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Devante Booker.  We will know the factors affecting erosion and deposition that include the actions of water, ice (glaciers), wind, gravity, and igneous.

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Presentation on theme: "Devante Booker.  We will know the factors affecting erosion and deposition that include the actions of water, ice (glaciers), wind, gravity, and igneous."— Presentation transcript:

1 Devante Booker

2  We will know the factors affecting erosion and deposition that include the actions of water, ice (glaciers), wind, gravity, and igneous activity by lava.

3  Water Cycle - The circulation of the earth’s water, in which water evaporates from the sea into the atmosphere, where it condenses and falls as rain or snow.  Water Table -The surface of the water-saturated part of the ground, usually following approximately the contour of the overlying land surface.  Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment - Measures the Earths gravity fields by calculating the distance between 2 satellites as slight variations in density pull on one satellite more than the other.

4  The terrestial water cycle and the impact of climate change are critical for agricultural and natural ecosystems.  Also, the influence on water resources and on the potential for floods or drought could be crucial to agriculture.

5  Thanks to the terrestrial water storage data, high igneous activity periods in the Amazon region can be predicted months in advance on the basis of water storage data.  Study shows that analyzed satellite observations of terrestrial water storage from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission.  GRACE measures the Earth's gravity field by calculating the distance between two satellites as slight variations in density pull on one satellite more than the other.

6  Wind action is confined to areas where there is little or no soil and so it mainly operates in desert areas or at beaches. Along with rivers and ice, wind has the ability to erode, transport and deposit material.  In a very limited way, the surface is protected by vegetation or held together by damp soil.  The majority of deserts are found in the subtropical high-pressure regions 15° and 30° north and south of the equator - the Sahara would be typical of this type of desert.  Winds erode by deflation and abrasion. Deflation is the blowing away of fine dry material until the water table is reached.  The moisture of the water table binds the material together so it is generally understood that this represents the base level of wind erosion.  Wind can only move very fine material. It is therefore much more selective, unlike ice, in the type of material it can move. The speed of the wind will control both the rate of erosion and the quantity of material that can be transported.

7  Ice, that is found in glaciers can affect erosion more than what you know.  Glaciers can produce many different features as they move over Earth’s surface.  The ice in glaciers contains most of the fresh water on Earth.  Glaciers can produce many different features as they move over Earth’s surface.  As a glacier moves, it can pick up and carry the rocks in its path. Glaciers can carry rocks of many different sizes, from dust all the way up to boulders. These rocks can scrape grooves into the land below the glacier as the glacier moves.  Continental glaciers tend to flatten the land that they pass over. However, alpine glaciers can produce sharp, rugged landscapes.

8  Flowing water is a very important agent of erosion.  Flowing water can erode rocks and soil.  Water dissolves minerals from rocks and carries the ions. This process happens really slowly. But over millions of years, flowing water dissolves massive amounts of rock.  The ability to erode is affected by the velocity, or speed, of the water, and the size of the eroded particles depends on the velocity of the water as well.  What causes water to move faster? The slope of the land over which the water flows is one factor. The steeper the slope, the faster the water flows. Another factor is the amount of water that's in the stream.  Are you familiar with the water cycle? The water cycle is the circulation of the earth’s water, in which water evaporates from the sea into the atmosphere, where it condenses and falls as rain or snow.  Just like the water cycle that is continuous everyday on the earth, there is a process called the water table. The water table is the surface of the water- saturated part of the ground, usually following approximately the contour of the overlying land surface. An area's water table can fluctuate as water seeps downward from the surface.

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10  Gravity can cause erosion and deposition.  Gravity makes water and ice move. It also causes rock, soil, snow, or other material to move downhill in a process called mass movement.  Because of Gravity affecting erosion and deposition on the earth, it causes different things to occur on the land such as landslides, rock-falls, and mudflows and many more but that’s just to name a few that effect the agriculture and ecosystems in the world.

11  Water Cycle - The circulation of the earth’s water, in which water evaporates from the sea into the atmosphere, where it condenses and falls as rain or snow.  Water Table -The surface of the water-saturated part of the ground, usually following approximately the contour of the overlying land surface.  Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment - Measures the Earths gravity fields by calculating the distance between 2 satellites as slight variations in density pull on one satellite more than the other.

12  www.youtube.com/watch?v=R48zYr-S7v0 www.youtube.com/watch?v=R48zYr-S7v0

13  What does a Continental Glacier tend to do with the land as it moves?

14 Anthony Hill

15  The student will understand the different elements of surface and groundwater movement.

16  Evapotranspiration - the return of water to the atmosphere.  Discharge - the release of stored water in the ground back to the ocean or streams.  Ground water - Water within the earth especially that supplies wells and springs.  Infiltration - the process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil

17  Floods and droughts cause perhaps the most human suffering of all climate- related events; a major goal is to understand how humans alter the incidence and severity of these events by changing the terrestrial water cycle.

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19  Evapotranspiration in the water cycle is the return of water to the atmosphere.  Discharge is the release of stored water in the ground back to the ocean or streams.  Ground water in the water cycle is water within the earth especially that supplies wells and springs.  Infiltration is the process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil.

20  Groundwater flow is the movement of water that travels and seeps through soil and rock underground. Stored in cavities and geologic pores of the earth's crust, confined groundwater is under a great deal of pressure.  Groundwater flow speed depends on subsurface materials and the amount of water. From the land surface, the water moves to the water table. Hydrologists can predict and measure the flow, as well as the level and the gradient. Problems occur as the water goes through an unsaturated zone and picks up substances, some of which are toxic.

21  Evapotranspiration - the return of water to the atmosphere.  Discharge - the release of stored water in the ground back to the ocean or streams.  Ground water - Water within the earth especially that supplies wells and springs.  Infiltration - the process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil

22  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0_c0ZzZf C8c http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0_c0ZzZf C8c

23  Where is groundwater stored?

24 Meghan Piercy

25  The students will understand how the shape of Earth’s surface is constantly changing due to the effects of erosion and deposition.

26  Weathering: The process that occurs when large pieces of rock break into smaller pieces.  Sediment: Fine, loose material of rocks and minerals.  Erosion: The removal of rock and soil by wind, water, or ice.  Deposition: The laying down of sediment by a natural process of the Earth.

27  The surface of the Earth is constantly changing due to the effects of weathering.  When the particles of water inside the tiny fractures of rocks freeze and expand, it causes the entire rock to expand.  This expansion puts pressure on the walls of the joints. As a result, the rock widens. Therefore, the rock is more susceptible to the effects of weathering because it requires less work to push the rock apart.  Tinier pieces of rock called sediment are the result.

28  Once weathering has produced smaller rocks and particles, the loose material or sediment can do one of two things:  1. Fall down a slope because of gravity.  2. Be swept away by wind, water, or ice in a process called erosion.

29  Soil is a mixture of tiny rock particles, weathered minerals, and organic materials.  As rain collectively accumulates on the ground, water begins to run downhill, transporting the soil along with it.  Usually, plants protect against this erosion with their roots, which bind the soil together. However, when trees are cut down, the roots start to decompose. This provides for more erosion because there is less resistance against the powerful force of the water.

30  The surface water resulting from the accumulation of precipitation on the soil can do one of three things:  Seep into the ground in a process called infiltration.  Return to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration.  Flow along the surface as runoff.  When soil erodes downhill with the runoff, the water eventually dumps some of its load into a stream.  This is called sedimentation, which is more commonly known as deposition.

31  The deposition of sediment onto the stream bed has the opposite effect of erosion. When the route of erosion equals the route of deposition, the stream is in equilibrium. This means that the depth of the bed does not change because the material that is washed off the bed is replaced with new sediment.  However, when erosion is greater than deposition, the stream deepens its valley. The stream’s load grinds away at the rock on the stream floor. This also results as weathering.  If deposition is greater than erosion, the stream becomes too full of sediment, which slows the stream down. When the sediment accumulates, it becomes a mound of sand. If it becomes too large, the stream will be forced to go around it, sometimes splitting the stream into two streams.  Therefore, the surface of the Earth is always changing.

32  Weathering: The process that occurs when large pieces of rock break into smaller pieces.  Sediment: Fine, loose material of rocks and minerals.  Erosion: The removal of rock and soil by wind, water, or ice.  Deposition: The laying down of sediment by a natural process of the Earth.

33  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oFnpm4S UF7I http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oFnpm4S UF7I

34  What happens when too much sediment accumulates at the bottom of a stream bed?

35 Michelle Hughes

36 The students will understand how the use of energy, water, minerals, and rock resources affect Earth's subsystems.

37 ● Hydrosphere- is made of all of the water and ice that covers the planet ● Gravitational Potential Energy- causes falling rain and causes water to flow down from mountains ● Hydrological cycle- a never-ending global process of water circulation from clouds to land, to the ocean, and back to the clouds. ● Kinetic Energy- comes from meteorite impact, movement of wind and water, and ocean currents

38 ● The Biosphere includes living organisms ● The Atmosphere is a layer of gases ● The Hydrosphere is made of all of the water and ice that covers the planet ● And the Lithosphere is the tectonic plates

39 ● A few of the forms of energy that effect Earth include kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, thermal energy, chemical energy, and nuclear energy. ● Kinetic Energy comes from meteorite impact, movement of wind and water, and ocean currents

40 ● Gravitational Potential Energy causes falling rain that gains kinetic energy from its gravitational potential, and causes water to flow down from mountains ● Thermal Energy is transmitted by conduction, convection, and radiation and causes input from the sun, radioactive decay, molten rocks

41 Chemical Energy holds together atoms in molecules and is the energy of the chemical bond Nuclear Energy is released during radioactive decay

42 ● Water is necessary to sustaining life on Earth, and helps tie together the Earth's lands, oceans, and atmosphere into an integrated system. Precipitation, evaporation, freezing and melting and condensation are all part of the hydrological cycle.

43 This cycling of water is intimately linked with energy exchanges among the atmosphere, ocean, and land that determine the Earth's climate and cause much of natural climate variability. The impacts of climate change and variability on the quality of human life occur primarily through changes in the water cycle.

44 ● When mountains crumble to the sea, all of their rocks, by physical or mechanical weathering, reduce the to small particles. A very small number of minerals can resist indefinitely: zircon is one and native gold is another. Quartz resists for a very long time, which is why sand, being nearly pure quartz, is so persistent.

45 Given enough time even quartz dissolves into silicic acid. Most of the silicate minerals that compose rocks produce solid residues after chemical weathering. These silicate residues are what make up the minerals of the Earth's surface.

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47 ● Hydrosphere- is made of all of the water and ice that covers the planet ● Gravitational Potential Energy- causes falling rain that gains kinetic energy from its gravitational potential and causes water to flow down from mountains ● Hydrological cycle- a never-ending global process of water circulation from clouds to land, to the ocean, and back to the clouds. ● Kinetic Energy- comes from meteorite impact, movement of wind and water, and ocean currents

48 ● http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Fo oHD0atuc http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Fo oHD0atuc

49 What are the Earth's four subsystems?

50 ● http://www.indiana.edu/~geol105/1425chap4.htm http://www.indiana.edu/~geol105/1425chap4.htm ● http://science.nasa.gov/earth-science/oceanography/ocean-earth-system/ocean-water- cycle/ http://science.nasa.gov/earth-science/oceanography/ocean-earth-system/ocean-water- cycle/ ● http://images.search.yahoo.com/images/view;_ylt=A2KJkK0dCllRnwoAscaJzbkF;_ylu= X3oDMTBlMTQ4cGxyBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsDaW1n?back=http%3A%2F%2Fimages.search.yahoo.com%2Fsearch%2Fimages%3F_adv_prop%3Dimage%26va%3Drock%2Bcycle%26f r%3Dspigot-yhp- ch%26tab%3Dorganic%26ri%3D1&w=800&h=800&imgurl=room162a.edublogs.org%2Ffil es%2F2010%2F01%2FRock- Cycle1.jpg&rurl=http%3A%2F%2Froom162a.edublogs.org%2Ftag%2Frock- cycle%2F&size=161+KB&name=%3Cb%3ERock%3C%2Fb%3E- %3Cb%3ECycle%3C%2Fb%3E%5B1%5D&p=rock+cycle&oid=6985eae9b2b9862a11ff53978 abd996c&fr2=&fr=spigot-yhp-ch&tt=%253Cb%253ERock%253C%252Fb%253E- %253Cb%253ECycle%253C%252Fb%253E%255B1%255D&b=0&ni=21&no=1&ts=&tab=or ganic&sigr=11c9sopbp&sigb=13cctdrh2&sigi=11jabhaut&.crumb=q3u56/TOQK4&fr=spi got-yhp-ch http://images.search.yahoo.com/images/view;_ylt=A2KJkK0dCllRnwoAscaJzbkF;_ylu= X3oDMTBlMTQ4cGxyBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsDaW1n?back=http%3A%2F%2Fimages.search.yahoo.com%2Fsearch%2Fimages%3F_adv_prop%3Dimage%26va%3Drock%2Bcycle%26f r%3Dspigot-yhp- ch%26tab%3Dorganic%26ri%3D1&w=800&h=800&imgurl=room162a.edublogs.org%2Ffil es%2F2010%2F01%2FRock- Cycle1.jpg&rurl=http%3A%2F%2Froom162a.edublogs.org%2Ftag%2Frock- cycle%2F&size=161+KB&name=%3Cb%3ERock%3C%2Fb%3E- %3Cb%3ECycle%3C%2Fb%3E%5B1%5D&p=rock+cycle&oid=6985eae9b2b9862a11ff53978 abd996c&fr2=&fr=spigot-yhp-ch&tt=%253Cb%253ERock%253C%252Fb%253E- %253Cb%253ECycle%253C%252Fb%253E%255B1%255D&b=0&ni=21&no=1&ts=&tab=or ganic&sigr=11c9sopbp&sigb=13cctdrh2&sigi=11jabhaut&.crumb=q3u56/TOQK4&fr=spi got-yhp-ch ● http://geology.about.com/od/minerals/a/aa_sedminerals.htm http://geology.about.com/od/minerals/a/aa_sedminerals.htm


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