Presentation on theme: "FIRST AID FOR POISON, BITES, AND BURNS C 135 6-10."— Presentation transcript:
FIRST AID FOR POISON, BITES, AND BURNS C 135 6-10
Poisoning – causes illness/death when in body May be swallowed, inhaled, absorbed in skin Pesticides – chemical used to kill plants and animals Fertilizer – chemical added to soil to enrich it Plants – poison ivy, oak, sumac, holly, daffodils “Leaves of 3, let it be”
Poison Ivy The rash is spread by the oils (urushiol) touching the body. It is not spread by the fluid of the blisters, thus it is not contagious unless the resin remains on the skin and is touched by another person. The oily resin usually enters the skin rapidly, and is seldom transferred person to person. The resin may persist for long periods on contaminated clothing, pets, tools, etc., and sensitive individuals can easily develop the rash from delayed contact with contaminated items. This is a true allergy. Most people will have no reaction the first time they are exposed. In fact, children under the age of 7 are rarely sensitive. Sensitivity is particularly rare under the age of one, and when infants do break out, the rash is usually mild.
Poisonous Plants Symptoms: Redness and extreme itching are the first signs. Rash erupts on areas exposed to the resin, and it is often in the pattern of streaks or patches consistent with where the plant touched the skin. Rash is in the form of red bumps (papules) and may also form large, weeping blisters. Worst stage of the rash is experienced 4 - 7 days after exposure. Rash may last for 1 - 3 weeks. Symptoms usually appear within 2 days of exposure, but rarely may appear as late as 2 weeks later. Reactions can vary from mild in some individuals to very severe in highly sensitive individuals. Hospitalization is sometimes required.
First Aid 1. Wash thoroughly with water only as soon as possible. 2. Apply rubbing (isopropyl) alcohol to the affected area. Rubbing alcohol helps remove the plant oils and prevents spreading. Soap is less effective. It should be washed off completely within 30 minutes to prevent a reaction. 3. Scrub under the fingernails with a brush to prevent spreading of the resin to other parts of the body by touching or scratching. 4. Wash the clothing and shoes of the exposed person with soap and hot water. Resin can linger on these surfaces for days. 5. Body heat and sweating can aggravate itching. Keep the victim cool. 6. Calamine lotion and topical hydrocortisone cream may be applied to the skin to help decrease itching and blistering. 7. Antihistamines, such as Benadryl help relieve itching and can be mildly sedating. Bathing in tepid water with one cup of Aveeno oatmeal per tub may also soothe itchy skin. Aluminum acetate (Domeboro solution) soaks can also be helpful to dry the rash and reduce itch. 8. In cases of severe or extensive rash, especially around the face or genitals, your physician may prescribe oral or injected steroids. 9. DO NOT burn poison ivy, oak, or sumac to get rid of it. The resins can be spread via smoke, and can cause severe exposures to individuals far downwind.
Carbon Monoxide Most common poisonous gas: - colorless, odorless, tasteless - present when fuel is burned - symptoms: headache, dizziness, sleepiness, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, trouble breathing - need carbon monoxide detector
First Aid for Poisoning For poisoning – call poison control center save evidence Ipecac syrup to induce vomiting Activated charcoal to coat the stomach
C 136 Mosquito Bites Mosquitoes spread many diseases: - West Nile – transmitted by mosquitoes; flu-like symptoms to severe brain swelling. Mosquitoes pick up the virus by biting infected birds. -Encephalitis - Malaria - Yellow Fever Avoid dusk & dawn Use repellants with DEET Wear long sleeve shirts/pants Drain standing water to control mosquitoes
A single little brown bat can catch 1,200 mosquito-sized insects in an hour. Big brown bats consume costly crop pests including cucumber beetles, June beetles, leafhoppers, cutworm moths and corn earworm moths.” In addition, bats are crucial to the pollination of economically valuable plants.
Bee Stings Don’t pull stinger, scrape Wash and apply ice Baking soda or meat tenderizer paste Medicine for itch Call Dr. if allergic or epi pin
Snake Bite Symptoms Dizziness, sweating, fainting, fever, swelling, treat for shock First Aid: - Call 911 - Keep calm and still - Keep bite wound below the level of heart - Remove rings, check breathing - If bite on arms or leg, can apply constricting band above wound to slow venom from spreading
Spider Bites Poisonous spiders: - Black widow: might not feel immediately but later severe pain and stiffness, chills, fever, nausea, abdominal pain
Brown Recluse Spider Bites cause intense pain within 8 hours, and the site of the bite becomes an ulcer. First Aid: 1. Call 911 2. Apply ice or cold 3. If on arm or leg, apply tight bandage above the bite to keep venom from spreading. To prevent: 1. Watch around woodpiles/storage areas 2. Shake out clothes or shoes that have been on floor
Camel Spider Middle East, the stories are becoming legendary... Many of the stories on the internet are completely untrue. These creatures are (usually) not dangerous to humans. But, dangerous or not, these creatures are horrifying to encounter. I pity anyone who encounters one for the first time. The camel spider stories began to spread during the 1990-91 Gulf War. Now, with the continued presence of U.S. forces in thecamel spider A wind spider, a sun spider or a wind scorpion, there're so many names for one creature widely known among the public as a camel spider. The reason for such a definition is just because they are found in desert regions, but it isn't actually a spider or a scorpion, it is a solifugae (the name derives from Latin, and means those that flee from the sun.) They live in various places all over the world, mainly in warm and arid. They have eight legs and use only three pairs of them. But it doesn't make any difficulties for them to develop a speed about 10 meters per hour; this is the maximum speed up to which they can move. A camel spider can be 5-6 inches in length. They are nocturnal creatures, so they hunt at night and look for the shade during the day.
Marine Animal Stings Can burn, swell, and bleed; also flu-like symptoms, fever, etc. Stingrays, sea urchin, spiny fish: 1. Remove 2. Wash with salt water 3. Soak in hot water for 30 minutes 4. Don’t move the injured part 5. May need tetanus shot
Marine Animals Jellyfish, Sea Anemones, Portuguese Man-of-War 1. Get out of water 2. Soak with vinegar; if not available use rubbing alcohol or baking soda, meat tenderizer 3. Don’t rub wound, it spreads the poison
Tick Bites Attach themselves to warm-blooded things and feed off their blood; can spread diseases Lyme disease: Bacterial disease that can produce a red rash at the site of a tick bite, swollen joints, and flu-like symptoms. If diagnosed early, can treat with antibiotics. If not, can have problems with joints, heart, and nervous system. May not appear until months or years after bite. Dog Tick Deer Tick
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Serious illness also spread by ticks. Produces sudden fever, headache, muscle pain, and spotted rash. Without prompt treatment, can result in death. Occurs throughout the western part of the United States. To Prevent: 1. Wear long sleeved shirt and long pants 2. Tuck pant legs in socks 3. Check skin for ticks often
Burns First degree: affects outer layer of skin; Red, Painful, swollen; turns white if you press it Soak in cool water, can cover with gauze. Over-the-counter pain medicine to reduce pain and swelling ex. Solarcaine, aloe lotion, burn cream
Second Degree Burns Affects top two layers of skin. Skin is red, painful, swollen, and blistered. - Soak in cool water for 15 minutes, or apply cool compresses. - Can apply aloe vera, lotion, and cover with gauze. Don’t break blisters. - Don’t apply ice, grease, shortening, or butter.
Third Degree Burns Affects all layers of skin and some deeper tissues. May appear white or charred black or brown. If nerves are damaged, might not feel pain. Remove from source of heat but don’t remove burnt clothes. Cover burn with moist bandage or clean cloth.
Electrical Burns Caused by electricity flowing through the body-commonly caused by power lines. Can affect heart rhythms and cause cardiac arrest. 1. Call 911 2. Don’t touch person until you know the source of electricity is turned off. If can’t turn off use a piece of wood or plastic to move it. 3. Check ABC’s 4. Cover burn with gauze
Chemical Burns Caused by chemicals on the skin 1. Remove cause of the burn. Flush skin with cool, running water for 20 minutes. 2. Remove clothing that has chemical on it. 3. Wrap burned area with gauze dressing.
Quiz 1. Substance that causes illness/death when it enters body. 2. Illness transmitted by mosquitoes through infected birds. 3. Chemical in insect repellant that repels mosquitoes. 4. Name two poisonous spiders. 5. A disease caused by ticks where you get a red rash around the bite and might not show up immediately. 6. The degree burn where you get blisters. 7. Burn caused by electricity flowing through body.