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Chapter 2 Sanitation and Safety.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Sanitation and Safety."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2 Sanitation and Safety

2 Chapter Objectives 1. Describe steps to prevent food poisoning and food-borne diseases in the following areas: personal hygiene; food handling and storage techniques; cleaning and sanitizing procedures; and pest control. 2. Identify safe workplace habits that prevent injuries from the following: cuts, burns, operation of machinery and equipment, and lifting. 3. Identify safe workplace habits that minimize the likelihood of fires and falls.

3 Food Safety and Sanitation
U.S. Public Health identifies more than 40 diseases that can be transmitted through food Sanitation refers to the creation and maintenance of conditions that prevent food contamination or food-borne illness. Contamination refers to the presence, generally unintended, of harmful organisms or substances. Nearly unintended, of harmful

4 Food Hazards Any substance that can cause illness or injury is called a hazard. There are three types of food hazards: Biological hazards Chemical hazards Physical hazards

5 Pathogens Microbiology is the study of tiny, usually single-celled, organisms that can only be seen under a microscope. The four types that can contaminate food are: Bacteria Viruses Parasites Fungi

6 Direct Contamination Several microorganisms, primarily bacteria, parasites, viruses, and fungi can cause biologically based food-borne illness. Bacteria are single-celled, are the leading cause of food-borne illness. Beneficial bacteria called putrefactive are not a concern. The dangerous ones are called pathogenic. reel

7 Types of Bacteria Bacteria are everywhere - in the ground, air, our food, on our skin, and inside our bodies. The classifications are: Harmless bacteria Beneficial Bacteria Undesirable bacteria Disease-causing bacteria, or pathogens

8 Intoxications and Infections
Pathogenic bacteria can cause illness in humans in three ways: by intoxication, infection or toxin-mediated infection An example of intoxication is Botulism Salmonella is an example of infection Clostridium perfringens is an example of toxin-mediated infection

9 Bacterial Growth Bacteria grow by a process called binary fission. A single bacterium can grow to a million in less than 6 hours - Yikes! Conditions for growth: Food Moisture Temperature Acidity or alkalinity Oxygen Time

10 The Temperature Danger Zone
The danger zone is 41° F (60° C) to 135° (57° C). Bacteria grow rapidly if food (high protein) is held within these temperatures Simply keep hot food hot and cold food cold at all times Keep frozen foods frozen until use Thaw food properly

11 Water activity level: If a food has a water activity level of 0
Water activity level: If a food has a water activity level of 0.85% or more it is considered potentially hazardous The PH scale is Bacteria prosper in neutral environments that are not too acidic or basic.

12 Potentially Hazardous Foods
Two general categories: Food from animals or foods containing animal products Any food derived from from plants which has been cooked, partially-cooked, or heat-treated. Three specific items: Raw seed sprouts Sliced melons Garlic and oil mixtures

13 Locomotion As bacteria do not have feet, they have to move from place to place by other means: Hands Coughs and sneezes Other foods Equipment and utensils Air Water Insects and rodents

14 Protection Against Bacteria
Keep bacteria from spreading. Stop bacteria from growing. Kill bacteria.

15 Food-Borne Diseases Bacterial Diseases Botulism
Staphylococcus Food Poisoning (Staph) Escherichia coli (E coli) Salmonella Clostridium perfringens Streptococcal (Strep) Infections Shigellosis Listeriosis Bacillus cereus Gastroenteritis Camphylobacteriosis Vibrio Gastroenteritis and Septicemia Yersiniosis

16 Food-Borne Diseases (cont’d)
Viral Diseases Hepatitis A Norwalk Virus Gastroenteritis Rotovirus Gastroenteritis Diseases Caused by Parasites Trichinosis Anisakiasis Giardiasis Toxoplasmosis Cyclosporiasis Intestinal Cryptosporidiosis

17 Other Biological Hazards
Fungi Plant Toxins Seafood Toxins Allergens

18 Chemical Contaminants
Chemical hazards include contamination with (1) residual chemicals, food service chemicals, and toxic metals Look out for: Antimony Cadmium Cyanide Lead Copper Zinc minuets

19 Cross-Contamination Cross-contamination is the process by which one item, such as your finger or a cutting board, becomes contaminated and then contaminates food. Reducing cross-contamination Personal cleanliness Dish and equipment cleanliness Pest management

20 Personal Hygiene Reflects pride, professionalism, and consideration for your fellow workers Do not work if you have any communicable diseases or infections Bathe or shower daily Wear clean uniforms Keep hair clean, and use hair restraints Keep facial hair trimmed Wash your hands often Cover coughs and sneezes, then wash hands Don’t touch your body Keep fingernails clean and short. Don’t wear nail polish Cover cuts and sores with clean bandages Do not sit on worktables Wear gloves

21 Food Storage Four hour rule: if a food remains in the danger zone for more than four hours cumulatively, it is considered unsafe. Receiving Dry storage Freezer storage Refrigerator storage Hot food holding

22 Receiving Safe food handling begins the moment food is delivered.
Inspect all products thoroughly. Reject deliveries that do not meet your standards. Label and date all foods. Store immediately.

23 Food Handling and Preparation
The two main sanitation problems in kitchens with handling and preparing foods are: Cross-contamination The danger zone It is extremely important to keep foods out of the danger zone as much as humanly possible.

24 Minimum Safe Internal Temperatures
Fish, seafood, veal, lamb, cured or raw pork, raw shell eggs for immediate service: 145°F (63°C) Ground beef, ratites, injected meats, ground fish, raw shell eggs not for immediate service: 155°F (68°C) Poultry, wild game, stuffed fish, stuffed meat, poultry, or pasta: 165°F (74°C)

25 Cleaning and Sanitizing Equipment: Manual Dishwashing
The process: Scrape and rinse Wash Rinse Sanitize Drain and air dry

26 Mechanical Dishwashing
The process: Scrape and rinse Rack dishes Run for full cycle Sanitize Heat units 180° F (82° C) Chemical units 120° F (49° C) Air Dry and inspect

27 Rodent and Insect Control
Rats, mice, flies, and cockroaches can spread disease to food and contact surfaces. The four basic ways to prevent them are: Build them out Eliminate harborage and breeding places Eliminate their food supply Exterminate

28 The HACCP System Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points
Is proving to be an effective and efficient system for maintaining sanitary conditions in all types of food service operations This system is widely accepted in the food service industry

29 The Steps of the HACCP System
Assess hazards Identify critical control points Set up standards or limits for critical control points Set up procedures for monitoring critical control points Establish corrective actions Set up a recordkeeping system Verify that the system is working

30 The Flow of Food Receiving raw ingredients Storing raw ingredients
Preparing ingredients Cooking Holding and serving Cooling and storing leftovers Reheating, holding, and storing leftovers

31 Hazards and Critical Control Points
Contamination Growth of pathogens Survival of pathogens

32 Safety The safe workplace is one that monitors: Preventing cuts
Preventing burns Preventing fires Preventing injuries from machines and equipment Preventing falls Preventing strains and injuries from lifting

33 Copyright ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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