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H EALTH AND S AFETY By Eleanor Brown and Joanna Wattenberg.

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Presentation on theme: "H EALTH AND S AFETY By Eleanor Brown and Joanna Wattenberg."— Presentation transcript:

1 H EALTH AND S AFETY By Eleanor Brown and Joanna Wattenberg

2 T OP 5 S AFETY I SSUES FOR K IDS 0-2 Drowning Make sure the lid remains shut on your toilets Make sure the child is supervised the entire time while they are bathing Introduce the child to water such as parent-child swimming lessons Choking Avoid small, round, and hard foods Supervise the child while they eat Check toys for any small objects which could cause choking Suffocation Lay babies on their back to reduce the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Learn CPR Have a firm mattress in the crib

3 Falling Strap the child in a high chair or stroller Secure furniture to the floor or walls Place gates at the top and bottom of the stairs Heatstroke Don’t leave the child in the car Place a hat on the child or keep them shaded while outdoors Keep the child hydrated T OP 5 S AFETY I SSUES FOR K IDS 0-2

4 T OP 5 S AFETY I SSUES FOR K IDS 3-5 Choking Cut food into tiny pieces Place small amounts on your child’s plate Teach them to eat slow Poison Store household cleaners out of a child’s reach Post poison control’s number in your home Read product labels to know which are poisonous to children Toys Store toys in a secure container Make sure the toys have no sharp objects Avoid small objects which serve as choking hazards

5 T OP 5 S AFETY I SSUES FOR K IDS 3-5 Playground Check playground for broken equipment or rust which could serve as safety hazards Supervise your child Teach the child that pushing, shoving or crowding while on the playground can be dangerous Drowning Make sure the lid remains shut on your toilets Be comfortable to perform CPR Make sure a child is supervised around ponds and swimming pools for they could easily fall in

6 P OISON C ONTROL N UMBERS American Association of Poison Control Centers 1 (800) Maryland Poison Center

7 P OISONING P ROCEDURES First read the bottle to find if the item is poisonous. If it is call Poison Control. Poison on the Skin: Remove contaminated clothing and flood skin with water for 10 minutes. Then wash gently with soap and water and rinse. Poison in the Eye: Flood the eye with lukewarm water. Repeat this for 15 minutes. Have victim blink as much as possible while flooding the eye. Do not force the eyelid open. Inhaled Poison: Avoid breathing fumes and immediately get the victim to fresh air. Open doors and windows wide. If victim is not breathing, start artificial respiration. Swallowed Poison: Gently wipe out mouth and give a small amount of water.

8 F IRST A ID Bee Sting Scrape the affected area with a plastic card or place an onion on the area to lift up the stinger. Use an icepack to control swelling Bruises Apply an ice pack Burns 1 st Degree: Place affected area under cool water 2 nd Degree: Apply a gauze and call doctor 3 rd Degree: Call 911 and keep child calm Choking Try to dislodge the object with back blows and abdominal thrusts. Cut Apply pressure to the bleeding, then wash the cut with warm water and soap, and finally place a Band- Aid on the affected area

9 Falls Fractures Immobilize the child and call 911 Sprains Apply an icepack Knocked out tooth Place the tooth in a cup of milk or wet tissue paper. Have parent take the child and tooth to their dentist to have it put back in if able to Lice Remove the child from others. Use lice shampoo or a lice comb to remove the lice. Shock Call 911, have the child lie down, check for signs of circulation, turn the child on their back, seek treatment for injuries. F IRST A ID

10 IMMUNIZATIONS BIRTH TO AGE 9 Birth HBV: Hepatitis B vaccine; 1 month HBV: Second dose should be administered 1 to 2 months after the first dose. 2 months DTaP: Diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine Hib: Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine IPV: Inactivated poliovirus vaccine PCV: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine Rota: Rotavirus vaccine

11 4 months DTaP Hib IPV PCV Rota 6 months DTaP Hib PCV Rota: 6 months and annually Influenza 6-18 months HBV IPV IMMUNIZATIONS BIRTH TO AGE 9

12 12-15 months Hib MMR: Measles, mumps, and rubella (German measles) vaccine PCV Chickenpox (varicella) months HAV: Hepatitis A vaccine; given as two shots at least 6 months apart months DTaP 4-6 years DTaP MMR IPV Varicella IMMUNIZATIONS BIRTH TO AGE 9

13 HBV: H EPATITIS B Hepatitis B is a serious disease caused by a virus that attacks the liver. Common symptoms include: Appetite loss Fatigue Nausea and vomiting Itching all over the body Pain over the location of the liver skin and the whites of the eyes turn yellow in color Dark urine and/ or pale-colored stools Treatments Medication Liver transplant

14 DIPHTHERIA Thick covering in the back of the throat. Can lead to breathing problems, paralysis, heart failure, and death. TETANUS Painful tightening of the muscles Can lead to “locking” of the jaw so the victim cannot open his mouth or swallow. PERTUSSIS (Whooping Cough) causes coughing spells so bad that it is hard for infants to eat, drink, or breathe. Can lead to pneumonia, seizures, brain damage, and death DT A P: D IPTHERIA, T ETANUS, AND A CELLULAR P ERTUSSIS

15 H IB : H AEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B VACCINE Hib is a bacterial illness that can lead to a deadly brain infection in young children. Symptoms Arthritis Ear infections Meningitis Treatment Antibiotics, such as cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, or ampicillin with chloramphenicol

16 Polio is an infectious disease caused by a virus that lives in the throat and intestinal tract. Symptoms Fever Sore throat Headache Vomiting Fatigue Back pain or stiffness. Neck pain or stiffness. Pain or stiffness in the arms or legs Treatment Rest Painkillers Antibiotics Physical therapy and/or corrective braces IPV: I NACTIVATED P OLIOVIRUS V ACCINE

17 Pneumococcal disease is the main cause of bacterial meningitis (an infection of the covering of the brain) in the United States. Symptoms Fussiness Sleepiness Loss of appetite Fever Treatments Antibiotics Rest PCV: P NEUMOCOCCAL C ONJUGATE V ACCINE

18 R OTA : R OTAVIRUS VACCINE Rotavirus is a contagious viral infection is a leading cause of stomach flu in infants and toddlers, and the most common cause of severe diarrhea in little kids. Symptoms Fever Vomiting Diarrhea Treatments Keep hydrated Give acetaminophen or ibuprofen

19 I NFLUENZA Influenza is a highly contagious flu that can occur in children or adults of any age. It’s spread from person to person by coughing, sneezing, or touching surfaces. Symptoms Fever Headache and muscle aches Fatigue Cough Sore throat Treatment Rest until the flu is fully resolved, especially if the illness has been severe. Fluids Tylenol

20 Measles Fever, cough, runny nose, pinkeye, and rash that starts on the face and spreads to the rest of the body. Can lead to pneumonia or inflammation of the brain Mumps Swelling in glands just below the ears, meningitis, and deafness Rubella Mild rash on the face, swelling of glands behind the ears, and low-grade fever. Treatment Antibiotics MMR: M EASLES, M UMPS, R UBELLA

21 Chickenpox is a viral illness characterized by a very itchy red rash. Symptoms Very itchy rash over entire body Red bumps Fluid-filled blisters (vesicles) Treatment Prescription antiviral drug aciclovir Painkillers C HICKENPOX (V ARICELLA )

22 HAV: H EPATITIS A V ACCINE Hepatitis A is a viral liver disease that can cause mild to severe illness. Symptoms Jaundice Abdominal pain Loss of appetite Nausea Fever Diarrhea Fatigue No Treatments

23 F IRE E VACUATION P ROCEDURES Alert staff that there is a fire Keep the children calm Have the children hold onto the teachers hands Grab the attendance sheet and emergency backpack Evacuate the building quickly and calmly Gather in designated meeting place outside Take attendance Report any missing children or staff to the head teacher and fire department Call 911 If caught in smoke, have everyone drop to hands and knees and crawl to exit. Pull clothing over nose and mouth to use as a filter for breathing. If clothes catch fire, STOP, DROP, & ROLL until fire is out. Do not re-enter building until cleared by fire department.

24 RESOURCE WEBSITES AND NUMBERS FOR RELEVANT AGENCIES American Association of Poison Control Centers 1 (800) Child Protective Services of Maryland (410) Emergency Personnel 911 Frederick Memorial Hospital (240) Maryland Poison Center


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