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Slaughterhouses and animal by-products BREF Tallinn - 27 and 28 March 2007 Rosemary Campbell

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Presentation on theme: "Slaughterhouses and animal by-products BREF Tallinn - 27 and 28 March 2007 Rosemary Campbell"— Presentation transcript:

1 Slaughterhouses and animal by-products BREF Tallinn - 27 and 28 March 2007 Rosemary Campbell

2 Slaughterhouses and Animal By-products BREF Live animalSlaughterFood products Waste Hides and skins Non-food products

3 BREF scope (Annex 1) 6.4. (a) Slaughterhouses with a carcase production capacity greater than 50 tonnes per day 6.5. Installations for the disposal or recycling of animal carcases and animal waste with a treatment capacity exceeding 10 tonnes per day

4 BREF scope (Annex 1) 6.4. (a) Slaughterhouses with a carcase production capacity greater than 50 tonnes per day

5 Key environmental issues energy –cooling of carcases –refrigeration of by-products –drying of by-products odour –inherent –due to decomposition water consumption/contamination infectivity –cleaning and disinfection –destruction of TSE risk –(now avian influenza)

6 Other driving forces at slaughterhouses and animal by-products installations Regulation (EC) No 1774/2002 –prescribes routes for the use and disposal of by-products food and veterinary legislation –animal welfare –hygiene customer preferences/market forces –regional eating habits of consumers –downstream industry requirements

7 Information submitted 362 references BREF pages balance between too general or too detailed BREF outline and guide - structure late included at the insistence of TWG members Estonia

8 BREF structure EXECUTIVE SUMMARY PREFACE SCOPE Chapter 1GENERAL INFORMATION Chapter 2APPLIED PROCESSES AND TECHNIQUES Chapter 3CURRENT CONSUMPTION AND EMISSION LEVELS Chapter 4TECHNIQUES TO CONSIDER IN THE DETERMINATION OF BAT Chapter 5BEST AVAILABLE TECHNIQUES Chapter 6EMERGING TECHNIQUES Chapter 7CONCLUDING REMARKS Chapter 8REFERENCES Chapter 9GLOSSARY Chapter 10ANNEXES

9 Chapter 5 BEST AVAILABLE TECHNIQUES

10 Slaughterhouses and animal by-products installations General processes and operations environmental management system training maintenance meter water drains with screens +/or traps dry clean, pressure clean, hoses fitted with hand operated triggers

11 Slaughterhouses and animal by-products installations General processes and operations energy management system –formal approach identifying areas for successful reduction of energy consumption and consequent financial benefit - identify unit operations with high consumption show the importance of management commitment for success necessary to understand the issues and the potential benefits, including financial shows the success of personally attributed service, e.g. the use of hot water

12 Slaughterhouses and animal by-products installations General processes and operations energy management system –e.g. in a an example operation, reduce the use of hot water leads to benefits reduced water consumption reduced energy use to heat water reduced contamination of water reduced volume of waste water from the installation requiring treatment (using energy and possibly chemicals and potentially causing odour)

13 Slaughterhouses and animal by-products installations General processes and operations store animal by-products for short periods and possibly refrigerate them –reduced odour during storage during processing during waste water treatment –reduced waste –reduced energy consumption upstream and downstream collaboration

14 Slaughterhouses and animal by-products installations Integration of same site activities, e.g. slaughterhouse and rendering plant –reduced energy consumption, e.g. use heat from rendering to heat water for the slaughterhouse, render animal by-products before they become malodorous slaughterhouse and animal carcase incinerator –reduced energy consumption, e.g. use heat from incineration to heat water for the slaughterhouse, incinerate animal by-products before they become malodorous rendering plant and animal meal incinerator –burn malodorous gases from rendering (raw materials, process odours and non condensable gases)

15 Slaughterhouses and animal by-products installations BAT is to seek collaboration with upstream and downstream partners, to create a chain of environmental responsibility, to minimise pollution and to protect the environment as a whole

16 Slaughterhouses and animal by-products installations Collaboration with upstream and downstream activities, e.g. cessation of feeding large animals 12 hours prior to slaughter use of fresh raw materials in animal by-products installations where it is not possible to treat animal by-products before their decomposition starts to cause odour problems and/or quality problems, refrigerate them as quickly as possible and for as short a time as possible

17 Slaughterhouses and animal by-products installations Collaboration with upstream and downstream activities, e.g. use of low total volatile nitrogen feedstock in fish-meal and fish-oil processing trimming of all hide/skin material not destined for tanning, immediately after removal from the animal avoid salting hides (alternatives – depend on time lapse before processing)

18 Slaughterhouses and animal by-products installations Cleaning the installation and equipment water – amount, temperature, contamination –consequences for waste water treatment detergents – amount and harmfulness technology – CIP operation – control of responsible, trained individuals

19 Slaughterhouses and animal by-products installations Waste water treatment – not concluded whether BAT is on-site or off-site, but some treatments are prior to the WWTP prevent stagnation screen out solids remove fat

20 Additional BAT for slaughterhouses dry scrape vehicles avoid carcase washing collect by-products dry optimise bleeding and the collection of blood double drain from the bleed hall immediately trim off all hide/skin not destined for tanning –optimise use of trimmings –minimise use of substances used in hide processing reduce waste in the leather industry reduce odour from putrescible trimmings

21 Additional BAT for large animal slaughterhouses stop feeding 12 hours prior to slaughter demand-controlled drinking water dry clean lairage floor steam scald pigs in existing slaughterhouses, where not econ viable to change to steam scalding insulate and cover pig scalding tanks re-use cooling water from pig singeing kilns don’t shower pigs before chilling empty stomach and small intestines dry

22 Additional BAT for poultry slaughterhouses E.g. remove carcase washing equipment from the line, except after de-feathering and evisceration steam scald poultry in existing slaughterhouses, where not econ viable to change to steam scalding insulate poultry scalding tanks and use the water to carry feathers

23 Additional BAT for animal by-products installations E.g. use sealed storage, handling and charging facilities for animal by-products –reduce odour –reduce vermin and biological risk applicable in, e.g. fat melting, rendering, fish-meal and fish-oil processing, blood processing, bone processing, gelatine manufacture, incineration and biogas production,

24 Additional BAT for rendering E.g. reduce the sizes of carcases and parts of animal carcases before rendering –reduced energy consumption to process completely remove water from blood, by steam coagulation, prior to rendering burn the non-condensable gases in an existing boiler and to pass the low intensity/high volume odours through a biofilter or burn the whole vapour gases in a thermal oxidiser and to pass the low intensity/high volume odours through a biofilter

25 Additional BAT for fish-meal and fish-oil processing E.g. use fresh, (low total volatile nitrogen) feedstock incinerate malodorous air, with heat recovery

26 Additional BAT for incineration E.g. enclose buildings used for delivery storage, handling and processing of animal by-products seal the storage, handling and charging of animal by-products to incinerators duct air from the installation and the pre- combustion equipment to combustion chambers alarm and interlock combustion temperatures to charging mechanisms operate continuous incineration

27 BAT – blood collection (water consumption and contamination) Optimisation of blood collection timesextension of blood collection times “insignificant”collection over a blood collection trough until the amount of blood dripping from the carcase is “insignificant” wet suction and/or scraping of blooddesign troughs to facilitate wet suction and/or scraping of blood or coagulated blood lumps to the blood tank prior to cleaning with water

28 BAT – blood storage (energy, odour and infectivity) use or disposebefore its decompositionuse or dispose of blood before its decomposition starts to cause odour problems and/or quality problems otherwise refrigeratequickly short a timerefrigerate it as quickly as possible and for as short a time as possible –cross-media effects – energy consumption –economic issues – investment and running costs

29 BAT – blood – treatment ( downstream considerations) freshfresh blood used,less waste –can be used, so less waste for disposal problems avoided –odour problems during storage, processing and waste water treatment can be avoided easier –waste water treatment is easier

30 Recommendations for future work data per tonnecollect data per tonne of carcase produced and per tonne of animal by-product treated unit operation levelmeasure consumption and emission levels at unit operation level (including all the associated information) cleaningcollect detailed information about cleaning techniques incompletesupplement the incomplete information about many techniques

31 Suggested topics for future R & D projects reduction of the energy consumption associated with chilling and refrigerated storage optimisation of the energy use associated with drying animal by-products and identifying opportunities for heat recovery use of non-potable water at slaughterhouses


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