Presentation on theme: "The Texas Revolution By: Fisher Davis. Texas Revolution The Texas Revolution, also known as the Texas War of Independence, was the military conflict between."— Presentation transcript:
Texas Revolution The Texas Revolution, also known as the Texas War of Independence, was the military conflict between the government of Mexico and Texas colonists that began October 2, 1835 and resulted in the establishment of the Republic of Texas after the final battle on April 21, 1836. Intermittent conflicts between the two nations continued into the 1840s, finally being resolved with the Mexican–American War of 1846 to 1848 after the annexation of Texas to the United States.
Background The Mexican War for Independence (1810–1821) severed control that Spain had exercised on its North American territories, and the new country of Mexico was formed from much of the individual territory that had comprised New Spain. On October 4, 1824, Mexico adopted a new constitution which defined the country as a federal republic with nineteen states and four territories. The former province of Spanish Texas became part of a newly created state, Coahuila y Tejas,[ whose capital was at Saltillo, hundreds of miles from the former Texas capital, San Antonio de Bexar (now San Antonio, Texas, USA).
Mexican preparation The following month, a contingent of soldiers arrived in Béxar with Colonel Domingo de Ugartechea. Fearing that stronger measures were needed to quell the unrest, Santa Anna ordered his brother-in-law, General Martín Perfecto de Cos to "repress with strong arm all those who, forgetting their duties to the nation which has adopted them as her children, are pushing forward with a desire to live at their own option without subjection to the laws". Cos landed at the port of Copano on September 20 with approximately 500 soldiers.
Texan Army offensive Before the consultation could happen, however, in accordance with Santa Anna’s nationwide call to disarm state militias, Colonel Domingo Ugartechea, who was stationed in San Antonio, ordered the Texans to return a cannon given to them by Mexico that was stationed in Gonzales. The Texans refused,Ugartechea sent Lieutenant Francisco de Castañeda and 100 dragoons to retrieve it.When he arrived at the rain-swollen banks of the Guadalupe River near Gonzales, there were only eighteen Texans to oppose him. Unable to cross, Castañeda established a camp, and the Texans buried the cannon and called for volunteers. The Texans stalled for several days until reinforcements arrived. The Texan Army attacked early on October 2, 1835. The Battle of Gonzales ended with a Mexican withdrawal. Two Mexican soldiers were killed, and one Texan was injured when he fell off his horse during the skirmish. Over the next several days, The Texan Army continued to gather at Gonzales.
Army of Operations As early as October 27, Santa Anna had been making plans to quell the unrest in Texas. He stepped down from his duties as president to lead what he dubbed the Army of Operations in Texas, which would relieve Cos and put an end to the Texan revolt. Santa Anna and his soldiers believed that the Texans would be quickly cowed. The Mexican Secretary of War, José María Tornel, wrote: "The superiority of the Mexican soldier over the mountaineers of Kentucky and the hunters of Missouri is well known. Veterans seasoned by 20 years of wars can't be intimidated by the presence of an army ignorant of the art of war, incapable of discipline, and renowned for insubordination.”
Alamo The Mexican Army arrived in San Antonio on February 23, 1836. The Texian garrison was completely unprepared for the arrival of the Mexican army and had to quickly gather food from the town to supply the Alamo. By late afternoon Bexar was occupied by about 1500 Mexican troops, who quickly raised a blood-red flag signifying no quarter. For the next thirteen days, the Mexican army besieged the Alamo. Although there were several small skirmishes that provided the defenders with much needed optimism, they had little real impact. In the early hours of March 6, the Mexican army attacked the fort in what became known as the Battle of the Alamo. Almost all of the Texian defenders, estimated at 182–257 men, were killed, including James Bowie, Davy Crockett and William B. Travis. Most Alamo historians agree that 400–600 Mexicans were killed or wounded. This would represent about one-third of the Mexican soldiers involved in the final assault, which Todish remarks is "a tremendous casualty rate by any standards".
Texan retreat: "The Runaway Scrape" The term “Runaway Scrape” is used to refer to two aspects of the Revolution upon word spreading of the fall of the Alamo. Both and either may be intended depending upon context. In the first context the term refers to the military retreat of the Texan forces under Houston. In the second, the reference is to the civilian flight toward Louisiana.