2Chapter Objectives1. Describe steps to prevent food poisoning and food-borne diseases in the following areas: personal hygiene; food handling and storage techniques; cleaning and sanitizing procedures; and pest control.2. Identify safe workplace habits that prevent injuries from the following: cuts, burns, operation of machinery and equipment, and lifting.3. Identify safe workplace habits that minimize the likelihood of fires and falls.
3Food Safety and Sanitation U.S. Public Health identifies more than 40 diseases that can be transmitted through foodSanitation refers to the creation and maintenance of conditions that prevent food contamination or food-borne illness.Contamination refers to the presence, generally unintended, of harmful organisms or substances.Nearly unintended, of harmful
4Food HazardsAny substance that can cause illness or injury is called a hazard. There are three types of food hazards:Biological hazardsChemical hazardsPhysical hazards
5PathogensMicrobiology is the study of tiny, usually single-celled, organisms that can only be seen under a microscope. The four types that can contaminate food are:BacteriaVirusesParasitesFungi
6Direct ContaminationSeveral microorganisms, primarily bacteria, parasites, viruses, and fungi can cause biologically based food-borne illness.Bacteria are single-celled, are the leading cause of food-borne illness.Beneficial bacteria called putrefactive are not a concern.The dangerous ones are called pathogenic.reel
7Types of BacteriaBacteria are everywhere - in the ground, air, our food, on our skin, and inside our bodies.The classifications are:Harmless bacteriaBeneficial BacteriaUndesirable bacteriaDisease-causing bacteria, or pathogens
8Intoxications and Infections Pathogenic bacteria can cause illness in humans in three ways: by intoxication, infection or toxin-mediated infectionAn example of intoxication is BotulismSalmonella is an example of infectionClostridium perfringens is an example of toxin-mediated infection
9Bacterial GrowthBacteria grow by a process called binary fission. A single bacterium can grow to a million in less than 6 hours - Yikes!Conditions for growth:FoodMoistureTemperatureAcidity or alkalinityOxygenTime
10The Temperature Danger Zone The danger zone is 41° F (60° C) to 135° (57° C). Bacteria grow rapidly if food (high protein) is held within these temperaturesSimply keep hot food hot and cold food cold at all timesKeep frozen foods frozen until useThaw food properly
11Water activity level: If a food has a water activity level of 0 Water activity level: If a food has a water activity level of 0.85% or more it is considered potentially hazardousThe PH scale is Bacteria prosper in neutral environments that are not too acidic or basic.
12Potentially Hazardous Foods Two general categories:Food from animals or foods containing animal productsAny food derived from from plants which has been cooked, partially-cooked, or heat-treated.Three specific items:Raw seed sproutsSliced melonsGarlic and oil mixtures
13LocomotionAs bacteria do not have feet, they have to move from place to place by other means:HandsCoughs and sneezesOther foodsEquipment and utensilsAirWaterInsects and rodents
14Protection Against Bacteria Keep bacteria from spreading.Stop bacteria from growing.Kill bacteria.
15Food-Borne Diseases Bacterial Diseases Botulism Staphylococcus Food Poisoning (Staph)Escherichia coli (E coli)SalmonellaClostridium perfringensStreptococcal (Strep) InfectionsShigellosisListeriosisBacillus cereus GastroenteritisCamphylobacteriosisVibrio Gastroenteritis and SepticemiaYersiniosis
18Chemical Contaminants Chemical hazards include contamination with (1) residual chemicals, food service chemicals, and toxic metalsLook out for:AntimonyCadmiumCyanideLeadCopperZincminuets
19Cross-ContaminationCross-contamination is the process by which one item, such as your finger or a cutting board, becomes contaminated and then contaminates food.Reducing cross-contaminationPersonal cleanlinessDish and equipment cleanlinessPest management
20Personal HygieneReflects pride, professionalism, and consideration for your fellow workersDo not work if you have any communicable diseases or infectionsBathe or shower dailyWear clean uniformsKeep hair clean, and use hair restraintsKeep facial hair trimmedWash your hands oftenCover coughs and sneezes, then wash handsDon’t touch your bodyKeep fingernails clean and short. Don’t wear nail polishCover cuts and sores with clean bandagesDo not sit on worktablesWear gloves
21Food StorageFour hour rule: if a food remains in the danger zone for more than four hours cumulatively, it is considered unsafe.ReceivingDry storageFreezer storageRefrigerator storageHot food holding
22Receiving Safe food handling begins the moment food is delivered. Inspect all products thoroughly.Reject deliveries that do not meet your standards.Label and date all foods.Store immediately.
23Food Handling and Preparation The two main sanitation problems in kitchens with handling and preparing foods are:Cross-contaminationThe danger zoneIt is extremely important to keep foods out of the danger zone as much as humanly possible.
24Minimum Safe Internal Temperatures Fish, seafood, veal, lamb, cured or raw pork, raw shell eggs for immediate service: 145°F (63°C)Ground beef, ratites, injected meats, ground fish, raw shell eggs not for immediate service: 155°F (68°C)Poultry, wild game, stuffed fish, stuffed meat, poultry, or pasta: 165°F (74°C)
25Cleaning and Sanitizing Equipment: Manual Dishwashing The process:Scrape and rinseWashRinseSanitizeDrain and air dry
26Mechanical Dishwashing The process:Scrape and rinseRack dishesRun for full cycleSanitizeHeat units 180° F (82° C)Chemical units 120° F (49° C)Air Dry and inspect
27Rodent and Insect Control Rats, mice, flies, and cockroaches can spread disease to food and contact surfaces. The four basic ways to prevent them are:Build them outEliminate harborage and breeding placesEliminate their food supplyExterminate
28The HACCP System Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points Is proving to be an effective and efficient system for maintaining sanitary conditions in all types of food service operationsThis system is widely accepted in the food service industry
29The Steps of the HACCP System Assess hazardsIdentify critical control pointsSet up standards or limits for critical control pointsSet up procedures for monitoring critical control pointsEstablish corrective actionsSet up a recordkeeping systemVerify that the system is working
30The Flow of Food Receiving raw ingredients Storing raw ingredients Preparing ingredientsCookingHolding and servingCooling and storing leftoversReheating, holding, and storing leftovers
31Hazards and Critical Control Points ContaminationGrowth of pathogensSurvival of pathogens
32Safety The safe workplace is one that monitors: Preventing cuts Preventing burnsPreventing firesPreventing injuries from machines and equipmentPreventing fallsPreventing strains and injuries from lifting