Presentation on theme: "In their Eyes: An Average Child’s View of their World April 2, 2008 University of Delaware Center for Drug and Alcohol Studies Based on the 2007 Delaware."— Presentation transcript:
The Delaware School Survey Since 1989 (CDAS has conducted since 1995) In 2007 85% of 5 th grade enrollment (n=7,727) 66% of 8 th grade enrollment (n=6,788) 68% of 11 th grade enrollment (n=5,623) Grades 5, 8 and 11 Delaware Public Schools Substance Use Delinquent Behaviors and Gambling School Climate and Family Climate Peer Behaviors Risk-Taking/Impulsivity
The Delaware High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey Since 1993 (CDAS has conducted since 1999) In 2007: 2,655 Delaware Public High School Students (82% response rate) Grades 9-12 Substance Use Personal Safety Depressive/Suicidal Behaviors Nutrition Exercise Sexual Behaviors
Let’s take a look at an average Delaware child...
This is Sophia.
Sophia just started Kindergarten. She lives in our most densely populated county, one of over 5,000 Delaware girls her age, one of over 10,000 children her age.
Sophia, like half of all children born in Delaware, received WIC. Her mom, a single parent, works and takes classes at Del Tech so she can eventually better support her two girls.
Sophia has had health insurance through Medicaid and the Delaware Healthy Children Program, and attends day care with Purchase of Care payments. The State of Delaware has a BIG investment in her.
She is healthy, happy, smart and secure.
Sophia cares for others, especially her active younger sister.
She is involved in the community,
and has dreams for the future.
Someday, Sophia will be part of an average classroom of 25 students.
In Sophia’s average 5 th grade classroom: 20% will have tried an alcoholic drink (not just a sip) this represents about 5 children in Sophia’s classroom; only 29% will perceive risk in trying alcohol, and fewer than half (46%) will perceive great risk in daily use
7% will have tried cigarettes (more than a few puffs); this represents at least 2 students in Sophia’s average 5 th grade classroom of 25 students; 63% will perceive great risk from smoking a pack or more per day.
8% of 5 th graders try inhalants, the most commonly reported substance after alcohol—while alcohol may have been consumed at family celebrations, this is unlikely to be the case for inhalants; but more than twice as many students report using alcohol than inhalants 2 students in Sophia’s average classroom will have experimented with inhalants; only 28% will perceive great risk in trying them
2% of 5 th graders will have tried marijuana; while this number is still low, only 41% perceive great risk in trying marijuana
18% of 5 th graders have been in a fight at school in the past year Almost half feel that fighting is a problem in their school. Nearly 3 in 4 feel that the misbehavior of some students in their school keeps teachers from teaching those who want to learn
55% of Sophia’s 5 th grade classmates have bet money on lottery tickets, team sports, card games, Bingo, games of skill, or video games in the past year. Those are good odds.
By the time Sophia is in 8 th grade:
40% of Delaware 8 th graders (about 10 of Sophia’s classmates) drank alcohol in the past year More than half (53%) do not see great risk in binge drinking 1 in 4 know where they can buy alcohol
Children who begin drinking before age 15 are four times more likely to develop alcohol dependence than those who start drinking at age 21
16% of Delaware 8 th graders have smoked marijuana in the past year 3 in 4 do not see great risk in trying it 1 in 3 know where to buy marijuana
Students who drink alcohol, smoke marijuana, or use other drugs are two times as likely to skip school, 50% more likely to cheat on a test, and 20% less likely to study outside of school. 30% of 8 th grade students have used alcohol, marijuana or other drugs in the past month.
Half of Sophia’s class feels that violence is a problem in their school. 1 student in Sophia’s average 8 th grade class took a weapon to school or a school event this year.
40% of Delaware 9 th graders report having had sexual intercourse before age 15; 8 of Sophia’s classmates are probably sexually active
8% of Sophia’s 8 th grade classmates are medicated to help them concentrate better in school 4% of her classmates are medicated for depression or anxiety
These are the “big kids” Sophia now looks up to.
By the time Sophia reaches 11 th grade, some of her former classmates will have left school. Among those who remain :
In the past year, out of every 10 11 th graders: 66% used Alcohol 35% used Marijuana 25% smoked Cigarettes 17% misused Rx 48% Gambled 64% Sexually Active (3 months) 26% Binge Drank (2 weeks)
Alcohol is the most commonly reported drug used, and is consistently associated with other high-risk behaviors.
Where do they get it?
In the past year... 21% of 11 th grade students have been to a party where parents bought alcohol for the kids 44% have been to a party with alcohol and no adults present 35% have had someone over 21 buy them alcohol 18% have taken alcohol from the house without permission, and 12% have taken it with permission
48% have used alcohol, marijuana, or other illegal drugs in the past month.
28% of Delaware 11 th Graders meet the criteria for alcohol dependence and or abuse: 21% abuse only 1% dependence only 6% dependence and abuse
Delaware high school students tell us that on school property: 4% smoked cigarettes in the past 30 days 6% drank alcohol in the past 30 days 6% smoked marijuana in the past 30 days 22% were offered, sold or given illegal drugs in the past 12 months
There is a very strong relationship between whether parents know where their 11 th grade child is...... But whether the parent isn’t monitoring, or the child isn’t telling them honestly, we don’t know.
90% of 11 th grade students have driver’s licenses.
All 11 th graders who drive Drunk Drivers 22% Marijuana Drivers 12% 5% 22% of 11 th grade students report they have driven drunk in the past year and 12% report that they have driven under the influence of marijuana. 5% of students report doing both. Therefore, 23% of 11 th grade drivers, or nearly one in four, has driven under the influence in the past year.
If each student who reports driving under the influence of alcohol or marijuana does it only once, that means there are 44 out there on Delaware roads each day.
And they probably don’t do it just once.
And they don’t do it alone... In the past year, 32% of Delaware 11 th graders have ridden in a car with a driver under the influence of marijuana, 17% in the past month In the past year, 32% of Delaware 11 th graders have ridden in a car with a driver under the influence of alcohol, 12% within the past month This includes students who neither drink or use marijuana
The more “under the influence” they are, the less likely they are to use a seatbelt most of the time. Note: Binge drinking is defined as 3 drinks at a time in the last 2 weeks, heavy marijuana use is defined as using it more than 6 times in past month.
Percentage of High School Students Reporting Diagnosis of Chronic Illness 36% of High School Students report being diagnosed with at least one Chronic Illness.
Half of these students take prescribed medications for their conditions, and many of these are more likely to self- medicate, using illegal drugs and alcohol.
With Regard to Sad Feelings, Self- Injury, and Attempted Suicide, Students Report They...
Girls are most likely to intentionally cut, scrape, or burn themselves...
Delaware is consistently above National Norms on the Percentage of Students Who Reported Sexual Behaviors, 2007 2005 National YRBS 2007 Delaware YRBS * 1 2 * * * Significantly different, p <.05 1 Had sexual intercourse during the 3 months preceding the survey. 2 Among students who were currently sexually active.
Percentage of High School Students Who Ever Had Sexual Intercourse, by Site 1 Significant linear decrease, p <.05 2 No significant linear or quadratic change 2 National YRBS Delaware YRBS
Percentage of High School Students Who Had Sexual Intercourse with Four or More Persons During their Life, by Site 1 Significant linear decrease, p <.05 2 No significant linear or quadratic change 2 National YRBS Delaware YRBS
Percentage of High School Students Who Were Currently Sexually Active,* by Site * Had sexual intercourse during the 3 months preceding the survey 1 Significant linear decrease, p <.05 2 No significant linear or quadratic change 2 National YRBS Delaware YRBS
Percentage of High School Students Who Used a Condom During Last Sexual Intercourse,* by Site * Among students who had sexual intercourse during the 3 months preceding the survey 1 Significant linear increase, p <.05 2 No significant linear or quadratic change National YRBS Delaware YRBS 2
Teens report that they have been hit, slapped or hurt by their boyfriend or girlfriend... 8% of boys and 8% of girls 9% of Hispanics, 9% of Blacks and 8% of White students 7% of 9 th and 10 th graders, 8% or 11 th graders and 10% of 12 th graders
Delaware teens report that they have been forced to have sexual intercourse when they did not want to... 4% of boys and 12% of girls 12% of Hispanics, 9% of Blacks and 7% of Whites
So what’s wrong with underage drinking?
Alcohol makes children less safe, less healthy, more violent, more likely to be sexually active, and more likely to be arrested.
11 th Graders who are current drinkers are: 16 times more likely to get in a car with a driver who is a minor and has been drinking More than twice as likely to hit someone and to vandalize someone’s property 5 ½ times more likely to smoke marijuana and 6 times more likely to use other drugs 3 times more likely to be forced to have unwanted sexual intercourse 4 times more likely to have been arrested.
And it has an impact on the rest of us also
Costs of Underage Drinking in Delaware = $172 Million Annually Medical = $10,000,000 Work Lost = $44,000,000 Pain & Suffering=$118,000,000 NIAAA 2005
Delaware’s Bottom Line: Costs of underage drinking = $172,000,000 Industry profits on underage (from total sales of $51,000,000)=25,000,000 Funds for combatting = 11,000,000 ______________________________________ Total Loss = $136,000,000 Who gets the profit? Who pays the remainder?
Costs are shared in: Health Insurance Car Insurance Property Insurance State Taxes Municipal Taxes
Federal Taxes on Alcohol, when adjusted for inflation, have declined 33% since 1992 (beer tax is 63% lower than 1970 rates): Federal beer and wine taxes are currently 7-10 cents per drink Federal liquor tax is currently 20-25 cents per drink
What can Parents Do? Messages –Modeling appropriate behaviors –Make it clear you disapprove Monitoring –Know where they are –Know who they are with Management –Clear, Consistent Rules –Consistent, appropriate consequences