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Mr. Pace. At the completion of this unit students will be able to  List signs of healthy and sick animals  Categorize disease by their cause  Identify.

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Presentation on theme: "Mr. Pace. At the completion of this unit students will be able to  List signs of healthy and sick animals  Categorize disease by their cause  Identify."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mr. Pace

2 At the completion of this unit students will be able to  List signs of healthy and sick animals  Categorize disease by their cause  Identify common diseases and medical treatments for small animals  Identify common diseases and medical treatments for large animals  List preventative measures that should be taken to prevent the spread of disease at home and in the vet clinic  Identify animal parasites, their transmission, and treatment  Recite the recommended vaccine schedules for animals  Administer intramuscular and subcutaneous injections  Prepare a client education pamphlet for a new pet owner

3 What do you mean, “He’s as healthy as a horse?”

4  Disease Anything LESS than complete health Disturbance of normal functions of the body

5  Clinical Signs: (observable) Bright Eyes Socializing with other animals and people as usual Shiny Coat Healthy Weight Normal body functions (Urination, defecation, etc.)

6  Clinical Signs: (observable) Weight Loss Reduced Performance Vomiting Diarrhea Dull eyes/dropped ears Dull coat

7  Physiological Organs/glands don’t function properly  Diabetes  Pancreas doesn’t produce insulin to regulate blood sugar  Hyper/Hypothyroidism  Thyroid doesn’t produce thyroxin to regulate metabolism

8  Nutritional Caused by inadequate nutrition  Rickets  Caused by insufficient iron, causes bones to weaken

9  Morphological Physical Defect  Caused by accident or negligence  Cuts and Bruises  Scrapes  Scratches  Broken Bones

10  Pathogenic Virus, Bacteria, Protozoa, Fungus Most diseases in this category are contagious

11  Parasitic Caused by parasites (internal or external)

12  Genetic Disease Inherited trait Passed from one generation to another Could be caused by genetic mutation

13  Bordatella (Kennel Cough) Causes: Virus Transmission: Airborne (similar to a cold in humans) Symptoms: Coughing Treatment: Antibiotics help with symptoms, but doesn’t kill the virus

14  Parvovirus Cause: Virus affecting mostly puppies Transmission: Contact, especially with body secretions of a sick puppy. Virus can live for years. Symptoms: Vomiting, bloody diarrhea Treatment: Antibiotics, IV Fluids to prevent dehydration. Many puppies die

15  Rabies Causes: Virus Transmission: Through the salvia of an infected animal. (Salivary glands receive high concentrations of the virus) Symptoms: Foaming at mouth, aggression, and disorientation Treatment: None, Fatal

16  Feline Leukemia (FeLV) Causes: Virus Transmission: Sharing food/water bowls, bite wounds, mutual grooming. (Virus is shed in high quantities through saliva) Symptoms: enlarged lymph nodes, poor coat, fever, progressive overall decline of health due to low immunity Treatment: None, fatal

17  Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) Causes: Virus Transmission: Inhaling or ingesting the virus (food/water bowls, contact, bite wounds, etc) Symptoms: Fluid filled abdomen Treatment: None, Fatal

18  Feline Infectious Peritonitis

19  Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) Causes: Virus Transmission: Bite Wounds Symptoms: Immune deficiency and overall sickliness Treatment: none, fatal *Known as the “AIDS” of cats

20  Marek’s Disease Causes: Virus Transmission: Direct, indirect contact between birds, airborn Symptoms: weight loss, leg or wing paralyses and death Treatment: No Treatment

21  Wet Tail (diarrhea) Causes: Virus (intestinal) Transmission: Direct contact (food bowls, cages, feces, etc) Symptoms: Loss appetite, diarrhea, dehydration Treatment: Antibiotics

22  Shell Rot (Turtles) Cause: Fungal or Bacterial infection in shell Transmission: Cuts, scrapes, or cracks in shell, discharge or foul shell Symptoms: Pitting, soft spots, fluid under shell, discharge or foul smell Treatment: Swab infected area w/ diluted Providone-iodine solution, scrape away infected portions of shell w/ a blunt tool, swab again, treat w/ antibiotics

23  Shell Rot

24  Whirling Disease Cause: Micro Parasite Transmission: Parasite Symptoms: Effects nerves and cartilage damage, chasing after their tail Treatment: No Treatment *Prevention; don’t transfer fish from one body of water to another

25  Pasteurella (Snuffles) Cause: Bacteria Transmission: Direct or indirect contact Symptoms: Sneezing and Eye Discharge Treatment: None

26  Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) “Swamp Fever” Cause: Virus Transmission: Through blood, saliva, milk, and body secretions Symptoms: High Fever, weakness, anemia Treatment: no treatments, or widely used vaccines * “Coggins Test” is required for horses to cross state lines

27  Tetanus Cause: Bacteria Transmission: Contact with bacteria; most commonly through a wound Symptoms: 1 st : Colic and Stiffness 2 nd : Spastic activity in large muscles Treatment: Antibiotics and flushing of wound site

28  West Nile Virus Cause: Virus Transmission: Vector Symptoms: fever, weakness, aimless wandering, paralysis of hind legs Treatment: No direct treatment for WNV treat clinical signs; 40% Mortality

29  Strangles (Equine Distemper) Cause: Bacteria Transmission: Contact Symptoms: fever, nasal discharge, swollen lymph nodes Treatment: Antibiotics

30  Mad Cow Disease Cause: Prion Transmission: A contaminated feed Symptoms: delirious, lethargy, confusion Treatment: No known treatment

31  Coccidiosis Cause: Parasite Transmission: Contact Symptoms: diarrhea, bloody stool, dehydration, weakness Treatment: anticoccidial drugs

32  Mastisis Cause: Bacterial Infection Transmission: Contact Symptoms: Inflammation of the udder Treatment: Antibiotics

33  Pink Eye Cause: Bacteria Transmission: An eye irritation; contact Symptoms: red eyelids, frequent blinking, inflammation Treatment: An eye injection

34  Coronavirus Cause: Virus Transmission: Contact Symptoms: diarrhea, dehydration and nasal discharge Treatment: treat clinical signs

35  Pneumonia Cause: viral and bacterial Transmission: contact Symptoms: fever, nasal and eye discharge, stiff gait, soft coughing Treatment: treat clinical signs, antibiotics

36  Blue Tongue (Sore Muzzle) Cause: Virus Transmission: ?? Mosquitos?? Symptoms: weakens sheep resistance to other diseases, Secondary infections such as pneumonia, lose appetite, sluggish, fever Treatment: No treatments, prevented by vaccinations

37  At home or on the farm…… 1. Cleanliness and Sanitation 2. Isolate new animals 3. Provide adequate nutrition and shelter 4. Be wise and educated in your breeding programs

38  Sanitation Solutions/Equipment to use at HOME Lyme Hot Soap and Water Bleach, Lysol

39  At the Vet Clinic Isolate/quarantine very sick animals Sanitize instruments and exam tables Educate owners of contagious animals about how to prevent/minimize spread of disease

40  Sanitation Equipment and Solutions to use at the vet clinic Nolvasan Iodine Autoclave Cold Pack

41  Parasite Any organism that lives on/in another organism Causes the host harm Parasites will die without a host

42  Internal Parasites Live INSIDE of a host organism

43  Round Worm Looks like spaghetti Found in the intestines

44  Tape Worm Long and Flat in the intestines Break off in segments and look like rice in the stool

45  Hook Worm Small, hooked shape Attach to the wall of the intestine

46  Heart Worm Found in the circulatory system Eventually block heart valves

47  External Parasites Live OUTSIDE of a host organism

48  Fleas Cause external itching Not found in Utah!  They don’t survive the winters here Can infect houses, live in couches, etc

49  Flies Problem in the late summer and early fall Flies are attracted to animals Flies are annoying, but the biggest problem is that they transmit disease

50  Maggots Fly Larvae  This parasite stats as an external parasite and then moves inside!

51  Mites Live on surface of skin Commonly found in the ear canal

52  Ticks Attach to body and suck blood Can transmit Lyme Disease

53  How are parasites transmitted? Ingesting infected feces From mother to fetus Mosquitos (heartworm) Eating flesh of infected animal  ie: cat eating mouse

54  How are parasites transmitted?

55  Preventing Parasites in Dogs: Internal:  Best all around treatment = Heartworm Preventative because it also kills other digestive system worms like roundworms, tapeworm, etc… External:  Fleas? (not in Utah)  Ticks  Mosquitos

56  Preventing Parasites in Cats: Internal:  Give de-worming tablet  Cats who eat mice are especially prone to worms External:  Fleas?? (not in Utah)  Mites

57  Preventing Parasites in Horses: Internal:  Give an oral de-wormer at least twice per year External:  Flies  Ticks

58  Preventing Parasites in Cattle: Internal:  Roundworms External:  Flies  Lice  Mites

59  Preventing Parasites in Sheep/Goats Internal:  Roundworms External:  Flies  Mites

60  Vaccine Substance that contains live or dead organisms that is injected into an animal to make it immune to a specific disease

61  2 types of vaccines Live Modified Virus  Inject small amount of live disease causing bacteria or virus  Provides best immunity Killed Virus  Inject small amount of the killed bacteria or virus  Needs to be boosted periodically


63  2 Methods of Administering……. Injection: Usually subcutaneous Intranasal: Absorbed in nasal cavity

64  Cat/Kitten Vaccines PCR-C FELV  2 boosters, then yearly FIP  2 boosters, then yearly FIV  2 boosters, then yearly Rabies  Given at 4 months, boosted at 1 year, then every 3 years

65  Dog/Puppy Vaccines DHBPP – CCV  2-3 boosters 1 month apart  CCV (Coronavirus is only for puppies) DHBPP  Yearly adult dog vaccine  D- Distemper  H- Hepatitis  B- Bordetella  P- Para influenza  P- Parvovirus Rabies Given at 4 months, boosted at 1 year, then every 3 years

66  Horse Vaccines 5 Way - Tetanus toxoid, EEE, WEE, influenze, rhinopneumonitis  2 boosters starting at 4-5 months old, then yearly  West Nile Virus yearly

67  Cattle Vaccines 5 Way or 4 Way  2 boosters, then yearly

68  Sheep and Goat Vaccines ??  2 boosters then yearly

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