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Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. C HAPTER 5: B READ B AKING AND Q UICK B READ M AKING T OOLS AND T ECHNIQUES
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. L EARNING O BJECTIVES Explain the steps for direct fermentation. Identify the different methods for indirect fermentation. Discuss the steps for making a basic yeast dough. Explain the methods for mixing bread dough. Discuss the basic shaping methods for breads. Explain the finishing techniques used for bread. Identify the specialty tools used for bread baking. Explain the mixing method used for quick breads. Identify the specialty tools used for making quick breads.
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. B READS Process – Occurs as yeast eats the sugars present in bread dough – Carbon dioxide is then released, which causes the dough to expand. Carbon dioxide acts to leaven a dough or batter as the gas is trapped in the web of protein (gluten) strands. The fermentation process is important in building the internal structure and flavor of the dough. Fermentation: Key Points
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. B READS The simplest and fastest method for producing a lean dough. The first fermentation period, bulk fermentation, develops the flavor of bread. – It is especially important for the direct fermentation method. After bulk fermentation and the dividing and preshaping of the dough, it is allowed to ferment again. – This period has various names: bench rest, table rest, or secondary or immediate fermentation. After shaping, the dough undergoes one final fermentation. Fermentation: Direct Fermentation
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. B READS Some portion of the dough is allowed to ferment on its own before being mixed with the remainder of the formula’s ingredients. The time requirement for each type of preferment is slightly different. The different types of preferments include pâte fermentée, sponge, poolish, biga, and sourdough starter. – A sourdough starter takes longer to develop than other preferments. Fermentation: Indirect fermentation
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. B READS 1: Pick-up Period: Ingredients are blended on low speed until just combined. 2: The development period: The dough begins to pull away from the sides of the mixing bowl. 3: Bulk fermentation period: The flavor of the bread is developed. 4. The dough rests at room temp. until it has doubled in size. 5. Fold the dough over during or after bulk fermentation. Basic Yeast Dough Steps
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. M IXING B READ D OUGH 1: Pick-up Period: Ingredients are blended on low speed, until just combined. 2: Cleanup Period/Preliminary Development: The dough is mixing at a moderate speed and will appear somewhat rough. 3: Initial Development Period: Elasticity of the gluten begins to develop; the dough starts to pull away from sides of the mixing bowl. 4: Final Development Period: At this point the gluten is fully developed. Stages
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. M IXING B READ D OUGH Used with formulas that rely on direct fermentation. The ingredients are added in a different order depending on the type of yeast used. After all the ingredients are in the mixing bowl, they should be blended together on low speed until just combined. Then the mixer is turned to medium speed and the dough blended to full development. The Straight Method
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. M IXING B READ D OUGH Autolyse means that the flour and water, yeast and preferment are briefly combined, just enough for a rough mixture to form, and then the mixture is left to rest for 10 to 30 minutes. – This allows the flour to absorb enough water for gluten development to begin. – The gluten relaxes, since mixing is not agitating it. One advantage of autolyse mixing is that mixing times are shortened, and shorter mixing times produce gluten that has greater extensibility. Autolyse Method
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. M IXING B READ D OUGH The term enriching indicates that ingredients containing fat or sugar are added to the dough. – The additional fat acts to shorten the gluten strands and increase the elasticity of the gluten in a dough. – Additional sugars promote quick fermentation and browning of the crust during baking. In fiber-enriched doughs, whole wheat flour and flour made from grains contribute distinctive tastes and textures, as well as nutrition, to breads. Enriched Dough
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. M IXING B READ D OUGH The desired dough temperature is the ideal average temperature of a dough while you are working with it. Dough temperature is important because it directly affects fermentation. – For lean doughs: 75° to 80°F/24° to 27°C. – For enriched doughs it is slightly higher. Desired Dough Temperature
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. M IXING B READ D OUGH The temperature of a directly fermented dough immediately after mixing is influenced by three factors: – The temperature of the ingredients when added – The ambient (room) temperature – The friction created by the mixer during mixing Desired Dough Temperature (cont’d)
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. M IXING B READ D OUGH Reasons – Redistributes the available food supply for the yeast – Equalizes the temperature of the dough – Expels the built-up fermentation gas (carbon dioxide) and ethyl alcohol – Further develops the gluten in the dough May be done during bulk fermentation, bench rest, or final fermentation. Doughs that have a typical hydration of around 67 percent or less should be treated gently during the folding process. Folding
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. M IXING B READ D OUGH Scaling – Guarantees the correct weight of the dough pieces when dividing. – Should be done quickly, so as not to over-age the dough. Preshaping – Done after scaling – The object is to get a smooth, tight skin that will help to trap the gases that develop during fermentation. – Always lay the shaped pieces on the bench in the order they are shaped, in regular rows, so that you can start with the first piece when giving the dough the final shaping. Scaling and Preshaping
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. M IXING B READ D OUGH The intermediate fermentation (or resting stage): Allows the dough to relax and recover from being divided and preshaped before the final shaping. Intermediate fermentation: Allows the gluten to relax, so the dough will become somewhat slack and easier to manipulate into its final shape. – It also allows the yeast cells to recover, rebuilding carbon dioxide and therefore the internal structure of the dough. It is important to keep the loaves covered. Resting or Intermediate Fermentation
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. M IXING B READ D OUGH After the secondary fermentation, the dough is given its final shape. Two of the most basic and common shaping techniques are the boule and the bâtard. Brush the dough with egg wash or water, if using, after it is shaped so that the dough can be evenly coated without affecting it after its final rise. Any simple garnishes such as seeds or coarse salt can be applied once the surface is brushed with egg wash or water; the wash will hold them in place. Final Shaping
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. M IXING B READ D OUGH After shaping, the dough undergoes one more fermentation either on a worktable or sheet pans, or in bread baskets or molds. During this final rise, it is again important to ensure that a skin does not form on the surface of the dough. A temperature and humidity controlled proof box can provide the necessary relative humidity of approximately 80 percent, so the surface of the dough does not dry out. Final Fermentation (Proofing)
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. B READ F INISHING T ECHNIQUES Scoring allows: – Full expansion, as well as controlling the final expansion, so the loaf does not become misshapen. – The bread to release steam and continue to expand until the structure is set. Baking an unscored bread results in an unevenly shaped loaf. The structure forms too early to permit full expansion and, consequently, the full development of the internal structure of the loaf. Scoring
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. B READ F INISHING T ECHNIQUES Water – Often brushed or sprayed on shaped breads before baking to ensure a crisp crust and to promote the gelatinization of the starch on the surface of the bread. Egg wash – Creates a glossy, shiny crust and seals in the moisture of the bread. Milk or cream – Used as a wash for breads baked at lower temperatures. – Because the lactose in milk (or cream) caramelizes at 170°F/77°C, it gives breads a darker crust than water. Types of Washes
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. T OOLS FOR B READ B AKING Some breads require special equipment for shaping, fermenting, and baking. – Lame – Oven peels – Bench knife – Couche – Dough-rising baskets Key Points
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. Q UICK B READS Served as simple desserts or as breakfast pastries. A short mixing time is an important factor because, unlike yeast- raised breads, gluten development is undesirable in quick breads. Most quick breads are prepared using the blending method. – The blending method consists of making two mixtures, one with the wet ingredients and one with the dry, then combining the two together. Key Points
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. Q UICK B READS Sift the flour with the other dry ingredients. Combine the wet ingredients. Add all the wet ingredients to the dry ingredients all at once and blend, using a mixer or by hand, just until the dry ingredients are evenly moistened. Mixing these batters as briefly as possible ensures a light, delicate texture. Scrape the bowl down once or twice to mix the batter evenly. The Blending Method
Copyright ©2014 The Culinary Institute of America. All rights reserved. T OOLS FOR M AKING Q UICK B READS Quick breads preparation does not require any specialty tools; however, quick bread batter must be baked in a pan. – Loaf pans (or tins): Oblong or rectangular pans used to bake pound cakes, other loaf cakes, and quick breads, as well as loaves of yeast-raised bread. Available in a wide range of sizes from large to mini. A pullman loaf pan has a sliding cover and is used to prepare perfectly square finely grained slicing loaves. Key Points
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