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Calf Management. Cow-Calf Management u Definition- breeding of cows and raising of calves. u commercial or purebred u stockers u facilities u shelter.

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Presentation on theme: "Calf Management. Cow-Calf Management u Definition- breeding of cows and raising of calves. u commercial or purebred u stockers u facilities u shelter."— Presentation transcript:

1 Calf Management

2 Cow-Calf Management u Definition- breeding of cows and raising of calves. u commercial or purebred u stockers u facilities u shelter u fence u working equip. and facilities

3 From Birth to the Bank u The most important item in the beef cattle industry is insuring that a cow weans a calf & is able to rebreed in a reasonable time u Yet, first make sure the calf is born alive u keep the calf alive and healthy to weaning u provide favorable environment to manage the calf at weaning to reduce stress u market the calf to its advantage

4 Keys to profitable production of calves u Provide adequate forage u common causes of inadequate forage is overgrazing and poor stocking rate u Care at calving u Dystocia u Use a maternity pasture u calving shed, clean pasture u provide assistance only when needed

5 Calf Management u 1/2 the calf loss occurs at calving u most of the trouble is with heifers u size and weight is important, not age u breed to easy calving bulls u Immunization u Vac 45 program u Growth Promotants- ralgro, synovex, compudose, etc.

6 Feeding and Management of Calves u Orphans u whole milk, replacer, or whole with a starter u Early Weaning u Creep Feeding u Replacement heifers

7 Calf Management u Management Practices u Identification u Weaning u castration u vaccinations/ immunization u dehorning u implanting

8 Calf Management u creep-feeding u weaning management / pre-conditioning - backgrounding u Backgrounding - feeding and managing calves for 45 + days after weaning in order to be more healthy and bunk ready u Pre-conditioning- a way of preparing a calf to withstand the stress and rigors of weaning

9 Calf Management u Pre-conditioning u use minimum excitement u work early (dehorn) u wean 30 days early u creep u vaccinate u control parasites u health certification

10 Dehorning, Castration and Identification

11 Dehorning u What is dehorning? u process of removing or preventing the growth of horns. u Why? u improve appearance u reduce injuries u increase feeder space u improve value. u Two methods u non-invasive u invasive

12 Restraint u Very important u Remember safety u Restrain head

13 Non-Invasive u Bloodless u Young animals u Types u Chemical paste u Hot iron

14 Invasive u Blood flow u Older animals u Involves cutting or scooping the horn off of the animals skull. u Types u Barnes dehorner u Scoop dehorner

15 u Keystone dehorner

16 Reasons for dehorning u Less barn, shed or feeding space u less injuries u easier to handle u feedlots prefer dehorned cattle u sometimes bring more money

17 Disadvantages u sets the animal back due to stress u cost and labor as well as equipment u death loss due to bleeding u disease spreading u scurrs may occur if not properly done

18 Time to dehorn u genetically u calves, early as possible u older cattle, colder weather

19 Dehorning yearlings or older u clippers, saw or surgical wire u Clippers u restrain the animal u stand on the opposite side of the head from the horn to be removed u spread the clippers open and place over the horn with the bevel next to the head. u remove 1/4 “of the hide and tissue below the base of the horn

20 Clippers u advantages u fast u neat job u disadvantages u severe bleeding u danger of cracking the skull

21 Saw u restrain the animal u stand in front of the head and a little to one side u saw into the skull removing 1/4” of hide and hair u if anesthetic is used, use a 1”needle and place in the hollow spot above the eye

22 Saw u Advantages u smooth job u less bleeding than clippers u Disadvantages u much slower

23 Surgical Wire u cut the wire at arm span length u restrain the animal u place the wire at the base and back side of the horn u start with short strokes until wire is imbeded u use long smooth stroke to remove the horn

24 Surgical Wire u advantages u smooth job u less bleeding u less set back u disadvantages u cost of the wire u slow u may need more than one piece of wire/animal

25 Control of Hemorrhage u perform dehorning early in the morning u handle quietly as possible u use forceps or hemostats to pull out the veins or use a hot iron to sear them u stuff cotton in the hole u use sterile equipment u never dehorn when cows are eating sweet clover

26 Dehorning calves u polled bulls u chemicals u bell irons u tube u spoon u barnes u elastrator

27 Chemicals u basic substance such as KOH or NaOH u restrain the animal u remove hair around the button u scrape button so that it is raw u put ring of mineral oil around base of button u apply chemical on button in liquid, paste, or stick form

28 Tube u different sizes u Tube u restrain the animal u place the tube over the horn u start at clockwise motion and push u get below the tissue and pry out

29 Spoon u restrain the animal u cut skin with spoon with back and forth motion and get below the tissue u gouge it out u much more slowly and causes more bleeding

30 Hot Iron (Bell Iron) u restrain the animal u place iron over horn and press with rotating motion u when the entire circle around the button is not brown in color, quit u button will fall off in a couple weeks

31 Barnes type u secure the animal u place the barnes over the horn at the slope of the head u press down and quickly spread the handles u adv. - fast, can dehorn larger calves u disadv. - more bleeding, danger of infection and easier to make slips

32 Castration u Inactivation of primary sex organs for the male u the younger the better u methods: u surgical, emasculator (burdizzo), elastrators, ethiopian style

33 Castration u What is castration? u process of removing the testicles from a male. u Why? u prevent mating or fighting, u improve carcass quality u gentle them u Two Methods u Non-invasive u Invasive

34 Restraint u Calves u On side u Older bull calves u In chute u Young lambs and kids u On back u Assistant’s arms u V-shaped table

35 Non-invasive u Bloodless u Tetanus antitoxin u Crimps or contracts the blood vessels and spermatic cord resulting in loss of blood supply. u Young calves or weanlings u Types: u Burdizzo u Elastrator u Calicrate bander u Short-scrotumed u Chemical castration

36 u Burdizzo u Elastrator

37 u Calicrate smart bander

38 Invasive u Blood flow u Sanitation is key u Do not reach into the wound because it could cause infection u Types: u Knife/Scalpel u Emasculator

39 u Knife u Scalpel u Emasculator

40 Surgical Method u restrain the animal u examine the calf to see if testes have descended in to the scrotum u disinfect equipment, hands, and scrotum u grab the end of the scrotum with one hand and pull down. cut off the lower 1/3 of the scrotum

41 surgical cont. u pull testicles down one at a time / scrape if necessary u trim excess fat and membrane carefully u disinfect the area again u Incision method is performed much the same way, but make an incision on each side of the scrotum first, then pull down each testicle through the incision

42 Burdizzo u restrain the animal u do one at a time u push teste down into scrotum and over to the side u place the lips of the instrument over the cord 1/2 the distance between the teste and abdomen u push handles together until the cord is crushed

43 Elastrators u bloodless castration method u restrain the animal u place the rubber band over the prongs u spread the rubber band and push both testes down through it u release the band above the testes u check later for the scrotum to fall off u disinfect

44

45 Animal Identification Systems

46 Identification Systems Branding  cattle Ear Tagging  cattle  goats Ear Notching  swine Tattooing  cattle  rabbits

47 Branding u Used mainly for cattle u Two types u Freeze Branding u Hot Iron Branding u Uses a metal instrument to burn or freeze a mark on the animal’s hide u Originally used to show ownership

48 Angle Brand System

49 What would be the number of this animal? Answer: 95

50 Angle Brand System What would be the number of this animal? Answer: 140

51 Angle Brand System What would be the angle brand of this animal? Answer:120

52 Ear Tagging u Use special pliers to attach pieces with numbers on them u Easy to read from the front view u Not permanent u Can be lost or removed

53 Ear Tagging

54 Tattooing u Uses a special tool to put inked numbers in an animal’s skin u Most commonly found in the ear u Can be used on the lips or other locations u Permanent u Simple and relatively painless u Hard to read from a distance

55 Tatooing

56 Tatooing

57 Ownership ID- Branding u Branding - hot iron u Chemicals u Cold Branding - freeze

58 Branding u heat the irons to red hot u restrain the animal u place brand on hide u check it until the surface of the brand is a shoe brown color u selection of the brand should be simple and ventilated with the face smooth

59 Fluid Branding u uses potash or acids u kills the hair follicles u must be more careful because their is more room for accidents and error to animals and humans

60 Freeze Branding u super cold iron will burn u dry ice and alcohol or liquid nitrogen or spray can u restrain the animal u clip the brand area u clean the area and place irons to get cold u place iron firmly until the area is sl. Harden u Usually 50 seconds for dry ice /alcohol method u seconds for liquid nitrogen u 3-4 weeks hair will grow back

61 Tatooing u Rotary type- nos. are on a roller u Standard type- nos. are loose u secure the calf u clean the ear u check the numbers u place the instrument between the first and second ribs of the ear and clamp down u place ink on the ear

62 Other Methods of ID u Eartags u Horn Branding u Earmarking u Wattles - cutting a strip on the jawbone and letting it hang down u Dewlaps - cut a strip on the brisket u Buds - cutting on incision through the nose


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