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题型分析. 主旨题例题 TPO17.2.06 What is the lecture mainly about? A. Differences between modern and ancient calendars B. The importance of astronomy in Egyptian.

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Presentation on theme: "题型分析. 主旨题例题 TPO17.2.06 What is the lecture mainly about? A. Differences between modern and ancient calendars B. The importance of astronomy in Egyptian."— Presentation transcript:

1 题型分析

2 主旨题例题 TPO17.2.06 What is the lecture mainly about? A. Differences between modern and ancient calendars B. The importance of astronomy in Egyptian religion C. The timekeeping systems of ancient Egypt D. How to use agriculture as a method of timekeeping Professor: Ok, so one of the challenges that faced ancient civilizations like Egypt was timekeeping, calendars. When you have to grow food for whole cities of people, it is important to plant your crops at the right time. And when you start having financial obligations, rents, taxes, you have to keep track of how often you pay. So today we will look at how the Egyptians adressed these problems.

3 主旨题主要解题方法 开门见山, 直述主题 1. 时间 : 点出主题在今天 / 本次课讲到 2. 时态 : 将来时为主 Today I want to talk about … The topic for today is … We’re gonna take a look at … Let’s look at … 书接上文引出主题 Last time, we talked about …, Last week, we covered …, We’ve been discussing …, let’s continue …. Let’s look at …. Lets move on to …. but today/now 1. 由于会提到 2 个主题, 要分辨清哪个是今天的主题 2. 前后两课内容一定有联系. 两课的主题可能是一对矛盾 的观点, 也可能是相互补充的内容, 值得留意

4 细节题例题 TPO8.2.15 What characteristic of element 43 might explain why the scientific community doubted the findings of Ida Tacke’s team? A. Element 43 has a very fast rate of decay B. Element 43 always contains small amount of other elements C. Element 43 cannot be created artificially D. Element 43’s radioactivity makes it easy to isolate and measure Stu: It decays it turns into other elements. Oh, so does that explain why was missing in periodic table? Pro: Exactly, because of radioactive decay, element 43 doesn’t last very long. And therefore, if that ever had been present on earth, it would decay ages ago. So the Masurium people were obviously wrong, and the Technetium people were right.

5 细节题主要解题方法 描述具体事物种类, 特征, 方式等 表要素 : element, factor, consideration, component, part, issue, etc. 表特点 : feature, characteristic, distinction, difference, etc. 表观点 : point, perspective, viewpoint, opinion, etc. 表选择 : selection, option, choice, etc. 表方法 : means, method, way, etc. 表种类 : type, kind, category, etc. 出现用来列举说明的词 序数词 : first, second, third, etc. 一方面, 另一方面 : one, the other/ another; for one thing, for another on one hand, on the other hand “ 另外, 其它 ”: after that, plus, additionally, besides, apart from, then, etc.

6 细节题主要解题方法 出现表问题意思的词 根据 problem, question, trouble, etc. 可得到的信息 : 2. 出现在老师话语中 : iii. 指出前面观点 / 方法的缺陷 & 弊端, 反衬说话人观点的正确性, 或指出此问题尚未有合适的解决方案, 留待后人继续研究 1. 出现在学生话语中 : 因为有疑问, 所以提问题, 可做下文的引子, 注意教授是如何有理有据详实解释的 ; i. 在讲明一个要点后, 问题起到推波助澜的作用, 是进一步分析问题 / 提出新要点的重要信号 ii. 有些时候问题即材料的主题. 下文会沿着 “ 出现 / 发现问题 ” “ 给出 可行性方案 ”,“ 权衡方案利弊 ”,“ 解决问题 ” 的思路展开

7 细节题主要解题方法 ii. 经过其它事物做比较 ( 横向 ), 发现偏向性, 并可据此得出结论 i. 看到事物的显著特征 ii. 可在句中起强调作用, 再结合说话人的语气可推断出态度 出现比较级 / 最高级 1. 根据比较级 : i. 看到事物变化趋势 ( 纵向 ), 发现某些因素对事物发展的可能影响 2. 根据最高级 :

8 功能题例题 TPO13.2.17 Why does the professor say this ? and if you are trying to find metal. A. To offer a hint about the answer to a question he asked B. To clarify a question that a student asked C. To find out whether students understand question he asked D. To find out whether students understand an important comparison he made

9 功能题例题 Professor: But even so, it's rare to ever find one. I mean, it's easier to find an iron meteorite or stony iron. Anyone guess why? Look at their names. What do you think iron meteorites consist of? Student: Mostly iron? Professor: Yeah… iron and some nickel, both of which are metals. And, if you're trying to find metal? Student: Oh! Metal detectors! Professor: Right, thank you.

10 功能题例题 Professor: Anyone guess why? Look at their names. What do you think iron meteorites consist of? Student: Mostly iron? Professor: Yeah… iron and some nickel, both of which are metals. And, if you're trying to find metal? Student: Oh! Metal detectors! 基本问题 : 问为什么 给出第一个提示 : 根据物质名称猜其构成 在学生了解物质构成后给出第一二个提 示 : 根据物质构成看其特点

11 考察问句 i. 希望通过问题获得解答 功能题主要解题方法 ii. 起引导作用, 帮助对方自主找到答案 iii. 表示有不同意见 / 质疑 iv. 重申对方的观点, 确认自己接收的信息无误 v. 自问自答, 提出新问题或说出学生心中的疑 虑, 引发学生思考, 起承上启下作用 功能题多为重听题. 在重听过程中要注意把握上下文的意思, 作 者语气, 语音语调等. 听到句子后, 判断句子的大致特征, 比如是问句, 是陈述句, 还是起解释说明作用的句子

12 功能题主要解题方法 出现解释说明 / 论点和例证 有时前后会出现多个论点和例子, 因此要注意例子和解释 / 论点内容间的对应关系 考察陈述句 i. 对论点进行解释说明, 要理清论点和例子间 的对应关系 ii. 注意强调句, 祈使句等特殊句式, 可先根据 句式特点判断意图 iii. 注意明显的语音语调变化

13 态度题例题 TPO3.2.08 What is the professor’s opinion about the art at the Chauvet cave? A. It is extremely well done B. It probably reflected artists’ religious beliefs C. It is less sophisticated than the art at Lascaux and Altamira D. It is probably not much older than the are at Lascaux and Altamira I think you will agree with me that this art is anything but primitive. They are masterpieces.

14 态度题主要解题方法 表强调 - 祈使句 What is the professor's point when she talks about a soup shop? A. It is difficult to understand how some customers react to advertising B. It is important to ensure the quality of a product before advertising it C. A poorly chosen advertising message can have negative consequences D. Some businesses remain unsuccessful even when they focus on the four M's Whatever the message is, make sure you get it right.

15 态度题主要解题方法 表强调 - 表强调 (eg: 强调句型 /never,etc.) What does the professor say about future researchers? A. They may not agree that humans have had an important effect on Earth’s surface B. They will not have reliable evidence of what is happening today C. They will determine when the Anthropocene epoch began D. They will make predictions about when the Anthropocene epoch will end Geologists in the far future will be able to examine the sediment being laid down today, whereas right now we can say that yes, human impact on the Earth is clear: It'll be future researchers who have a better perspective and will be able to really draw a line between the Holocene and the Anthropocene epics.

16 态度题主要解题方法 表强调 - 同义词转换 When researchers look really carefully at the DNA in Chromosomes though, they were amazed, we all were, to find that only a fraction of it, maybe 20-30%, converts into meaningful genetic information. It’s incredible; at least it was to me. The professor discusses research about the percentage of a chromosome’s DNA that contains genetic information. How did she feel about this research? A. She doubted its accuracy. B. She was surprised by its conclusion. C. She was concerned about its implications. D. She thought it was unnecessary.

17 态度题主要解题方法 I’m sure I’ll figure it out. What is the man’s attitude toward his current assignment? A. He is not confident that he will find the materials he needs. B. He feels that performing in a play is less boring than reading one. C. He thinks his review of the play will be more objective than the contemporary reviews were. D. He is optimistic that he will learn to appreciate the play he is researching. 表态度 - 表达观点 & 态度 (eg: I think/in my opinion, etc.)

18 态度题主要解题方法 Professor: Um…I wouldn’t think that would be enough. Did you concentrate mainly on form or content? Student: Oh, definitely content. We’d watch, say Lord of the Flies, and then discuss it. Professor: Oh, that approach, treating film as literature, ignoring what makes it unique. Student: I liked it, though. Professor: Sure, but that kind of class. Well, I’m not surprised that you are feeling a little lost. What is the man’s attitude toward his current assignment? A. He is not confident that he will find the materials he needs. B. He feels that performing in a play is less boring than reading one. C. He thinks his review of the play will be more objective than the contemporary reviews were. D. He is optimistic that he will learn to appreciate the play he is researching. 表态度 - 说话语气

19 态度题主要解题方法 表态度 - 建议 Student: Are there signs up anywhere? Clerk: I don't know. Student: Maybe they should put some up. It could have save us both some time. How does the man react to the information the woman gives him about where computer science books are sold? A. He is embarrassed that he did not think of it himself. B. He suggests that the information be posted in the store C. He apologizes for bothering the woman. D. He is annoyed that the woman did not tell him sooner

20 观点组织题例题 TPO6.1.09 Why does the professor mention a merchant who ate tulip bulbs? A. to explain how the Turks introduce the flower to European visitors B. to explain what happened to tulip bulbs that did not produce desirable colors C. to give an example of one way that the rich in the Netherlands showed off their wealth D. to illustrate her point that Europeans were unfamiliar with the flower For the Europeans, tulips were totally unheard of. Er…a great novelty. The first bulb to show up in the Netherlands, the merchant who received them roasted and ate them. He thought they were kind of onion.

21 观点组织题主要解题方法 题型 1: Why does the professor mention … ? Egyptian life basically revolved around the mysterious rise and fall of the river. The success of their agriculture system depended upon them knowing when the river would change. So, naturally, their first calendar was divided up into three seasons, each based on the river's changes: inundation, subsidence and harvest. Why does the professor mention the names of the seasons in ancient Egypt? A. To explain the importance of religion B. To emphasize the significance of the Nile River C. To indicate when different types of crops were harvested D. To describe early discoveries in astronomy

22 观点组织题主要解题方法 题型 2: 表格题 ( 判断 / 排序 ) Put the events in the order that they happened A. Inexpensive eyeglasses became available B. The first eyeglasses were made C. The number of people interested in reading increased D. The printing press was invented So we’re pretty sure that glasses were invented about the late 1200’s, well, over a hundred years before the printing press. So glasses were a steady symbol in some parts of the world. Now let’s go back to the invention of the painting press in 1440. What happened? Suddenly, books became widely available and more people wanted to read. So the need, oh well, actually not only the need but the demand for more affordable glasses rose drastically. Eventually, inexpensive glasses were produced, and then glasses were available to everyone.

23 推理推断题型例举 TPO15.2.08 What does the professor imply when he explains the washing and scraping methods that were used to remove ink from a parchment surface? A. Washing made parchment more able to retain newly applied ink than scraping did. B. Washing was less effective than scraping as a means of permanently erasing ink. C. The scraping method was used in the creation of the Archimedes palimpsest. D. Neither method completely erased the original text well, we know about two methods that were used for removing ink from parchment. In the late Middle Ages, it was customary to scrape away the surface of the parchment with an abrasive, which completely wiped out any writing that was there. But earlier in the Middle Ages, the original ink was usually removed by washing the used parchment with milk. That removed the ink. But with the passing of time, the original writing might reappear.

24 推理推断题主要解题方法 对比 / 差异 / 不同 (eg: but/different/rather than, etc.) What does the professor imply about the obligatory scene and the denouncement? A. The difference between them might be unclear to some people B. Both are useful techniques for developing realistic characters C. The denouncement usually occurs within the obligatory scene D. The obligatory scene is usually less exciting than the denouncement Remember, the obligatory scene gives the audience emotional pleasure. But the denouement offers the audience a logical conclusion. That’s the subtle distinction we need to try very hard to keep in mind.

25 推理推断题主要解题方法 进一步解释 (eg: I mean, you know, actually, etc.) What does the professor imply when he says this I find Frantzen to be a very accessible artist. I mean, some artists, to appreciate them, you have to know their life story. But here’s a little bit about Rose Frantzen’s life anyway. A. The students can understand Frantzen's art without knowing about her life B. The students should pay very close attention to what he is going to say C. Some of his students are already familiar with Frantzen's life story D. Some of his students may not appreciate Frantzen's work


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