Presentation on theme: "Using the Tools that Archaeologists Use Grade 8 C.Kemnitz."— Presentation transcript:
Using the Tools that Archaeologists Use Grade 8 C.Kemnitz
Using the Tools that Archaeologist Use O Archaeologists use many different tools. O Tools can vary in size from a dental pick to a bulldozer. O For the most part, archaeologists use nothing bigger then a shovel or a small hoe. O In some rare cases when archaeologists need to dig very deep, they might use a bulldozer.
Archaeologist Use Tools in a Certain Order 1. Archaeologists might use a flat- edge shovel to scrape away the upper layers of the earth. 2. After that, they would use bricklayer's trowels or hand picks. If they reached an artifact, they'd use small brushes to clear away loose bits of dirt.
Archaeologist Use Tools in a Certain Order 3. When archaeologists work with very fragile remains, they might use dental picks. 4. Archaeologists would use sifters to go through the dirt that was dug up to make sure they didn't miss anything. 5. After that, they would use buckets, sacks, or bags to clear the dirt away from the site.
Field Site Tools O Field site equipment include digging tools, recording apparatus and safety kit. O Digging tools help in breaking the soil crust and uncovering artifacts. O Here is a list of the various tools used by archaeologists. O Mattock O Trowels O Shovels O Dust Pan O Coal Scoop O Shaker Screens O Total Station Transit O Bucket Auger O Brushes
Mattock O A digging tool similar to the pickaxe. O Used to break hard ground and make the process of digging easy. O Blade and handle of the mattock are perpendicular to each other. O The blade is broad and resembles a chisel.
Trowels O Used for digging O Marshalltown Trowel O commonly used in the USA O They have a sturdy body and flat blade which can be sharpened. O Plains Trowel O This kind of trowel facilitates working in tight/awkward corners
Shovels O Used for digging O Shovels are of two types O round-ended and flat- ended.
Brushes O Number of types of brushes range from artist’s small fine pointed brushes, to painter brushes to whisk brooms O Are commonly used by archaeologist to gently sweep soil and dirt from an artifact or feature, and to keep the unit clean of loose dirt.
Dust Pan & Coal Scoop O Both are used in collecting and carrying soil to the screeners. O Coal Scoop O Archaeologists find this tool particularly useful when they have to deal with square holes.
Shaker Screens O The soil which is excavated is sifted through shaker screens. O As dirt is excavated it is brought to a shaker screen, where it is processed through a 1/4 inch mesh screen. O Processing soil through a shaker screen recovers artifacts which may not have been noted during hand excavation.
Total Station Transit O Used to prepare a map of a particular archaeological site. O The elements/details presented in maps include: O surface topography of the site O different features of that area O positioning of the units engaged in excavation O the relative location of artifacts.
Bucket Auger O Used for testing deeply buried deposits O Useful when excavating in a floodplain O Can be extended up to the length of 7 meters.
Tools Used by Specialists O The archaeological tools mentioned below are mostly used in a laboratory environment. O Flotation Device O Nested Graduated Screens
Flotation Device O The flotation device is used to separate smaller and larger artifacts by the method of light and heavy fraction. O Soil samples which contain artifacts are kept in metal baskets and washed by gentle streams of water. O Light artifacts (for eg., seeds) float at the top, while the heavier objects sink down.
Nested Graduated Screens O Used for size-grading. O In the process of size- grading, the percentage of artifacts falling in different size-ranges are found out. O Nested graduated screens used for this purpose have small mesh openings at the bottom and larger ones at the top.
Equipment for Analysis O Simple tools like calipers and cotton gloves are needed to carry out the analysis of artifact fragments. O Gloves serve the purpose of preventing cross-contamination.
ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATION PROCESS 1. Research site location possibilities based on oral tradition, old maps, documents and other available information. 2. Walk around the site and look for clues on the surface to establish the site boundaries. 3. Map and lay out grids on site. 4. Dig to find clues to the past.
ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATION PROCESS 5. Maintain detailed records, photographs and maps of the excavation process in order to make competent interpretation and documentation or relevant materials. 6. Clean, classify and catalog artifacts. 7. Research and compare results with other sites. 8. Interpretation of data.