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TEXAS INDEPENDENCE Chapter 9, Section 2. The Spanish Settle Texas  Original inhabitants of Texas were Native Americans  First Europeans to visit Texas.

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Presentation on theme: "TEXAS INDEPENDENCE Chapter 9, Section 2. The Spanish Settle Texas  Original inhabitants of Texas were Native Americans  First Europeans to visit Texas."— Presentation transcript:

1 TEXAS INDEPENDENCE Chapter 9, Section 2

2 The Spanish Settle Texas  Original inhabitants of Texas were Native Americans  First Europeans to visit Texas were the Spanish  Spanish attempted to settle Texas by building missions (small settlements designed to convert Native Americans to Catholicism and to make them loyal Spanish subjects)

3 The Mission System  Between 1600s and 1700s Spanish built over two dozen missions  The missions failed and the towns never flourished  Most Native Americans rejected mission life because they did not want to give up their culture or religion  They also didn’t want to die because Spanish carried diseases that killed many Native Americans

4 The Mission System Ends  Spanish started missions to convert Native Americans and to counter the threat of French settlement in Texas  When France loses the French and Indian War, they gave up most of their land anyway so there was no need for the Spanish to feel threatened by the French

5 Americans Move into Texas  1820 – Moses Austin (American banker) proposes colony in Texas called Texan Venture  Spanish agree, but Austin dies  His son, Stephen F. Austin, carries out his plan  Finds land that would be perfect for farming and ranching  He has no trouble finding American settlers

6 Austin’s Colony  1823 – Austin’s colony was officially established  Town called San Felipe de Austin – administrative, social, and commercial center of the colony  Population was about 1,800 people in 1824

7 Mexican Independence  Mexico is no longer a part of New Spain  Mexico becomes and independent colony in 1821

8 The Empresarios  New Mexican government wants Texas settled  Land grants to settlers in return for being loyal Mexican citizens  Government assigns large amount of land to empresarios who are responsible for recruiting settlers  Native Americans, Americans, and Tejanos (Texans of Mexico) now live in Texas

9 Americans in Texas  American settlers had to meet certain conditions to live in Texas  Surrender American citizenship  Swear allegiance to Mexico  Adopt Roman Catholic religion  Hold the land for seven years

10 Americans in Texas  Many settlers did not follow these boundaries  They continued to bring slaves even after Mexico outlawed slavery  They thought of themselves as Americans, not Mexicans  Loyalty and economic activities remained connected to the US

11 Tensions in Texas  The government of Mexico grew concerned about the loyalties of American settlers  Mexican officials took steps to decrease American influence in Texas  Passed laws designed to halt American immigration  Placed a high tariff on American imports  Banned importation of slaves into Texas  Government sent officials in to enforce the new laws – Americans were infuriated

12 International Tensions  Tensions between the US and Mexico were heightened  Mexicans feared that The US would attempt to seize Texas from Mexico  1827 the US offered to buy a large part of Texas for $1 million  Mexican officials refused, but their fears were confirmed

13 The Texas Revolution Begins  1832 – Anahuac  Armed Texans confronted a Mexican official they felt had wrongly imprisoned two settlers  Protest started by Texans against the government of Mexico  Turned bloody at the town of Velasco  Mexicans surrendered  1832-1833 – Texans held conventions to discuss best course of action  Some believed it would be best if Texas became a separate Mexican state  Austin went to Mexico City to present plan – they took it as a threat for revolt  Austin was jailed

14 The Texas Revolution Begins

15  Mexico had a new president – Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna  Leader of those who wanted a strong central government  Mexican states revolted because they felt their liberties were being threatened

16 The Texas Revolution Begins  Violence erupted at Gonzales – Mexican forces attempted to retrieve a cannon they lent to Texans  Texans attacked the Mexican force and it retreated  Battle of Gonzales – October 2, 1835 – was the first battle of the Texas Revolution  Texas founded a government and gave Sam Houston the task of raising an army

17 From the Alamo to Independence  Texan forces captured the town of San Antonio, which contained a fort called the Alamo  Its capture infuriated Santa Anna  He led an army into Texas to punish the rebels and put down the unrest there

18 From the Alamo to Independence  February 23, 1836 – Santa Anna and 6,000 soldiers reached San Antonio  Tejanos and other Texans took refuge in the Alamo  Santa Anna demanded their surrender  The rebel leader William Travis, responded with a cannon shot

19 From the Alamo to Independence  Mexicans pounded the Alamo with cannon fire for 12 days and nights  March 6, about 1,800 Mexican soldiers stormed the Alamo killing almost all of the forts 200 defenders  March 2, 1836 – Texas Declaration of Independence and Constitution  They were unwilling to be ruled by Mexico any longer

20 Goliad and the Runaway Scrape  Captured Tejanos were held in the presidio at Goliad  Santa Anna ordered 340 of the prisoners to be executed  Houston retreated with his army because he knew he could not defeat Santa Anna

21 Texans Victorious  After Houston’s army retreated, they led a surprise attack at San Jacinto and captured Santa Anna  He was forced to sign the Treaties of Velasco, ending the war  Mexico withdrew troops and recognized Texas’ independence  Texas became a separate nation called the Republic of Texas

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