Can be very LARGE A POLYMER is a molecule, like a carbon molecule, that consists of repeated, linked units. Large polymers are called MACROMOLECULES Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids
Macromolecules Carbs All Carbons, Hydrogens, Oxygen Atoms Sugars Lipids Long chains of mostly Cs and Hs Not soluble in water Fats/oils Proteins Enzymes, amino acids Cs, Hs, Os, and Nitrogen Nucleic Acids Cs, Hs, Os, N, and Phosphorus Nucleotide DNA
Organic or Inorganic??? Wool Cotton Glass rod Paper Potted plant Carbon dioxide WoolGlass rod CottonCarbon dioxide Paper plant Organic Inorganic
What are organic foods? Brainpop… Is the term “Organic Food” related to the biological definition of Organic compounds?
Organic Molecules Video Clip
Identifying Organic Molecules Lab!
Energy and Matter ENERGY is the ability to do work Light, heat, electrical, chemical, mechanical Motion requires ENERGY, faster movement = more required energy = more heat
Chemical Reactions and Energy In a chemical reaction one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances. Energy is absorbed or released when chemical bonds are broken and new ones are formed METABOLISM is the term used to describe all the reactions within your body (at a cellular level) that produce or use energy
Activation Energy For most chemical reactions, energy must be ADDED to the reactants. The energy needed to start a reaction is called ACTIVATION ENERGY Certain chemical substances, CATALYSTS, reduce the amount of starting or activation energy needed for the reaction to take place In living things ENZYMES act as catalysts.
Enzymes RNA or protein molecules that act as biological catalysts Enzyme Lab!
Cell Shape and Size Press your pen to your paper to create dot. How many cells do you think would fit within that dot????
Basic Parts of a Cell Despite cell diversity, ALL cells have 3 basic parts: 1)Plasma Membrane 2)Cytoplasm 3)Control Center
Plasma Membrane Cell’s outer boundary Covers a cell’s surface and acts as a barrier between the inside and outside of the cell All materials enter and exit through the plasma membrane Membrane is SEMIPERMEABLE: allows only certain materials in and out. Balloon/Perfume Demo
Cytoplasm The region of the cell that is within the plasma membrane Includes the fluid, cytoskeleton, and all organelles (except nucleus).
Control Center Cells carry coded information in the form of DNA. In some cells DNA floats freely inside the cell In other cells the DNA is found in a membrane- bound organelle: the NUCLEUS Most functions of a cell are controlled by the nucleus.
Basic Parts Video Clip
INTERACTIVE Draw a cell and label all 3 basic parts You do NOT need to include all the organelles
Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic vs Viruses These 3 types of cells differ in complexity and general structure
Pro vs Euk Cell POGIL
Prokaryotic Cells Lack internal membrane-bound structures Unicellular organisms About 1/10 th the size of a Eukaryotic cell. Example: bacteria
Prokaryotic Cell on a Slide! Smear yogurt on a slide Add a drop of water Place a coverslip Draw and Describe what you see
Eukaryotic Cell Multicellular organisms Membrane bound organelles Mostly animal cells Present in all living things, except bacteria
Eukaryotic Cell on a Slide! 1. Put a drop of methylene blue on a slide. Caution: methylene blue will stain clothes and skin. 2. Gently scrape the inside of your cheek with the flat side of a toothpick. Scrape lightly. 3. Stir the end of the toothpick in the stain and throw the toothpick away. 4. Place a coverslip onto the slide 5. Draw and Describe what you see
Virus Disease causing, nonliving particles Has a plasma membrane, cell wall, protein capsule Either DNA or RNA, but only single stranded. Cannot make their own energy or reproduce Tiny compared to eukaryotic cells
Plasma Membrane Made of phospholipids, hydrophilic “water-loving” head and hydrophobic, “water-fearing” tails. Phospholipids line up so the heads point toward the water and tails away from the water, forming a PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER This PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER makes the membrane selectively permeable
Fluid Model of a Semipermeable Membrane Follow the steps with the teacher When complete answer the following in your notes: How is this demo like a real cell membrane?
Plasma Membrane Rap
Nucleus Directs cell activities Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear membrane Contains genetic material - DNA
Nuclear Membrane Surrounds nucleus Made of two layers Openings allow material to enter and leave nucleus http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
Chromosomes In nucleus Made of DNA Contain instructions for traits & characteristics http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
Nucleolus Inside nucleus Contains RNA to build proteins http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
Mitochondria, aka “Mighty-Chondria” This organelle processes energy for a cell. It makes ATP by breaking down glucose to Carbon dioxide. (ATP = energy) Involved in cellular respiration Controls level of water and other materials in cell Recycles and decomposes proteins, fats, and carbohydrates Mitochondria even have their own DNA!
Ribosomes (not an organelle - but important) Present in the cytoplasm. Present with Rough ER. No membrane present. Each cell contains thousands Make proteins
Endoplasmic Reticulum System of tubes and sacs Moves materials around in cell Smooth type: lacks ribosomes Rough type (pictured): ribosomes embedded in surface http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Transports materials throughout the cell. Digests lipids. Produces proteins.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Covered with ribosomes. Produces proteins. Transports materials throughout the cell.
Golgi Bodies or Golgi Apparatus Protein 'packaging plant' Move materials within the cell Move materials out of the cell http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
Lysosome Digestive 'plant' for proteins, fats, and carbohydrates Transports undigested material to cell membrane for removal Cell breaks down if lysosome explodes http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
Let’s hear that Cell Song Again…
A quick review of cell organelles 3 Facts from the Brainpop on Cell Structures
Cell Memory Chart
INTERACTIVE Cell City
The BEST Organelle!!
Unique Features of Plant Cells Cell WallVacuoles Chloroplasts
Cell Wall (Plant Cell Only) Rigid and strong wall. Protects and maintains the shape of the cell.
Chloroplast (Plant Cell Only) Contains chlorophyll. Makes plants green. Uses light energy to make ATP & sugars. Photosynthesis takes place here.
Central Vacuole (Plant Cell Only) Most plant cells have one large one. Filled w/ fluid. Helps maintains turgor pressure and shape of cell.
Cell Flap Book
Plant, Eukaryote, or Prokaryote Cell?? Number your paper 1-10 Identify each cell as Plant or Eukaryotic or Prokaryotic
Plant and Animal Cell Mystery!
More Vocabulary… 1.Passive transport 2.Active transport 3.Diffusion 4.Concentration gradient 5.Equilibrium 6.Osmosis 7.Turgor pressure 8.Endocytosis 9.Exocytosis 10.Hypotonic 11.Hypertonic 12.Isotonic
Cell Homeostasis Cell membranes help organisms maintain homeostasis by controlling what substances may enter or leave cells. There are two main ways of transporting materials into and out of a cell: Passive Transport and Active Transport
Passive Transport Passive transport without any energy Passive transport occurs when substances cross the cell membrane without any energy by the cell Transport with NO Energy—riding a bike downhill Diffusion and Osmosis are the primary methods of Passive Transport
Diffusion Simplest form of passive transport Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to lower concentration The difference in the concentration of molecules across a distance is called a CONCENTRATION GRADIENT Molecules will move from one area to another until it reaches EQUILIBRIUM, or a balance.
Osmosis Osmosis is the passive (no energy required) transport of water across a cell membrane Water moves from areas of high concentration to low concentration When the concentration of solute molecules outside the cell is lower than inside the cell, the solution outside the cell is HYPOTONIC to the cell. In this situation water diffuses INTO the cell until equilibrium is established. If the solution outside the cell is higher than the inside the cell the solution is HYPERTONIC and the water diffuses out of the cell to reach equilibrium When the concentrations are equal=ISOTONIC
Osmosis Video Clip
Potatoes and Osmosis Activity
Osmosis Carrot Lab!
Active Transport When cells need to transport materials from an area of low concentration to high concentration (the opposite of what would naturally happen) it is called ACTIVE TRANSPORT, the cell needs to use ENERGY.
Endocytosis The process by which cells ingest external fluid, macromolecules, and large particles.
Exocytosis Process by which a substance is released from a cell