Presentation on theme: "First Aid for Poison, bites, and Burns"— Presentation transcript:
1First Aid for Poison, bites, and Burns CFirst Aid for Poison, bites, and Burns
2Pesticides – chemical used to kill plants and animals Poisoning – causes illness/death when in body May be swallowed, inhaled, absorbed in skinPesticides – chemical used to kill plants and animalsFertilizer – chemical added to soil to enrich itPlants – poison ivy, oak, sumac, holly, daffodils“Leaves of 3, let it be”
3Poison IvyThe rash is spread by the oils (urushiol) touching the body. It is not spread by the fluid of the blisters, thus it is not contagious unless the resin remains on the skin and is touched by another person.The oily resin usually enters the skin rapidly, and is seldom transferred person to person. The resin may persist for long periods on contaminated clothing, pets, tools, etc., and sensitive individuals can easily develop the rash from delayed contact with contaminated items.This is a true allergy. Most people will have no reaction the first time they are exposed. In fact, children under the age of 7 are rarely sensitive. Sensitivity is particularly rare under the age of one, and when infants do break out, the rash is usually mild.
5Poisonous Plants Symptoms: Redness and extreme itching are the first signs.Rash erupts on areas exposed to the resin, and it is often in the pattern of streaks or patches consistent with where the plant touched the skin.Rash is in the form of red bumps (papules) and may also form large, weeping blisters.Worst stage of the rash is experienced days after exposure.Rash may last for weeks.Symptoms usually appear within 2 days of exposure, but rarely may appear as late as 2 weeks later. Reactions can vary from mild in some individuals to very severe in highly sensitive individuals. Hospitalization is sometimes required.
6First Aid1. Wash thoroughly with water only as soon as possible. 2. Apply rubbing (isopropyl) alcohol to the affected area. Rubbing alcohol helps remove the plant oils and prevents spreading. Soap is less effective. It should be washed off completely within 30 minutes to prevent a reaction. 3. Scrub under the fingernails with a brush to prevent spreading of the resin to other parts of the body by touching or scratching. 4. Wash the clothing and shoes of the exposed person with soap and hot water. Resin can linger on these surfaces for days. 5. Body heat and sweating can aggravate itching. Keep the victim cool. 6. Calamine lotion and topical hydrocortisone cream may be applied to the skin to help decrease itching and blistering. 7. Antihistamines, such as Benadryl help relieve itching and can be mildly sedating. Bathing in tepid water with one cup of Aveeno oatmeal per tub may also soothe itchy skin. Aluminum acetate (Domeboro solution) soaks can also be helpful to dry the rash and reduce itch. 8. In cases of severe or extensive rash, especially around the face or genitals, your physician may prescribe oral or injected steroids. 9. DO NOT burn poison ivy, oak, or sumac to get rid of it. The resins can be spread via smoke, and can cause severe exposures to individuals far downwind.
7Carbon Monoxide Most common poisonous gas: - colorless, odorless, tasteless- present when fuel is burned- symptoms: headache, dizziness, sleepiness,fatigue, nausea, vomiting, trouble breathing- need carbon monoxide detector
9First Aid for Poisoning call poison control centersave evidenceIpecac syrup to induce vomitingActivated charcoal to coat the stomach
10C 136 Mosquito Bites Mosquitoes spread many diseases: - West Nile – transmitted by mosquitoes; flu-like symptoms to severe brain swelling. Mosquitoes pick up the virus by biting infected birds.-Encephalitis- Malaria- Yellow FeverAvoid dusk & dawnUse repellants with DEETWear long sleeve shirts/pantsDrain standing water to control mosquitoes
11A single little brown bat can catch 1,200 mosquito-sized insects in an hour. Big brown bats consume costly crop pests including cucumber beetles, June beetles, leafhoppers, cutworm moths and corn earworm moths.” In addition, bats are crucial to the pollination of economically valuable plants.
12Bee Stings Don’t pull stinger, scrape Wash and apply ice Baking soda or meat tenderizer pasteMedicine for itchCall Dr. if allergic or epi pin
14Snake Bite SymptomsDizziness, sweating, fainting, fever, swelling, treat for shockFirst Aid:Call 911Keep calm and stillKeep bite wound below the level of heartRemove rings, check breathingIf bite on arms or leg, can apply constricting band above wound to slow venom from spreading
15Spider BitesPoisonous spiders: - Black widow: might not feel immediately but later severe pain and stiffness, chills, fever, nausea, abdominal pain
16Brown Recluse SpiderBites cause intense pain within 8 hours, and the site of the bite becomes an ulcer.First Aid:Call 911Apply ice or coldIf on arm or leg, apply tight bandageabove the bite to keep venom fromspreading.To prevent:Watch around woodpiles/storage areasShake out clothes or shoes that have been on floor
17Camel SpiderA wind spider, a sun spider or a wind scorpion, there're so many names for one creature widely known among the public as a camel spider. The reason for such a definition is just because they are found in desert regions, but it isn't actually a spider or a scorpion, it is a solifugae (the name derives from Latin, and means those that flee from the sun.) They live in various places all over the world, mainly in warm and arid.They have eight legs and use only three pairs of them. But it doesn't make any difficulties for them to develop a speed about 10 meters per hour; this is the maximum speed up to which they can move. A camel spider can be 5-6 inches in length. They are nocturnal creatures, so they hunt at night and look for the shade during the day.The camel spider stories began to spread during the Gulf War. Now, with the continued presence of U.S. forces in theMiddle East, the stories are becoming legendary... Many of the stories on the internet are completely untrue. These creatures are (usually) not dangerous to humans. But, dangerous or not, these creatures are horrifying to encounter. I pity anyone who encounters one for the first time.
18Marine Animal Stings Can burn, swell, and bleed; also flu-like symptoms, fever, etc. Stingrays, sea urchin, spiny fish:RemoveWash with salt waterSoak in hot water for 30 minutesDon’t move the injured partMay need tetanus shot
19Marine Animals Get out of water Jellyfish, Sea Anemones, Portuguese Man-of-WarGet out of waterSoak with vinegar; if not available use rubbing alcohol or baking soda, meat tenderizerDon’t rub wound, it spreads the poison
20Tick Bites Attach themselves to warm-blooded things and feed off their blood; can spread diseases Lyme disease: Bacterial disease that can produce a red rash at the site of a tick bite, swollen joints, and flu-like symptoms. If diagnosed early, can treat with antibiotics. If not, can have problems with joints, heart, and nervous system. May not appear until months or years after bite.Dog TickDeer Tick
22Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Serious illness also spread by ticks. Produces sudden fever, headache, muscle pain, and spotted rash.Without prompt treatment, can result in death.Occurs throughout the western part of the United States.To Prevent: 1. Wear long sleeved shirt and long pants2. Tuck pant legs in socks3. Check skin for ticks often
23BurnsFirst degree: affects outer layer of skin; Red, Painful, swollen; turns white if you press it Soak in cool water, can cover with gauze. Over-the-counter pain medicine to reduce pain and swelling ex. Solarcaine, aloe lotion, burn cream
24Second Degree BurnsAffects top two layers of skin. Skin is red, painful, swollen, and blistered.- Soak in cool water for 15 minutes, or apply cool compresses.- Can apply aloe vera, lotion, and cover with gauze. Don’t break blisters.- Don’t apply ice, grease, shortening, or butter.
25Third Degree BurnsAffects all layers of skin and some deeper tissues. May appear white or charred black or brown. If nerves are damaged, might not feel pain. Remove from source of heat but don’t remove burnt clothes. Cover burn with moist bandage or clean cloth.
27Electrical Burns Caused by electricity flowing through the body-commonly caused by power lines. Can affect heart rhythms and cause cardiac arrest.Call 911Don’t touch person until you know the source of electricity is turned off. If can’t turn off use a piece of wood or plastic to move it.Check ABC’sCover burn with gauze
28Chemical Burns Caused by chemicals on the skin Remove cause of the burn. Flush skin with cool, running water for 20 minutes.Remove clothing that has chemical on it.Wrap burned area with gauze dressing.
29Quiz Substance that causes illness/death when it enters body. Illness transmitted by mosquitoes through infected birds.Chemical in insect repellant that repels mosquitoes.Name two poisonous spiders.A disease caused by ticks where you get a red rash around the bite and might not show up immediately.The degree burn where you get blisters.Burn caused by electricity flowing through body.