplasm. Present with Rough ER. No membrane present. Each cell contains thousands Make proteins


49 Endoplasmic Reticulum
System of tubes and sacs Moves materials around in cell Smooth type: lacks ribosomes Rough type (pictured): ribosomes embedded in surface

50 Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Transports materials throughout the cell. Digests lipids. Produces proteins.

51 Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Covered with ribosomes. Produces proteins. Transports materials throughout the cell.


53 Golgi Bodies or Golgi Apparatus
Protein 'packaging plant' Move materials within the cell Move materials out of the cell


55 Lysosome Digestive 'plant' for proteins, fats, and carbohydrates
Transports undigested material to cell membrane for removal Cell breaks down if lysosome explodes



58 Mitochondria


60 Ribosomes

61 Let’s hear that Cell Song Again…

62 A quick review of cell organelles
3 Facts from the Brainpop on Cell Structures

63 Cell Memory Chart From Science Spot

64 INTERACTIVE Cell City Biology corner w/s

65 The BEST Organelle!! Competition, p.81

66 Unique Features of Plant Cells
Cell Wall Vacuoles Chloroplasts

67 Cell Wall (Plant Cell Only)
Rigid and strong wall. Protects and maintains the shape of the cell.

68 Chloroplast (Plant Cell Only)
Contains chlorophyll. Makes plants green. Uses light energy to make ATP & sugars. Photosynthesis takes place here.

69 Central Vacuole (Plant Cell Only)
Most plant cells have one large one. Filled w/ fluid. Helps maintains turgor pressure and shape of cell.

70 Cell Flap Book Coloring pages of all animal and plant, with organelles on tabs (Chey’s is example)

71 Plant, Eukaryote, or Prokaryote Cell??
Number your paper 1-10 Identify each cell as Plant or Eukaryotic or Prokaryotic


73 Prokaryotici

74 Plant

75 Eukaryote

76 eukaryote

77 plant

78 prokaryote

79 eukaryote

80 plant


82 Plant and Animal Cell Mystery!
Flinn Lab

83 More Vocabulary… Passive transport Turgor pressure Active transport
Endocytosis Diffusion Exocytosis Concentration gradient Hypotonic Hypertonic Equilibrium Isotonic Osmosis

84 and Active Transport Cell Homeostasis
Cell membranes help organisms maintain homeostasis by controlling what substances may enter or leave cells. There are two main ways of transporting materials into and out of a cell: Passive Transport and Active Transport

85 Passive Transport Passive transport occurs when substances cross the cell membrane without any energy by the cell Transport with NO Energy—riding a bike downhill Diffusion and Osmosis are the primary methods of Passive Transport

86 Diffusion Simplest form of passive transport
Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to lower concentration The difference in the concentration of molecules across a distance is called a CONCENTRATION GRADIENT Molecules will move from one area to another until it reaches EQUILIBRIUM, or a balance. Demo—dissolve sugar in water…give each group a beaker and watch it.

87 Osmosis Osmosis is the passive (no energy required) transport of water across a cell membrane Water moves from areas of high concentration to low concentration When the concentration of solute molecules outside the cell is lower than inside the cell, the solution outside the cell is HYPOTONIC to the cell. In this situation water diffuses INTO the cell until equilibrium is established. If the solution outside the cell is higher than the inside the cell the solution is HYPERTONIC and the water diffuses out of the cell to reach equilibrium When the concentrations are equal=ISOTONIC



90 Osmosis Video Clip How Osmosis Works 1”41

91 Osmosis Rap Osmosis Rap on youtube 4min

92 Potatoes and Osmosis Activity

93 Osmosis Carrot Lab! Youtube—Diffusion and Osmosis 4:18, intros the egg lab

94 Osmosis POGIL

95 Active Transport When cells need to transport materials from an area of low concentration to high concentration (the opposite of what would naturally happen) it is called ACTIVE TRANSPORT, the cell needs to use ENERGY. Wire Strainer w/ fruit and juice example

96 Endocytosis The process by which cells ingest external fluid, macromolecules, and large particles.

97 Exocytosis Process by which a substance is released from a cell

98 Endo and Exo video clip Under 2 min, youtube

99 Does Cell Size Effect Diffusion??
Text book or lab manual—students set up and carry out lab Insert youtube videos on the procedure for the lab

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