Fish Many different types of fish Many different ways of cooking fish Cooks quickly …saves fuel Very nutritious …healthy substitute for meat
Uses Main course breakfast e.g. kippers, kedgeree Starter at dinner e.g. prawn cocktail, smoked salmon, chowder, mussels, crabs claws. Main course at dinner e.g. fish pie, grilled mackerel, salmon steak. Sandwiches e.g. tuna, salmon, sardines. Snacks e.g. smoked salmon on crackers, prawns and crackers.
Classification of fish Ways to classify fish Ways to classify fish Fresh water, Salt water Demersal (bottom), Pelagic (top) Flat, Round White, Oily, Shell
Classification of Fish WhiteOilyShell CodHerringMussels HaddockMackerelPrawns WhitingSalmonLobster SoleTunaCrab PlaiceSardinesOysters
Shell Fish Molluscs and Crustaceans
Average % Composition ProteinFatCarbVits.Mins.Water White Fish 17- 20% 0%0%B 1% Iodine 80% Oily Fish 17- 20% 13%0%BAD 1% Iodine 65% Shell Fish 17- 20% 3%0%B 2% Iodine Calcium75% Breaded Plaice 13%9%16%B 1% Iodine 60%
Nutritive Value Protein: good source, HBV, growth and repair of cells for energy, prevents heart disease. Fat: none in white fish, unsaturated fat in oily fish including omega 3 oils, for energy, prevents heart disease. Carbs.: none, serve with carbs. e.g. rice. Vitamins: White & Shell, Vit B only, nerves and energy. Oily Fish, Vit B, Vit D (Bones and teeth) and Vit A (eyes, skin, growth, membranes). Minerals: Iodine for the thyroid gland in all, calcium for bones in shell fish only. Water: white fish has most water and no fat therefore lowest in calories.
Value of Fish in the diet Important source of protein for those growing. Unsaturated fat and omega 3 suitable for people with heart disease. White fish, no fat, suitable for people on low fat or low calorie diets Many varieties, many different uses. Some fish are cheap yet nutritious e.g. herring for those on low income Available fresh, frozen, canned, in prepared meals, no seasonal restriction. Quick to cook saves fuel
In Season Some fish are in season at certain times of the year… better flavour and cheaper better flavour and cheaper e.g. Cod season = Sept to March.
Buying Fresh Fish Clean reliable shop Seaweedy fresh smell Skin, moist, unbroken Plenty of scales Eyes, bright and bulging. Gills, bright red/pink. Flesh, firm, moist, unbruised, close grain. Fresh fish cheaper ‘in season’
Fresh Fish can be bought: Whole, usually smaller fish e.g. herring. In Fillets, long thin pieces removed from the bone. Cutlets or Steaks, slices cut across the body of large round fish
Buying Frozen fish Frozen solid Check ‘best before date’ Packaging not damaged
Storing Fish Fresh Remove wrapping. Rinse cold water. Clean plate, cover loosely. Fridge. Use inside 24hrs. Frozen Put in freezer as soon as possible. If fish has started to thaw do not refreeze. Use within recommended time.
Preserved fish FrozenCannedSmoked CodSalmonSalmon PlaiceTuna Kippers (herring HaddockMackerelTrout PrawnsSardinesHaddock
Preparing fresh fish Remove scales, scrape from tail to head. Cut off head or remove eyes. Cut off fins Cut off tail Slit underside and remove viscera Wash well rub with salt to remove black membrane. Rinse and dry with kitchen paper
Cooking Fish Must be absolutely fresh Wash and dry well Cooked when flesh is opaque and flakes apart Cooks quickly, falls apart easily.
Suitable Methods of Cooking Fish Frying Shallow or deep, usually coated Grilling Fillets, cutlets, small thin fish Poaching Simmer gently in Liquid @ 85ºC, water, milk, stock, wine. Steaming Between 2 plates or in steamer Baking Whole., fillets, steaks, cutlets often stuffed Stewing In sauce Reheating In fish pie or cakes.
Effects Of Cooking Protein coagulates and shrinks Becomes opaque Connective tissue dissolves fish falls apart Microbes die Vitamins and minerals dissolve into cooking liquid Some Vit. B destroyed