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Coral Reef Recreation Code of Conduct: Fiji ESRM 458: Management of Endangered, Threatened, and Sensitive Species Winter 2015 - Marzluff & Miller Kristina.

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Presentation on theme: "Coral Reef Recreation Code of Conduct: Fiji ESRM 458: Management of Endangered, Threatened, and Sensitive Species Winter 2015 - Marzluff & Miller Kristina."— Presentation transcript:

1 Coral Reef Recreation Code of Conduct: Fiji ESRM 458: Management of Endangered, Threatened, and Sensitive Species Winter 2015 - Marzluff & Miller Kristina Beverlin - Kayla Boyes - Melinda Gonzales - Samantha Herman - Breanne Ward - Berit Wick -

2 OVERVIEW 1.Introduction 2.Problem - Coral Endangerment 3.Client 4.Recommendations 5.Code of Conduct 6.References Coral-Scuba-Diving-Fiji-Waidroka.jpg?itok=CW0hPRKy

3 INTRODUCTION Coral Hard Corals Calcium carbonate skeletons Grow in colonies Form Reefs Soft Corals Body walls made of calcareous particles Do not grow in colonies Do not form reefs

4 INTRODUCTION Fijian Coral Reefs -354 species of coral -NOAA lists 8 species as threatened -High coral reef tourism -Opportunity to establish proper interaction between human and nature using artifact

5 CLIENT Elevate Destinations Naomi Garner - Donor Program Program Associate Mission Statement: “Elevate Destinations is unique among small group adventure travel operators. We go beyond sustainable tourism to what we call transformative travel. Every trip benefits local communities and conservation. We help you connect with people and projects that matter. 5% of the net costs of your trip go to non-profit partners in the destinations you visit. We'll even help you volunteer where it will make a difference to people and wildlife. We offer flexible departure dates, and custom itineraries for groups, honeymoons, and family adventures.”

6 HANS Model Human: -Brokers -Locals -Tourists Nature: -Coral Reefs Artifacts: -Boats -Diving Equipment -Code of Conduct Miller et al., 2014

7 PROBLEM Coral Reef Threats Environmental: -Coral bleaching -Ocean acidification -Disease -Predator plagues Anthropogenic: -Pollution -Overfishing -Dynamite fishing -Take -Poor tourism practices

8 PROBLEM Poor Tourism Practices Poor Tourist Practices: -Direct contact with corals -Accidental contact - fin scuffing/cutting -Spreading of disease -Sediment disturbance Poor Broker Practices: -Anchor damage -Poor tourist education -Development along shoreline -Stress from repeated exposure to tourists

9 PROBLEM Devaluation of Ecosystem Benefits Coral reefs generate an annual $30 billion in net benefits Tourism: $9.6 annual net benefit -Tourism value can be threatened by reef degradation Reef Fishing: $5.7 billion annual net benefit -Millions depends on nutrition and income provided by fishing -Rising population and overfishing threaten to devalue this reef function Coastal Protection: $9 billion annual net benefit -Degradation risks the loss of the natural sea wall function of buffering waves, flooding and erosion /09/sciencepress-092711-001b.jpg

10 LIFESTYLE VALUES Lifestyle values are a type of tacit value that is closely related to ‘sense of place’ and ‘attachment to place’ (Davenport & Anderson 2005; Anthony et al. 2009), which respectively refer to the way in which people assign meanings to places and derive meaning in their lives from places. Some place meanings translate into strong emotional bonds that influence attitudes and behaviours within places (Davenport & Anderson 2005). Who’s Lifestyle Values Influence Ecotourism? -Ecotourism enterprise owners -Ecotourism staff members -Ecotourism community

11 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE DIVERS -Level of educational briefing required before a dive -Number of divers in a site at one time -Amount of expected marine wildlife -Diver supervision -Cost of the dive -Size of dive area

12 RECOMMENDATIONS Responsible Tourism Tourism can be a sustainable alternative to consumptive uses of coral reefs. -Recreational Tourism -Volunteer Tourism -Donor Tourism iji-teen-dive-program/ 2011/03/MLG_171_screen-hi-res.jpg

13 PRODUCT: CODE OF CONDUCT Biggest Tourism Issues: -Physical and Environmental Damage -Ecosystem Alteration/Degradation -Pollution/Littering -Wildlife Disturbance/Stress -Aesthetic and Cultural Loss -Economic Monopolies

14 Code of Conduct - Fiji Guidelines for Responsible Coral Reef Recreation 1. Look but Don’t Touch! Coral are actually living animals, and are very sensitive. Touching, kicking, or standing on reefs can physically damage coral or make them more susceptible to disease or infection. Plus, some coral fight back! Be mindful that certain coral that can scrape, cut, or sting you. 2. Take Only Memories Please refrain from removing any items from the reef as souvenirs and be informed about purchasing souvenirs for sale. Instead, take a photo to remember your trip by! 3. Leave Only Bubbles Whether on land or at sea, please recycle or dispose responsibly of any trash or litter. Garbage is harmful to reef fish and to the coral themselves. 4. Take it Slow Slow, controlled movements in the water help prevent accidental contact with the coral. Slowing down also prevents cramps and fatigue, and allows you to see things you might have missed otherwise. Rabbany et al., 2013; Hall et al., 2015; Lamb et al., 2014

15 Code of Conduct - Fiji Guidelines for Responsible Coral Reef Recreation 5. Fish May Bite Please don’t feed the fish or any other wildlife as they could be harmful to you. Feeding the fish also upsets the natural balance of the coral reef food chain. 6. Anchor Appropriately Like standing on the reefs, anchoring on a reef can damage the coral. Anchor in a sandy area instead. 7. Stay Alert! Always be aware of your surroundings. Avoid shallow or narrow areas while in the water. And be sure to report any irresponsible behavior, illegal activity, invasive species, or injured wildlife. 8. Support for Reefs out of Water When not enjoying the reef, make sure to visit a local business in the area, donate to a conservation program, or spread the word about coral reef conservation to ensure Fiji’s coral reefs will endure for generations to come! Rabbany et al., 2013; Hall et al., 2015; Lamb et al., 2014

16 REFERENCES Central Intelligence Agency. (2015). The World Factbook: Fiji. Cesar, H. Burke, L. and Pet-Soede, L. "The Economics of Worldwide Coral Reef Degradation." Cesar Environmental Economics Consulting. 2003. PDF. International Union for Conservation of Nature. (2014). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Lovell, E. R., & McLardy, C. (2008). Annotated Checklist of the CITES-listed Corals of Fiji with Reference to Vanuatu, Tonga, Samoa and American Samoa (No. 415). Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Miller, M. L., & Auyong, J. (1991). Coastal Zone Tourism: A Potent Force Affecting Environment and Society. Marine Policy, 15(2), 75–99. doi:10.1016/0308-597X(91)90008-Y Miller, M. L., Carter, R. (Bill), Walsh, S. J., & Peake, S. (2014). A Conceptual Framework for Studying Global Change, Tourism, and the Sustainability of Iconic National Parks. The George Wright Forum, 31(3). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2015, January 21). Endangered and Threatened Marine Species under NMFS’ Jurisdiction. Selig, E. R., Frazier, M., O׳Leary, J. K., Jupiter, S. D., Halpern, B. S., Longo, C., … Ranelletti, M. (2015). Measuring indicators of ocean health for an island nation: The ocean health index for Fiji. Ecosystem Services. doi:10.1016/j.ecoser.2014.11.007

17 Teh, L.S.L. Teh, L.C.L. Starkhouse, B. Kuridrani, N. Sumaila, U.R. Sadovy de Mitcheson, Y. and Zeller, D. "Preliminary assessment of the socio-economic importance of export trade in coral reef resources on Fijian society." 11th Intenational Coral Reef Symposium. Ft. Lauderdale, FL. 2008. PDF. Wilkinson, C. (2008). Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 2008. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network. "Anthropogenic Threats to Corals." National Ocean Service Education. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Web. 17 Feb. 2015.. Bryant, D., L. Burke, J. McManus, and M. Spalding. 1998. Reefs at Risk: A Map-based Indicator of Threats to the World’s Coral Reefs. World Resources Institute. 56 pp. Burke, L., K. Reytar, M. Spalding, and A. Perry. 2011. Reefs at Risk Revisited. Washington, D.C., World Resources Institute (WRI), The Nature Conservancy, WorldFish Center, International Coral Reef Action Network, UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre and Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, 114p. Coles, S. 1996. Corals of Oman: Natural and man-related disturbances to Oman’s corals and coral reefs. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum’s Web site at "Endangered Species Act | Section 3." Endangered Species. Web. 17 Feb. 2015.. Lamb, Joleah B., James D. True, Srisakul Piromvaragorn, and Bette L. Willis. "Scuba Diving Damage and Intensity of Tourist Activities Increases Coral Disease Prevalence." Biological Conservation 178 (2014): 88-96. Print.

18 "Overfishing and Destructive Fishing Threats." Reef Resilience. Web. 17 Feb. 2015. . Tissot, B.N., B.A. Best, E.H. Borneman, A.L. Rhyne et al. 2010. "How U.S. Ocean Policy and Market Power Can Reform the Coral Reef." Marine Policy 34 (36): 1385-1388 "Threats to Coral Reefs – Human Impacts." MES Fiji. Web. 17 Feb. 2015.. University of the Virgin Islands (UVI). 2001. Threats to Coral Reefs. UVI Web site. Zakai, David, and Nanette E Chadwick-Furman. "Impacts of Intensive Recreational Diving on Reef Corals at Eilat, Northern Red Sea." Biological Conservation 105.2 (2002): 179-87. Print.


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