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The Music of the Carribean.

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Presentation on theme: "The Music of the Carribean."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Music of the Carribean



4  the region born in slavery  indentured laborers  European laws, languages, religions, and economies  Descendants, over the course of several centuries, became Creoles and Caribbean nationals.  Creole experiences are audible in the region’s musical instruments and styles. Caribbean Islands share a colonial history

5  African rhythmic concepts such as:  timelines  clave  call-and-response  syncopation  interlocking parts  3+3+2 patterns Combined African and European musical practices,

6  the result of a fusion, or reconciliation, of differing cultures, mixing belief systems, religion, and music, the success of which is the result of the heterogeneity Syncretism

7 Clave Pattern

8  also known as Garifuna, a diaspora of people of West African and Amerindian descent, who settled along the Caribbean coast of Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua during the nineteenth century Garinagu

9  a person of mixed African and European ancestry, who speaks a Creolized language, based on French, Spanish, or English, and an African language Creole

10  Rake-n-scrape –– a traditional Bahamian music played on accordion, saw, and goat-skin drum Rake-n-Scrape Music in the Bahamas

11  The accordion most commonly is a two-row button accordion  the saw is literally a carpenter’s saw  goat-skin drum is African derived  Rake-n-scrape ensembles traditionally accompanied quadrille dancing and are an example of Creole musical style Ophie and the Websites “40 Years”

12  19th century French-derived dance for four or more couples, found in the Caribbean islands  In the past in conjunction with Rake and Scrape Quadrille

13 Calypso and Steel bands in Trinidad

14 Calypso  a traditional French-Creole humorous song that comments on life in the Caribbean  chantwells, assisted by drums and alternating in call- and-response, were a central component of the practice called kalenda (stick-fighting).  In 1883, drumming was banned in an attempt to clean it up. This injunction came after a disturbance in the 1881 carnival, known as the Canboulay Riots. Canboulays were processions during carnival that commemorated the harvesting of burnt cane fields during slavery.

15  After drumming and stick fighting were banned Tamboo Bamboo was created to accompany Calypso songs during carnival.  boom, foulé, and cutter. Tamboo Bamboo

16  Traditionalist see calypso as social commentary because in earlier years it served the purpose of telling stories, relaying news events and giving criticisms of persons and policy.  social commentaries 5VlG2Z1aaTadIGFrPTFGGavRiq-HNMeT 5VlG2Z1aaTadIGFrPTFGGavRiq-HNMeT  humorous calypso HHQWm7rrA HHQWm7rrA Political issues reflected in song

17  In 1939, Growling Tiger was crowned the first calypso monarch of Trinidad (for his song, entitled “The Labor Situation in Trinidad”). Calypsonians came to be considered dangerous by the government because they could sway public opinion with their songs.  By the end of WWII, calypso ensembles became reminiscent of jazz combos, and a typical calypso ensemble came to include a horn section, drums, percussion, bass, guitar, and keyboard.

18 Steelband  an ensemble of steeldrums made from oil drums, tuned to Western pitches  Building Steel drums

19  Rumba –– an Afro-Cuban music and dance, derived from African sacred traditions  Bèlè –– a cross-rhythmic drumming style developed in rural Martinique  Bomba –– a drum style that emerged in the 18th century in Puerto Rico from the slave barracks Rumba in Cuba and Other Drum Styles

20  Rumba developed during the second half of the nineteenth century as a secular alternative to sacred African-derived drumming traditions in Cuba.  The ensemble generally consists of a lead vocalist, a chorus, and at least three types of percussion instruments Rumba

21  clave  palitos [short sticks]  three congas  Rumba Percussion

22  canto (narrative text)  montuno (call and response with the chorus/percussion) Rumba consists of two main sections:

23  Bèlè drumming (also called belair) developed in rural Martinique and is played on a drum of the same name  The drum is played by two performers: one straddles the drum, playing on the drum-head with both hands and a foot  other performer uses a pair of sticks (called tibwa) to beat out characteristic and intricate cross-rhythms on the side of the drum Bèlè

24  Bomba is a Puerto Rican tradition that emerged out of the slave barracks, probably during the middle decades of the eighteenth century.  The bomba was traditionally danced on special days: to mark the end of harvesting, for birthdays, christenings, and weddings. Bomba

25  The dance is essentially a challenge pitting the virtuosity of the dancers against the skill and speed of the lead drummer.  Two levels of call-and-response happen in bomba dancing: between the lead singer and the coro, and between the lead drummer and the dancers.

26  Garingua—also known as Garifuna, a diaspora of people of West African and Amerindian descent, who settled along the Carribean coast of Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua during the nineteenth century  Punta—a song genre that symbolically reenacts the cock-and-hen mating dance and is usually composed by women. It is performed at festivals, wakes, and ancestor venerations. It involves call and response singing. Punta of the Garinagu

27  Punta is performed during festivals, at wakes, and at celebrations that follow dugu ceremonies (religious ceremonies during which a family appeals to the ancestors for help in solving a given problem).  Punta usually involves call and response singing, drums, rattles, and sometimes conch shell trumpets. The drums used in punta are called the primero and the segunda. Punta Rock is a popular music style developed by the Garifuna peoples from punta.

28  Traditional Punta   Punta Rock  LD6CAD312B5447285 LD6CAD312B5447285

29  popular dance music of the Dominican Republic  The rural merengue was denounced as primitive by those the elite.  The early merengue ensemble usually included guira, guitar/quatro, marimba (like the marímbula), and tambora (a double headed drum), Merengue

30  Merengue is in 4/4 meter, and the “one, two, three, four” of each measure is pounded out by the kick drum and by the bass guitar  The structure of these songs is similar to Cuban rumba/son in that there is a narrative section (called merengue) followed by a call-and-response section (called jaleo).  Traditional Merengue Modern Merengue

31  Caribbean music has become globalized. Caribbean immigrants bring their music where they go, while tourists to the Caribbean purchase the cultural products and disseminate them.  Globalization is a double-edged process that globalizes the local while localizing the global. Travel and Tourism

32  Syncretism –– maintaining elements from two or more traditions combined into a new practice Orisha – – any of a number of West African spirits venerated in Caribbean syncretic religious rites  Gospelypso –– a hybrid of gospel and calypso musics Religion

33  Religious syncretism is the result of traveling religious practices  African-derived drumming is a major component of the ceremonial music central to syncretic religious systems such as Cuban santería, Trinidadian shango, and Haitian vodoun, all of which have found ways of combining African deities and cosmologies with Catholic saints and doctrines.

34  The drums are considered sacred, and important rules and rituals circumscribe their construction, care, and use. Only initiated drummers may touch these drums, and the drums are imbued with a spiritual force, usually called Añá, upon their initiation.  The drums are played without the improvisational elements present in genres such as rumba, bélé, and bomba. Sacred Drums

35  Bata Drumming

36    Santería,

37  developed in the 1930s is particularly interesting in that it managed to link its theological and social message to the soundtrack of reggae, particularly Bob Marley.  Niyabinghi drumming, however, continues to be an important component of Rastafarian religious life. Rastafarianism

38  Obeah is associated in the Bahamas with folk magic and at times with black magic. The juxtaposition of Christianity with obeah, in the case by singing gospel music in obeah country, is a religious and musical syncretism.  Obeah

39  The Caribbean Islands share a colonial history, each negotiated and interpreted according to their individual circumstances. All shared the creolization process, creating unique cultures. Summary

40  Creolization was the process of mixing African and European peoples, cultures, and languages, via colonialism, creating Creole cultures of the Caribbean.

41  Syncretism is the result of the fusion of differing cultures, mixing belief systems, the success of which is the result of the heterogeneity. Musical syncretisms studied in this unit are Bahamian rake- n-scrape, Trinidadian calypso, Cuban rumba, Garifuna punta.

42  Each Creole music today has become a measure and symbol of Caribbean national identity.  Caribbean music has become globalized. Caribbean immigrants bring their music where they go, while tourists to the Caribbean purchase the cultural products and disseminate them.

43  Christianity and African religions syncretized in the Caribbean and brought about new forms of music and reinterpretations of traditional musics

44  With which globalized forms of Caribbean music are you most familiar, and how have you had access to them?  Discussion

45  Can we think of any other music and cultural syncretisms than those found in the Caribbean?

46  Do we regard any form of music as a symbol of our national identity as Caribbean nationals do? American, Asian, Armenian, Persian, etc.

47  What is your music?

48  What forms of political protest music exist in cultures outside of the Caribbean, especially in The United States, China, Africa, or Latin America?

49  Read 355-381 Native American Music

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