5Carbon Molecules Organic Molecules Can be very LARGEA POLYMER is a molecule, like a carbon molecule, that consists of repeated, linked units.Large polymers are called MACROMOLECULESCarbohydratesLipidsProteinsNucleic Acids
6Macromolecules Carbs All Carbons, Hydrogens, Oxygen Atoms Sugars LipidsLong chains of mostly Cs and HsNot soluble in waterFats/oilsProteinsEnzymes, amino acidsCs, Hs, Os, and NitrogenNucleic AcidsCs, Hs, Os, N, and PhosphorusNucleotideDNA
7Wool Glass rod Cotton Carbon dioxide Paper plant Organic or Inorganic???Organic InorganicWoolCottonGlass rodPaperPotted plantCarbon dioxideWoolGlass rodCottonCarbon dioxidePaperplantSort into 2 groups
8What are organic foods? Brainpop… Is the term “Organic Food” related to the biological definition of Organic compounds?
9Organic Molecules Video Clip Crash Course Biology: You are what you eat, about 14 min long
10Identifying Organic Molecules Lab! District Lab Manual—set up data tables first
11ENERGY is the ability to do work Energy and MatterENERGY is the ability to do workLight, heat, electrical, chemical, mechanicalMotion requires ENERGY, faster movement = more required energy = more heatLight Stick Demo p.35
12Chemical Reactions and Energy In a chemical reaction one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances.Energy is absorbed or released when chemical bonds are broken and new ones are formedMETABOLISM is the term used to describe all the reactions within your body (at a cellular level) that produce or use energy
13Activation EnergyFor most chemical reactions, energy must be ADDED to the reactants.The energy needed to start a reaction is called ACTIVATION ENERGYCertain chemical substances, CATALYSTS, reduce the amount of starting or activation energy needed for the reaction to take placeIn living things ENZYMES act as catalysts.
14RNA or protein molecules that act as biological catalysts Enzyme Lab! EnzymesRNA or protein molecules that act as biological catalystsEnzyme Lab!Sunscreen lab or Temps effect on reaction rates or concentration—district lab manual
151600 Cell Shape and Size Press your pen to your paper to create dot. How many cells do you think would fit within that dot????1600Cell video clip—2:30, on flash drive
16Despite cell diversity, ALL cells have 3 basic parts: Plasma Membrane Basic Parts of a CellDespite cell diversity, ALL cells have 3 basic parts:Plasma MembraneCytoplasmControl Center
17Plasma Membrane Cell’s outer boundary Covers a cell’s surface and acts as a barrier between the inside and outside of the cellAll materials enter and exit through the plasma membraneMembrane is SEMIPERMEABLE: allows only certain materials in and out.Balloon/Perfume Demo
21Control Center Cells carry coded information in the form of DNA. In some cells DNA floats freely inside the cellIn other cells the DNA is found in a membrane- bound organelle: the NUCLEUSMost functions of a cell are controlled by the nucleus.
27Lack internal membrane-bound structures Unicellular organisms Prokaryotic CellsLack internal membrane-bound structuresUnicellular organismsAbout 1/10th the size of a Eukaryotic cell.Example: bacteriaYogurt on a slide?
28Prokaryotic Cell on a Slide! Smear yogurt on a slideAdd a drop of waterPlace a coverslipDraw and Describe what you see
29Multicellular organisms Membrane bound organelles Mostly animal cells Eukaryotic CellMulticellular organismsMembrane bound organellesMostly animal cellsPresent in all living things, except bacteriaCheek Cells on a Slide
30Eukaryotic Cell on a Slide! 1. Put a drop of methylene blue on a slide. Caution: methylene blue will stain clothes and skin. 2. Gently scrape the inside of your cheek with the flat side of a toothpick. Scrape lightly. 3. Stir the end of the toothpick in the stain and throw the toothpick away. 4. Place a coverslip onto the slide 5. Draw and Describe what you see
31VirusDisease causing, nonliving particlesHas a plasma membrane, cell wall, protein capsuleEither DNA or RNA, but only single stranded.Cannot make their own energy or reproduceTiny compared to eukaryotic cells
35The Cell Song! Available on Youtube and Itunes The Cell Song…3:10 science music videos
36Plasma MembraneMade of phospholipids, hydrophilic “water-loving” head and hydrophobic, “water-fearing” tails.Phospholipids line up so the heads point toward the water and tails away from the water, forming a PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYERThis PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER makes the membrane selectively permeable
45Mitochondria, aka “Mighty-Chondria” This organelle processes energy for a cell. It makes ATP by breaking down glucose to Carbon dioxide.(ATP = energy)Involved in cellular respirationControls level of water and other materials in cellRecycles and decomposes proteins, fats, and carbohydratesMitochondria even have their own DNA!
83More Vocabulary… Passive transport Turgor pressure Active transport EndocytosisDiffusionExocytosisConcentration gradientHypotonicHypertonicEquilibriumIsotonicOsmosis
84and Active Transport Cell Homeostasis Cell membranes help organisms maintain homeostasis by controlling what substances may enter or leave cells.There are two main ways of transporting materials into and out of a cell:Passive TransportandActive Transport
85Passive TransportPassive transport occurs when substances cross the cell membrane without any energy by the cellTransport with NO Energy—riding a bike downhillDiffusion and Osmosis are the primary methods of Passive Transport
86Diffusion Simplest form of passive transport Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to lower concentrationThe difference in the concentration of molecules across a distance is called a CONCENTRATION GRADIENTMolecules will move from one area to another until it reaches EQUILIBRIUM, or a balance.Demo—dissolve sugar in water…give each group a beaker and watch it.
87OsmosisOsmosis is the passive (no energy required) transport of water across a cell membraneWater moves from areas of high concentration to low concentrationWhen the concentration of solute molecules outside the cell is lower than inside the cell, the solution outside the cell is HYPOTONIC to the cell. In this situation water diffuses INTO the cell until equilibrium is established.If the solution outside the cell is higher than the inside the cell the solution is HYPERTONIC and the water diffuses out of the cell to reach equilibriumWhen the concentrations are equal=ISOTONIC
95Active TransportWhen cells need to transport materials from an area of low concentration to high concentration (the opposite of what would naturally happen) it is called ACTIVE TRANSPORT, the cell needs to use ENERGY.Wire Strainer w/ fruit and juice example
96EndocytosisThe process by which cells ingest external fluid, macromolecules, and large particles.
97ExocytosisProcess by which a substance is released from a cell