Presentation on theme: "Journal WITHOUT looking at your notes… 1. Give the alternate name/define a bruise, scrape, cut, avulsion, and puncture. 2. Explain the difference between."— Presentation transcript:
Journal WITHOUT looking at your notes… 1. Give the alternate name/define a bruise, scrape, cut, avulsion, and puncture. 2. Explain the difference between a 1st degree, 2nd degree, and 3rd degree burn. 3. Explain the difference between a sprain and a strain.
Poisoning can occur through… Ingestion - swallowing Inhalation – breathing toxic fumes Absorption – enters the body through the skin Injection – bites and stings, or needles
More than 90% of all poisonings take place in the home. Most poisonings happen to children under the age of 5. When checking the scene, be aware of unusual odors, flames, smoke, open or spilled containers, an open medicine cabinet, an overturned or damaged plant, or other signals of possible poisoning.
Signals of Poisonings 1. Nausea 2. Vomiting 3. Diarrhea 4. Chest or abdominal pain 5. Breathing difficulty 6. Sweating 7. Changes in consciousness 8. Seizures 9. Burns around the lips or tongue or on the skin.
If you suspect poisoning… Try to find out… –what type of poison it was. –how much was taken. –when it was taken. To care for poison plant contact, immediately wash the affected area with soap and water. A baking soda paste will reduce discomfort. Lotions, such as Calamine or Caladryl, will help sooth the area. Antihistamines, such as Benadryl, will help dry up the sores.
General Guidelines… Check the scene. Remove the victim from the source of poison. Check the victim’s level of consciousness, breathing, and pulse. Care for any life-threatening conditions. If the victim is conscious, ask questions to get more information. Look for any containers and take them with you to the phone. Call your Poison Control Center or local emergency number.
When someone has swallowed a poison, the PCC may tell you to make the victim vomit by giving syrup of ipecac. Do not make the victim vomit if he or she has swallowed a corrosive substance (an acid or alkali). If poisons, such as dry or wet chemicals, get on the skin, flush the area with large amounts of water and call the PCC or 911 immediately. If someone is stung by an insect, remove the stinger.
First Aid for Insect Stings Remove the stinger. Scrape it away from the skin with your fingernail or a plastic card. Wash the site with soap and water. Cover it to keep it clean. Apply a cold pack to the area. Watch the victim for signals of an allergic reaction.
Lyme disease is an illness that people get from the bite of an infected deer tick. In the northern states, the risk is greatest between May and August, when ticks are most active and people spend more time outdoors. The first signal of infection may appear a few days or a few weeks after a tick bite. Early Signals… –A rash –Fever –Headache –Weakness –Joint and muscle pain similar to the flu
LYME DISEASE (cont.) If not treated… –May cause arthritis –Numbness –Memory loss –Problems in seeing or hearing –High fever –Stiff neck –Problems with brain or nervous system
Preventing Poisoning Use common sense when handling substances that could be harmful Use chemicals in well-ventilated areas Wear protective clothing Read the product information (medications) Ask doctor about side effects Never use another person’s medications Keep medications in containers they came in
BATTLING THE ELEMENTS Health 10 November 17, 2006
EXTREME HEAT OR COLD 6 factors that contribute to illness… – Physical activity – Clothing – Wind – Humidity – Working and living conditions – Person’s age and state of health *** A heat or cold related illness may result in death. *** result in death. ***
People at risk for H/C related illness… Work or exercise outdoors Elderly people Young children People with health problems Other factors… - History of heat- or cold-related illness - Medical conditions that cause poor blood circulation. circulation. - Those who take medications to get rid of water from the body. from the body.
Heat Related Illness… Heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke, are conditions caused by overexposure to the heat.
HEAT CRAMPS Facts –Least severe –First signals that the body is having trouble with heat. –Painful muscle spasms –Usually occur in the legs and abdomen Care –Have victim rest in a cool, dry place –Give cool water or sports drink –Rest and fluids are all the person usually needs. –Lightly stretch and massage the area.
Heat Exhaustion Heat exhaustion is a more severe condition than heat cramps. People at risk… –Athletes –Fire fighters –Construction workers –Factory workers –Those who wear heavy clothing in a hot, humid environment.
Care for heat-related illness… 1. Get the victim out of the heat 2. Loosen tight clothing 3. Remove perspiration-soaked clothing 4. Apply cool, wet cloths to the skin 5. Fan the victim 6. If the victim is conscious, give cool H20 to drink. 7. Call for an ambulance if victim refuses water, vomits, or starts to lose consciousness.
Are they getting worse? Refusing water Changes in consciousness Vomiting
Cold Emergencies Frostbite and hypothermia are two types of cold emergencies. Severity depends upon air temperature, length of exposure, and wind.
Frostbite Signals –Lack of feeling in the affected area –Skin appears waxy –Skin is cold to touch –Skin is discolored Care –Warm the area by soaking in water no warmer than 105 degrees. –Loosely bandage the area with dry, sterile dressings.
Hypothermia In hypothermia the entire body cools because it’s ability to keep warm fails. People at risk… –Elderly –Homeless –Ill
Care for cold-related illness 1. Call for an ambulance 2. Care for any life-threatening problems 3. Move the victim to a warm place 4. Remove any wet clothing and dry the victim 5. Warm the victim slowly by wrapping in blankets or putting on dry clothes 6. Apply other sources of heat if they are available.
Cold-Related Injuries (cont.) The air temperature does not have to be below freezing for someone to get hypothermia. Guidelines –Avoid being outdoors in the hottest or coldest part of day. –Change your activity level according to the temperature –Take frequent breaks –Dress appropriately –Drink large amounts of fluid