3 DO NOWDefine, in your own words:AtomElementProtonNeutronElectron
4 Elements and AtomsAll matter is made up of substances called elements.Only 92 naturally occurring elementsBody is composed of only a few elementsCarbonNitrogenOxygenHydrogenPhosphorousCalciumAtoms – smallest unit of an elementMade up of:Protons – + charge, nucleus of atomNeutrons – 0 charge, nucleus of atomElectrons – ( - ) charge, orbit around nucleus
5 IsotopesSame element differs in the number of neutrons in the nucleus and weight.Carbon has 2 common isotopesCarbon-13 and Carbon-14
6 Radioactive IsotopesAs isotopes break down they release energy in the form of rays and subatomic particlesCarbon-14 is a common Radioactive isotopeUnstable and breaks down over time
7 Molecules and Compounds Molecule – 2 or more of the same atoms bonded together to form a chemical unitCompound – 2 or more different atoms bonded together to form a chemical unit.Types of Bonds:Ionic – created by an electrical attractionCovalent – sharing of electrons
9 Bonds Chemical Bonds Double Bond – 2 pairs of electrons are shared Triple Bond – 3 pairs of electrons are sharedPolar Covalent – electrons spend more time with the more electronegative elementNon-polar Covalent – equally shared electrons
10 In class assignmentElements in Living Things Coloring Handout
13 Do NowHave your homework from last night out on your desk for me to check!What is the difference between ionic and covalent bonds?What elements make up the human body?
14 Organic vs Inorganic Organic Molecules – contain carbon Carbohydrates, proteins, lipidsInorganic Molecules – do not contain carbonMost important molecule is WATER
15 WaterPolarity and Hydrogen bonding gives water all of it’s unique and beneficial properties.Solvent for polar moleculesCohesive – water molecules stick togetherAdhesive – water molecules stick to other surfacesHigh Specific Heat Capacity/Heat of vaporizationVideo
16 Acids and Bases Acids – substance that separates in water Bases – takes up hydrogen ions or releases hydroxide ionspH scale – ranges from 0-14, indicates the acidity and basicity of solutionspH scaleAcids and bases
17 Acids and BasesIt’s important to maintain body fluid in a narrow pH range. (about 7.4)Acidosis – pH value drops below 7.35Occurs when kidneys and lungs can’t keep your pH balancedAlkalosis – pH value rises above 7.45Occurs when there is high levels of bicarbonate in your bloodExcessive loss of acidLow carbon dioxide levelBuffers – help to keep pH in a normal rangethey are chemicals or pairs of chemicals that take up excess hydrogen ions or hydroxide ions
18 Content CheckDepending on what you’ve eaten recently, the pH of your urine can vary from 5 to 8.Which is more acidic – urine at pH 5 of pH 8
19 Electrolytes A substance that releases ions when put into water These ions can conduct an electrical currentElectrolyte balance is important for good health because it effects the functioning of vital organs.
24 Molecules of Life ^ Dehydration Synthesis remove water, make bigger molecules< Hydrolysis – add water, break down molecules
25 Carbohydrates quick, short-term cellular energy Monosaccharide – one carbon ring. Ex: Glucose, FructoseDissaccharide – two carbon rings. Ex: sucrosePolysaccharide – three or more carbon rings. Ex: starch, cellulose
26 Do Now September 30, 2014 Hand in your homework! Take out your notes & be ready to work!
27 Carbohydrates Made up of C, H, O in a 1:2:1 ratio Glucose – used as an immediate source of energyMaltose is 2 glucose molecules, found in alcoholic beveragesSucrose – glucose & fructose together, this is table sugarLactose – glucose and galactose, this is found in milk
28 Polysaccharides Means many sugars, LONG chains of sugar molecules Starch – energy storage in plantsGlycogen – energy storage in animalsCellulose – what cell walls are made up ofWe cannot digest this, this helps to scrape the walls of our intestines
30 Lipids long-term energy storage, part of membranes Saturated Fats - have only single covalent bonds, solid at room temperature. Ex: Butter (usually of animal origin)Unsaturated Fats – have double/triple bonds, liquid at room temperature. Ex: Oils (usually of plant origin)
31 LipidsMade of a glycerol molecule and a triglyceride, or three fatty acids.Can be emulsified – mixed with water, molecules position themselves around a droplet so that their nonpolar ends stick out and the droplet disperse in waterPhospholipids – contain phosphate group, important for cell membranesSteroids – different structure than fats, back bone of 4 carbon rings, with differing side chainscholesterol is an example of a steroid
32 Proteins wide range of functions Macromolecules made up of 20 different Amino AcidsAmino acids are arranged as followsCentral carbon atomAn amino groupAn R Group
33 Structure of Proteins Composed of amino acids Primary Structure When two amino acids join, called a dipeptidePolypeptide contains 3 or more amino acidsPrimary StructureSequence of Amino acids in a polypeptideSecondary StructureCoiling or folding of the proteinTertiary StructureHydrogen, ionic, covalent bonding all occur in polypeptidesQuaternary StructureProtein that has more than 1 polypeptide, arrangement of individual polypeptidesWhen proteins are exposed to extreme heat and pH they denature, and this is irreversible
35 Content CheckThe sequence of amino acids found in a protein is that protein’s __________ structurea. primary b. secondaryc. tertiary d. quaternaryWhy is it possible for humans to digest starch but not cellulose?a. starch is made of glucose molecules but cellulose isn’tb. Starch comes from plants but cellulose doesn’tc. The glucose units found in cellulose are linked differently than those in starch
36 Enzymes Protein catalysts Enable particular metabolic reaction to occur at the body’s normal temperatureEnergy activation – energy needed to start a reactionSubstrates – reactants in an enzymatic reactionEnzymes are very specific this is caused by the shape and chemical composition of it’s active site.
41 ATP Adenosine plus 3 phosphate groups PRIMARY ENERGY CARRIER IN CELLS Cells require a constant supply continually break down glucoseSome uses:Synthesizing macromoleculesMuscle contractionConduction of nerve signals
42 In Class Assignment/Homework Macromolecules Worksheet #2